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the necessity of humility and mutual kindness after that he should cease to' dwell among them; for it is said on the occasion of his washing the disciples' feet. Further, it may be observed that an expression very similar to that by which St. John has thought fit to designate himself, is in a former part of his Gospel applied to Lazarus, kuple, ede, óv φιλεις, ασθενει *. Had it been at that time an acknowledged appellation of St. John, as it has been since, this could hardly have been admissible.


The Order of Events at the last Passover.

On the Sunday + previous to the Passover, Jesus comes to Bethany, and is entertained at dinner (or supper) by Simon the leper. There Mary anoints his head and feet ||

Monday , Jesus rides into Jerusalem in triumph, and turns out the traders ** from the court of the temple; but returns to Bethany tt, where he lodged. The same day it is probable that Judas Iscariot covenanted with the chief priests 11. (So the Paschal lamb was selected four days before it was killed $8.)

Tuesday Ilil, Jesus goes again to Jerusalem, and on his way curses the fig-tree. On this and the following day

# John ii. 3.

+ John xii. i. * Matt. xxvi. 6. § Matt. xxvi. 7. ll John xii. 2. John xii. 12. ** Matt. xxi. 12. ++ Matt. xxi. 17. 11 Matt. xxvi. 15.

$$ Exod. xii. 3 and 6. III Matt. xxi, 18.

must have occurred the discourses related by Matthew *

Wednesday, Jesus more explicitly foretold his crucifixion t.

Thursday, being the first day of unleavened bread 1, he sends Peter and Johns to make preparation for keeping the festival. The same evening at sun-set began the day of the Preparation ||, when Jesus eats with his Apostles in Jerusalem. Then it was that he washed the Apostles' feet immediately before dinner (or supper); and at that meal instituted the Sacrament, Judas having left the table to accomplish his treachery. Then followed those affectionate discourses contained in the 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th chapters of St. John's Gospel. Afterwards Jesus set out, as usual **, on his way towards Bethany; and in a garden called Gethsemane ft on the Mount of Olives 11, through which his path lay, sustains the conflict of his agony, at the conclusion of which he is way-laid by Judas and his company, by whom he is bound, and brought first to the house of Annas $$, thence to Caiaphas the high-priest ||II, in whose palace he is detained throughout the night, and exposed to the insults of the servants TT. And there it was that Peter denied him ***

* Chap. xxi. to Chap. xxvi.
I Matt. xxvi. 17. (See Grotius.)
|| John xix. 14. John xiii. 30.
tt Matt. xxvi. 36. If Luke xxii. 39.
UN John xviii. 24. 19 Luke xxii. 63.

* Matt. xxvi. 2.
§ Luke xxii. 8.
** Luke xxi. 37.
$$ John xviii. 13.
*** John xviii. 15.

Friday, as soon as it was day *, the high-priest assembled the Sanhedrim, consisting of the chief priests and elders t, in the temple 1. There after a mock trial Jesus was found guilty, and at nine o'clock $ was taken to Pilate, who having scourged him, sent him to be examined by Herod Antipas, by whose attendants together with the soldiers he was mocked, and arrayed in a royal robe with a crown of thorns ||; and in this condition he was sent back to Pilate, who about noon ** delivered him up to be crucified. At that time there was darkness over all the land till three tt o'clock in the afternoon, when Jesus expired, it being the hour of the evening sacrifice 11. The same evening, after the burial of Jesus, the Paschal supper was celebrated S$, the day of Preparation having ended with the setting sun.


Of the Resurrection.

Pains have been taken in other parts of the history of Jesus Christ, as well as those relating to his resurrection and subsequent appearances, to reconcile the order of events,

* Luke xxii. 66. † Matt. xxvi. 59. * Matt. xxvii. 5. s Mark xv. 25. (See note on John xix. 14. || Luke xxiii. 11. John xix. 5. ** John xix. 14. tt Matt. xxvii. 45.

1. Exod. xii. 6. Acts iji. I. $$ John xix. 31.

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as they have been delivered down by the several Evangelists. But (as was observed on chap. i. 43.) it may be doubted if the sacred writers themselves were at all solicitous about it. They were content to establish the faith of succeeding generations on a foundation never to be shaken, without caring to satisfy their curiosity in matters of little moment, knowing that “the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God;” and being “ determined not to know any thing, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified.” With minds so disposed, and elevated so far above all excellency of speech, and worldly wisdom, it is not to be wondered if they sometimes employ terms, which, interpreted by the rules of precise language, might convey a meaning that was never contemplated by them. To the passages referred to in the former part of these reflexions in illustration of this, may be added Acts ix. 20, and xvii. 10; in the latter of which places, ευθεως δια της νυκτος must, at the soonest, mean “ the night after;" and in the former, relating to St. Paul's preaching at Damascus after his conversion, we have that Apostle's own testimony, that a period intervened, during which he had retired into Arabia, and again returned to Damascus *. In the same manner, when it is said cal eleyev aurois , it must not be understood that the circumstance which follows, took place immediately after what had just been related, but " at another time f.” And this consideration enables us to clear up an apparent disagreement between St. Mark and the other Evangelists respecting the time of the crucifixion. For it

said by

* Gal. i. 17.

of Mark iv. 21.

I See Matt. y. 15.

St. Mark *, “it was the third hour, and they crucified him.” But Luke and John say, it was “about the sixth hour 7." Therefore, taking these things together, we may reasonably conclude that Mark intended to express, not the time of the crucifixion, but the time when the council of the chief priests and scribes sent Jesus bound to Pilate 1, and that the word kai, and they crucified him, means no more than afterwards ş. Very like to this is that of St. Luke xxiv. 50, εξηγαγε δε αυτους,

and he led them out ;" which relating, as it does, to Christ's ascension, must have taken place a month after the events mentioned in the preceding verses. St. John's Gospel is open to the same observation. In chapter ii. 13, is related a transaction, which probably happened but a short time before the crucifixion ll, and was only introduced in that place, because it happened on one occasion of Christ's going up to the Passover, though it was not in fact the same occasion of which the Evangelist is speaking. Of the same kind is the expression uera tavra, of which notice was taken before on John i. 43. But enough has been said to shew the want of exactness in the writers of the Gospel history, whose minds were too full of the greatness of their subject, to stoop to the minutiæ of language. Their object was to perpetuate the testimony, and deliver down the doctrines of the Gospel uncorrupted to distant ages. For St. Luke, in his introduction, has informed us that many accounts had already

* Mark xv. 25.

f Luke xxiii. 44. John xix. 14. | Mark xv. 1.

§ See note on John xix. 14. !! See Matt. xxi. 12. Mark xi. 15. Luke xix. 45.

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