Medical Physiology

Framsida
Elsevier Health Sciences, 3 dec. 2008 - 1352 sidor
1 Recension
The updated 2nd edition of this accessible and in-depth resource firmly relates molecular and cellular biology to the study of human physiology and disease. Leading physiologists present you with practical, accurate coverage, continually emphasizing the clinical implications of the material. Each chapter explains the principles and organization of each body system, while more than 800 high-quality, full-color line drawings and prominently featured clinical examples clarify every concept. This exceptionally detailed and comprehensive guide to physiology is ideal for a rich, straightforward, state-of-the-art understanding of this essential subject.
  • Provides clinical examples of disordered physiology in prominent boxes throughout the text for at-a-glance access to important content.
  • Clarifies concepts with the use of 800 color drawings that feature balloon captions explaining key processes.
  • Presents material in a consistent style to make the text readable and easy to understand.
  • Offers a practical organization by body system for an intuitive and accessible approach to physiology.
  • Features access to the complete contents of the book online, plus a full image collection, animations, 150 review questions, and supplemental web notes for more detailed information.
  • Keeps you current with updated material, including a new chapter on Physiology of Aging and a new section on hemostasis.
  • Offers the latest visual guidance with a revised and updated art program.
 

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WHAT IS PHYSIOLOGY?
STRUCTURE OF BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES
FUNCTION OF MEMBRANE PROTEINS
CELLULAR ORGANELLES AND THE CYTOSKELETON
SYNTHESIS AND RECYCLING OF MEMBRANE PROTEINS
SPECIALIZED CELL TYPES
MECHANISMS OF CELLULAR COMMUNICATION
RECEPTORS THAT ARE ION CHANNELS
POTASSIUM TRANSPORT BY DIFFERENT SEGMENTS OF THE NEPHRON
POTASSIUM TRANSPORT AT THE CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LEVEL
REGULATION OF RENAL POTASSIUM EXCRETION
WATER BALANCE AND THE OVERALL RENAL HANDLING OF WATER
WATER TRANSPORT BY DIFFERENT SEGMENTS OF THE NEPHRON
GENERATING A HYPEROSMOTIC MEDULLA AND URINE
REGULATION BY ARGININE VASOPRESSIN
ACIDBASE BALANCE AND THE OVERALL RENAL HANDLING OF ACID

RECEPTORS COUPLED TO G PROTEINS
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF G PROTEINS
CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDES
PRODUCTS OF PHOSPHOINOSITIDE BREAKDOWN
ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLITES
RECEPTORS THAT ARE CATALYTIC
NUCLEAR RECEPTORS
FROM GENES TO PROTEINS
THE PROMOTER AND REGULATORY ELEMENTS
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
REGULATION OF INDUCIBLE GENE EXPRESSION BY SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS
REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY CHANGES IN DNA STRUCTURE
POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
GLOSSARY
THE INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS
SOLUTE TRANSPORT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES
REGULATION OF INTRACELLULAR ION CONCENTRATIONS
WATER TRANSPORT AND THE REGULATION OF CELL VOLUME
TRANSPORT OF SOLUTES AND WATER ACROSS EPITHELIA
IONIC BASIS OF MEMBRANE POTENTIALS
ELECTRICAL MODEL OF A CELL MEMBRANE
MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY OF ION CHANNELS
MECHANISMS OF NERVE AND MUSCLE ACTION POTENTIALS
PHYSIOLOGY OF VOLTAGEGATED CHANNELS AND THEIR RELATIVES
PROPAGATION OF ACTION POTENTIALS
MECHANISMS OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
TOXINS AND DRUGS AFFECTING SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
SKELETAL MUSCLE
CARDIAC MUSCLE
SMOOTH MUSCLE
DIVERSITY AMONG MUSCLES
The Nervous System Can Be Divided into Central Peripheral and Autonomic Nervous Systems
Each Area of the Nervous System Has Unique Nerve Cells and a Different Functionr
CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
DEVELOPMENT OF NEURONS AND GLIAL CELLS
SUBDIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Extracellular Fluid in the Brain Provides a Highly Regulated Environment for Central Nervous System Neurons
The Brain Is Physically and Metabolically Fragile
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
BRAIN EXTRACELLULAR SPACE
THE BLOODBRAIN BARRIER
GLIAL CELLS
Neurons Receive Combine Transform Store and Send Information
Neural Information Flows from Dendrite to Soma to Axon to Synapse
SIGNAL CONDUCTION IN DENDRITES
CONTROL OF SPIKING PATTERNS IN THE SOMA
AXONAL CONDUCTION
NEURONAL SYNAPSES
NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS OF THE BRAIN
FAST AMINO ACIDMEDIATED SYNAPSES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
PLASTICITY OF CENTRAL SYNAPSES
ORGANIZATION OF THE VISCERAL CONTROL SYSTEM
SYNAPTIC PHYSIOLOGY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
CNS CONTROL OF THE VISCERA
Sensory Receptors Convert Environmental Energy into Neural Signals
Sensory Transduction Uses Adaptations of Common Molecular Signaling Mechanisms
Sensory Transduction Requires Detection and Amplification Usually Followed by a Local Receptor Potential
CHEMORECEPTION
VISUAL TRANSDUCTION
HAIR CELLS
SOMATIC SENSORY RECEPTORS PROPRIOCEPTION AND PAIN
ELEMENTS OF NEURAL CIRCUITS
SPINAL REFLEX CIRCUITS
CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATORS
SENSORY AND MOTOR MAPS IN THE BRAIN
TIMEMEASURING CIRCUITS
ELEMENTS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
HEMODYNAMICS
HOW BLOOD FLOWS
ORIGINS OF PRESSURE IN THE CIRCULATION
HOW TO MEASURE BLOOD PRESSURE BLOOD FLOW AND CARDIAC VOLUMES
BLOOD COMPOSITION
BLOOD VISCOSITY
HEMOSTASIS AND FIBRINOLYSIS
THE ARTERIAL DISTRIBUTION AND VENOUS COLLECTION SYSTEMS
ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF BLOOD VESSELS
The Microcirculation Serves Both Nutritional and Nonnutritional Roles
The Microcirculation Extends from the Arterioles to the Venules
CAPILLARY EXCHANGE OF SOLUTES
CAPILLARY EXCHANGE OF WATER
LYMPHATICS
REGULATION OF THE MICROCIRCULATION
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF CARDIAC CELLS
THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS
THE CARDIAC CYCLE
CARDIAC DYNAMICS
FROM CONTRACTILE FILAMENTS TO A REGULATED PUMP
SHORTTERM REGULATION OF ARTERIAL PRESSURE
REGULATION OF CARDIAC OUTPUT
MATCHING OF VENOUS RETURN AND CARDIAC OUTPUT
INTERMEDIATE AND LONGTERM CONTROL OF THE CIRCULATION
The Blood Flow to Individual Organs Must Vary to Meet the Needs of the Particular Organ as well as of the Whole Body
Neural Myogenic Metabolic and Endothelial Mechanisms Control Regional Blood Flow
THE BRAIN
THE HEART
THE SKELETAL MUSCLE
THE SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION
THE SKIN
INTERACTION AMONG THE DIFFERENT CARDIOVASCULAR CONTROL SYSTEMS
RESPONSE TO ERECT POSTURE
RESPONSES TO ACUTE EMOTIONAL STRESS
RESPONSE TO EXERCISE
COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION
ORGANIZATION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS
LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES
STATIC PROPERTIES OF THE LUNG
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE LUNG
Because of Airway Collapse Expiratory Flow Rates Become Independent of Effort at Low Lung Volumes
pH AND BUFFERS
ACIDBASE CHEMISTRY WHEN CO2HCO3 IS THE ONLY BUFFER
ACIDBASE CHEMISTRY IN THE PRESENCE OF CO2HCO3 AND NONHCO3 BUFFERSTHE DAVENPORT DIAGRAM
pH REGULATION OF INTRACELLULAR FLUID
CARRIAGE OF OXYGEN
CARRIAGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE
DIFFUSION OF GASES
DIFFUSION AND PERFUSION LIMITATIONS ON GAS TRANSPORT
VENTILATION
PERFUSION OF THE LUNG
MATCHING VeNTILATION AND PERFUSION
OVERVIEW OF THE RESPIRATORY CONTROL SYSTEM
NEURONS THAT CONTROL VENTILATION
GENERATION OF THE RESPIRATORY RHYTHM
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF VENTILATION
PERIPHERAL CHEMORECEPTORS
CENTRAL CHEMORECEPTORS
INTEGRATED RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA HYPERCAPNIA AND ACIDOSIS
MODULATION OF VENTILATORY CONTROL
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY
MAIN ELEMENTS OF RENAL FUNCTION
MEASURING RENAL CLEARANCE AND TRANSPORT
THE URETERS AND BLADDER
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
RENAL BLOOD FLOW
CONTROL OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW AND GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
NA+ AND CL TRANSPORT BY DIFFERENT SEGMENTS OF THE NEPHRON
NA+ CL AND WATER TRANSPORT AT THE CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LEVEL
REGULATION OF Na+ AND Cl TRANSPORT
UREA
GLUCOSE
OTHER ORGANIC SOLUTES
PHOSPHATE
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
POTASSIUM BALANCE AND THE OVERALL RENAL HANDLING OF POTASSIUM
ACIDBASE TRANSPORT BY DIFFERENT SEGMENTS OF THE NEPHRON
ACIDBASE TRANSPORT AT THE CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LEVEL
REGULATION OF RENAL ACID SECRETION
SODIUM BALANCE
WATER BALANCE
CONTROL OF EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOLUME
CONTROL OF WATER CONTENT EXTRACELLULAR OSMOLALITY
OVERVIEW OF DIGESTIVE PROCESSES
REGULATION OF GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION
GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE STOMACH
ACID SECRETION
PEPSINOGEN SECRETION
PROTECTION OF THE GASTRIC SURFACE EPITHELIUM AND NEUTRALIZATION OF ACID IN THE DUODENUM
FILLING AND EMPTYING OF THE STOMACH
OVERVIEW OF EXOCRINE GLAND PHYSIOLOGY
PANCREATIC ACINAR CELL
PANCREATIC DUCT CELL
COMPOSITION FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF PANCREATIC SECRETION
SALIVARY ACINAR CELL
SALIVARY DUCT CELL
COMPOSITION FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF SALIVARY SECRETION
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
OVERVIEW OF FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE MOVEMENT IN THE INTESTINES
CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF NA+ ABSORPTION
CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF CL ABSORPTION AND SECRETION
CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF K+ ABSORPTION AND SECRETION
REGULATION OF INTESTINAL ION TRANSPORT
CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION
CARBOHYDRATE ABSORPTION
PROTEIN DIGESTION
PROTEIN PEPTIDE AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION
LIPID DIGESTION
LIPID ABSORPTION
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
OVERVIEW OF LIVER PHYSIOLOGY
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE LIVER AND BILIARY TREE
UPTAKE PROCESSING AND SECRETION OF COMPOUNDS BY HEPATOCYTES
BILE FORMATION
ENTEROHEPATIC CIRCULATION OF BILE ACIDS
THE LIVER AS A METABOLIC ORGAN
PRINCIPLES OF ENDOCRINE FUNCTION
PEPTIDE HORMONES
AMINE HORMONES
STEROID AND THYROID HORMONES
GENES NUTRITION ACTIVITY AND HORMONES REGULATE SOMATIC GROWTH AND BODY MASS
GROWTH HORMONE
GROWTHPROMOTING HORMONES
REGULATION OF BODY MASS
SYNTHESIS OF THYROID HORMONES
ACTION OF THYROID HORMONES
THE HYPOTHALAMICPITUITARYTHYROID AXIS
CORTISOL
ALDOSTERONE
THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
ENDOCRINE AND PARACRINE TISSUES
INSULIN
GLUCAGON
SOMATOSTATIN
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE BALANCE
PHYSIOLOGY OF BONE
PARATHYROID HORMONE
VITAMIN D
CALCITONIN AND OTHER HORMONES
GENETIC ASPECTS OF SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
DIFFERENTIATION OF THE GONADS
DIFFERENTIATION OF THE INTERNAL GENITAL DUCTS
DIFFERENTIATION OF THE EXTERNAL GENITALIA
ENDOCRINE AND PARACRINE CONTROL MECHANISMS IN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
PUBERTY
HYPOTHALAMICPITUITARYgonadal AXIS AND CONTROL OF MALE SEXUAL FUNCTION
TESTOSTERONE
BIOLOGY OF SPERMATOGENESIS AND SEMEN
MALE SEX ACT
REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN THE FEMALE HUMAN
PUBERTY
HYPOTHALAMICPITUITARYGONADAL AXIS AND CONTROL OF THE FEMALE MENSTRUAL RHYTHM
OVARIAN STEROIDS
FOLLICULOGENESIS OVULATION AND FORMATION OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM
THE ENDOMETRIAL CYCLE
THE FEMALE SEX ACT
MENOPAUSE
TRANSPORT OF GAMETES AND FERTILIZATION
IMPLANTATION OF THE DEVELOPING EMBRYO
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PLACENTA
THE MATERNALPLACENTALFETAL UNIT
RESPONSE OF THE MOTHER TO PREGNANCY
PARTURITION
LACTATION
BIOLOGY OF FETAL GROWTH
DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE CARDIOPULMONARY SYSTEM
CARDIOPULMONARY ADJUSTMENTS AT BIRTH
NEONATAL PHYSIOLOGY
FORMS OF ENERGY
ENERGY BALANCE
Energy Interconversion from Cycling Between SixCarbon and ThreeCarbon Molecules
ENERGY CAPTURE ANABOLISM
ENERGY LIBERATION CATABOLISM
INTEGRATIVE METABOLISM OF FASTING
THE ADVANTAGES OF HOMEOTHERMY
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
ACTIVE REGULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
HYPERTHERMIA HYPOTHERMIA AND FEVER
MOTOR UNITS AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY TO MECHANICAL WORK
MUSCLE FATIGUE
DETERMINANTS OF MAXIMAL O2 UPTAKE AND CONSUMPTION
SWEATING
AEROBIC TRAINING
THE ENVIRONMENT
DIVING PHYSIOLOGY
HIGHALTITUDE PHYSIOLOGY
FLIGHT AND SPACE PHYSIOLOGY
CONCEPTS IN AGING
CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF AGING
AGING OF THE HUMAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
AGING SLOWLY
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