The State of State: Invisible Hands in Politics and Civil Society

Framsida
Transaction Publishers, 2002 - 234 sidor
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One of the most astonishing features of social, economic and political life is that large-scale patterns, structures and behavioral regularities sometimes organize themselves without anyone intentionally planning their occurrence or without anyone deliberately deciding to bring them about. They evolve as a specific kind of unintended consequence of human action. They are the result of invisible hands. Building on the classic concept "the invisible hand" by Adam Smith, this study presents a general approach, based on the theory of games and evolutionary theory, to explain such large-scale unintended consequences within markets, communities and the state. This analysis by Nils Karlson is further used to explain the growth of the modern "welfare" state. It shows how an unconstrained democratic state through two distinct invisible-hand processes, the logic of conceit and the logic of opportunism, may develop into a "equilibrium" state, The State of State. His work moves classic political economy into the world of political sociology. A normative contractual model is presented and the relative desirability of the state, markets and communities is discussed. A major conclusion is that it is a choice between imperfect alternatives, involving hard decision about more or less rather than absolute judgments of an either/or variety. It is nevertheless suggested that society ought to be radically depoliticized and that constitutional constraints should be introduced in the universe of policy making. Nils Karlson is the president of the City University of Stockholm in Sweden. Prior to that he served as lecturer in Economics and Political Science at Uppsala University. He did post graduate studies at George Mason University. He has worked on the editorial page of Svenska Dagbladet, a major Swedish newspaper has previously been published in newspapers, journals, and edited books. In practical affairs he served as an adviser to the Swedish Minister of Education and Science.

 

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THE INVISIBLE HAND
12
Spontaneous Patterns
17
The Explanatory Status of InvisibleHand Processes
24
Intendedly Rational Actors
27
Motivational Assumptions
31
PROCESSES OF SPONTANEOUS PATTERNS
36
Aggregation
39
BilateralInteraction Situations
42
Conclusions
111
Sources of Disorder
112
36 The Introduction of the State
118
THE EMERGENCE OF THE WELFARE STATE
125
An Unconstrained Democracy
127
The Relation to Earlier Research
129
The Logic of Conceit
132
PolicyCaused Social Problems
139

MultilateralInteraction Situations
48
Conclusions
51
Evolutionary Selection
52
Natural Selection
55
Diffused Reinforcement
60
The Role of the Environment
65
The Critique of Functionalism
69
Conclusions
71
CIVIL SOCIETY
72
Conventions
76
Internalization
81
Conclusions
82
Communities and Social Norms
83
Processes of Aggregation
85
Selection Processes
89
Conclusions
95
Implications for Voluntary Organizations
96
Markets and Prices
98
The Market Process
103
The Invisible Hands in Markets
110
Social Justice
146
Effects on Civil Society
151
Conclusions
154
The Logic of Opportunism
155
Narrow Special Interests
157
Myopic Decisions
162
The Democratic Techniques
165
Conclusions
168
A Synthesis
170
The State of State
172
IMPERFECT ALTERNATIVES
177
A Contractarian Perspective
179
The State Markets or Communities?
183
Prosperity
186
The Position of the Weak and Unfortunate
189
Democratic Values
194
Conclusions
198
Prospects for the Desired Changes
199
REFERENCES
206
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Om författaren (2002)

Nils Karlson is a Swedish economist and political scientist, the founding president and CEO of The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, and a former president of the City University of Stockholm in Sweden. Prior to that, he served as lecturer in economics and political science at Uppsala University in Sweden.nbsp;

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