Women, Children, and Senators on the Ara Pacis Augustae: A Study of Augustus' Vision of a New World Order in 13 BC.
The real nature of political power in Augustan Rome was not a monarchy in the sense of one-man rule as late as 13 BC. Augustus led a junta of extremely powerful, mostly militaristic magnates whose combined auctoritas intimidated all potential rivals. He shied away from the idea that he was the undeclared king and even went to heroic steps to avoid the label of autocrat. After years of weighing in his mind the best possible partner and the political solution to the reality that he had eliminated all rivals in his rise to power during an era of bloody civil war and uneasy interims, he decided to make his right hand man, Marcus Agrippa, his equal in power. To do so would require a steady build-up of Agrippa's stature, for although he was a first rate general, Agrippa was a novus homo, and thus lacked the dignitas to lead others in the absence of Augustus.
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8a Ara Pacis Antonia
The Imagery of Pax in Rome
The Imperial Family on the North Frieze
The East and West Panels
Actium Aemilius Aeneas Antonia Minor Antony Appianus Appuleius Ara Pacis Ara Pacis Augustae Arruntius Asinius Augur Augustus and Agrippa Caesar Calvisius camillus celebrated ceremony Claudius coins consul consulship Cornelius Crassus daughter denarius depicts Domitius Ahenobarbus Drusus election father figures Flamen Dialis Flamen Iulialis Gaius and Lucius Gallus Gates of Janus Germanicus honor identification imperial family Iullus Antonius Julia Julius Koeppel Lentulus Lepidus Libo Licinius lictors Livia Lucius Caesar Maecenas Maior Marcellus married Messalla Corvinus minted monument Moretti Nero novus homo Octavia Minor panel patrician peace Petersen Piso Plancus Plut Pollini Pontifex Maximus Pontifical College Pontifices priesthoods priests princeps Quindecimviri regime religious Republic Republican Rex Sacrorum Roman Rome scholars seat Senate Septemviri Sieveking South Frieze spolia opima Statilius Taurus status Suet Sulpicius Syme Temple Tiberius Torelli Toynbee triumph triumvir Valerius Messalla Varus Veil Vipsania