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things are passing now. Christchurch | ercised his ministry with much fidelity in the distance; Worcester, St. John's, and power; and the sermons preached and Trinity near; and nearer than all, by bim at "Paul's Shrouds,” which yet Baliol, in front of which the flames remain, are specimens of the faithful and were kindled to receive them, and their fearless manner in which he taught the ashes and blood fell mingled to the people “the faith of Christ." The ground,-a libation to Popish fury, and enemies of truth, however, were soon a testimony to Protestant truth, so long awake. They influenced the king's as the streets of Oxford and its mag- mind. The “Act of the Six Articles" nificent erections shall remain. Awful

was passed. And at the instigation of will be the responsibility of that man, Gardner, the infamous Bishop of Winbe he mitred prelate, or professional chester, this faithful man was committeacher, or officiating priest, who, ted to the Tower, where he was detained within that city, or connected with it, a prisoner during the remaining six shall frustrate the design, or corrupt years of the sovereign's reign. When Edthe doctrine, or damage the cause, for ward the Sixth succeeded to the throne which their precious blood was shed! he was set at liberty, and urged to The “Martyrs' Memorial" will be a resume his bishoprie; but this he dewitness against him. “The stone clined, and preferred to “do the work shall cry out of the wall, and the beam of an evangelist,” by preaching the out of the timber shall answer it." gospel in all places to which he could

First and foremost of the three we gain access. This be did principally must notice that keen, sagacious, and in London and its vicinity, but with venerable form, which reminds us of frequent visits, also, to various parts Him that “preached in the wilderness of the country. But this continued of Judea," and seems framed for the only during the mournfully brief period purpose of endurance, “reproof, cor- of Edward's reign. On the accession rection, and instruction in righteous- of Mary, the dark cloud soon overness." It is that of the aged Latimer. spread the land. The faithful witWhen young he was full of zoal and nesses for Christ were everywhere imfury in the cause of the Papacy, and prisoned and persecuted; and a citaagainst the Reform; so much so, that he tion was sent from the Council immedihad dared to publish an oration in oppo-ately to Latimer to appear before them. sition to Philip Melancthon, and was It found him at Coventry. He arrived honoured with the office of cross- in London, and was again committed bearer, whose duty it was to carry the to the Tower. Cranmer and Ridley were cross in the Popish processions of soou his fellow-prisoners. There they Cambridge University. But God had continued for some time.

In April, mercy upon him, and called him out of 1554, the three bishops were conveyed darkness into “his marvellous light." to Oxford, where they were appointed He then became an earnest preacher of publicly to dispute with the Romanists the faith which once he sought to destroy. on the sacrament. But it was absolute When King Henry began to throw mockery; and after the discussion, in off the visible shackles of the Pope's which they were allowed to say but dominion, Latimer, who was zealously ittle, they were condemned to die. A waging war with error, was, with few months of imprisonment interother favourers of the Reformation, vened. Latimer and Ridley were to called into notice, and appointed a suffer first. On the morning of preacher in London. Soon after, he the 16th of October, 1555, they were was raised to the See of Worcester. In brought to the spot on which the stake both places, and in m ny others, he ex. was driven, and the flames were to be

enkindled upon them. It was directly attracted crowds of willing hearers in front of Baliol College. All around him wherever he went. His being prepared, a lighted faggot was domestic establishment at Fulham was brought and laid at Ridley's feet. a pattern of Christian order, and of Latimer then turned, and addressed what a “Bishop's” should be. His his fellow-sufferer in these memorable public spirit was not less remarkable. words:"Be of good comfort, Master By his zealous and active benevolence, Ridley, and play the man; we shall and the influence he had with the king, this day light such a candle, by God's the noble foundations of Christ's Hospigrace, in England, as I trust shall tal, St. Bartholomew, Bridewell, and never be put out.” After a few minutes | Bethlehem were laid in the chief city of unutterable agony, spent by him in of our land. All this was too much to prayer, the venerable martyr expired, be endured when the bigoted Mary and his happy spirit took its departure came to the throne. As soon as her to the realms of rest, to be " present authority was established, Ridley was with the Lord."

committed to the Tower; Cranmer and Ridley, the honoured companion in Latimer were his associates in sorrow tribulation with Latimer, was much his there ; and in April, 1554, as intimated junior, and a man of somewhat different above, they were all sent to Oxford. natural qualities, but equally and emi- In the disputation with the Papists nently qualified for the great part he which ensued, it is observed that, “from was to sustain in the struggles and his knowledge of the Greek language, work of the Reformation. His educa- and his being versed in the writings of tion and early discipline were somewhat the fathers, he was enabled to correct dissimilar also; and, on account of his many attempts of the Romanists to persuperior native powers and eminent vert the meaning of the ancient writers.” attainments, he sooner rose to influence At the close of the discussion, the three and celebrity. Having travelled on the Bishops were condemned as heretios; Continent, and studied at the Univer- and as he heard the conclusion, Ridley sities of Paris and Louvain, he had replied to his accusers, “ Although I be acquired more largely the various not of your company, yet I doubt not branches of learning, and took particular but my name is written in another delight in the original New Testament place, whither this sentence will send Scriptures, a great portion of which he us sooner than we should have come by committed to memory. By this means the course of nature." They were not his mind became enlightened, and, by the put to death at that time, but were grace of the Spirit, renewed. This ill closely confined, and cruelly entreated, qualified him to minister, or to con- at Oxford, till the autumn of 1505. tinue in the Papal hierarchy. He When the awful morning arrived, Ridtherefore gradually, but firmly, ro- ley, just in the maturity of his manhood nounced it; and adopting the principles and vigour, was led forth to suffer with of Protestant truth, he rose to different his aged friend and companion, to whom offices under Cranmer on the side of the he said, as they approached the apReformation. On the accession of Ed-pointed spot, and within sight of the ward, he was appointed one of the pile, “Be of good heart, brother, for preachers at court; made Bishop of God will either assuage the fury of the Rochester ; and soon after raised to the flame, or else strengthen us to abide it." See of London. His delight was to It was so. As he was fastened to the preach "the glorious gospel of the stake, and the fuel placed around him, blessed God;" and by his eloquent, he lifted up his hands towards heaven, affecting, and instructive discourses, he and prayed, "O Heavenly Father, I give thee most hearty thanks that thou he would endure no greater than hast called me to be a professor of thee, himself in his kingdom, there were emi. even to death. I beseech thee, Lord nent men of God at the same time scatGod, have mercy upon the realm of tering the seeds of Protestant truth England, and deliver her from all her throughout the land, and labouring to enemies." After a few minutes, as the instruct the people in the things which fire encircled him, and caused him ex- belonged to their eternal welfare. This cruciating agonies, he exclaimed, “O it was that laid the foundation, and Lord, receive my spirit!" and then, in secured the ultimate success, of the Rethe midst of bodily torments, perhaps formation; and to their evangelistic never surpassed, fell asleep, to receive efforts are we indebted for the light the martyr's crown in the courts above. which now shines on the British Isles.

Cranmer, the third and last of the Of these Cranmer was one. His labours illustrious "three," and so placed simply were prodigious, and principally directed because he survived the other two, and to the circulation of the Divine Word. did not suffer martyrdom till the follow- His self-denial and Christian spirit were ing year, was a man of noble character, eminent. His zeal unwearied, and his and of noble exploits in the cause of plans most numerous, applied with all God his Saviour. Raised to the highest the influence which his commanding elevation of the Church and of the land situation gave him, for the promotion in the most eventful times, he had the of the cause which he loved, and to most difficult duties to perform, and which he wished all his honours to be the most formidable opposition to en. devoted. For above twenty years they counter, of any individual who was ever were; and, from the time of his exaltaraised to so responsible a station. The tion to the day of his imprisonment in cause of Reform, in early life, had taken the Tower, few men have accomplished deep hold both of his judgment and his more for the cause of God and truth heart, and this was confirmed by inter- than did he. His enemies were numecourse with the Continent, and the rous. They multiplied in proportion to study of continental divines. When his fidelity, and the uuswerving confiappointed by King Henry the Eigkith dence reposed in him by the king. to fill the Seo of Canterbury, thougb Many times was he exposed to their contrary to his own desires and wishes, machinations and their power, and had his great learning and abilities, and his well nigh become the victim of them ; known attachment to Protestant truth, but an invisible Hand preserved him distinguished him as eminently qualified through all the changes of his eventful for that situation, and made all the career. At length Henry dies. Edlovers of the pure doctrine and worship ward reigns. Protestant truth and worof God rejoice that the archiepiscopal ship, promoted and rejoiced over by dignity had fallen into such hands. To Cranmer, are established in the land, that elevation he brought with him a and the nation walked in the “light of large knowledge and ardent love of the the Lord.” But ere long our British Holy Scriptures, and an earnest deter- Josiah expires. The dark cloud gathers. mination to give them the pre-eminence The bloodthirsty Mary ascends the above all the writings and authority of throne; and the shafts of her malice, Pope, or fathers, in ecclesiastical affairs. and that of her Popish instigators, are Honourably and faithfully did he carry soon directed against this conspicuous out that determination; and whilst man. His troubles now begin. One Henry was contending with the Pontiff, stroke after another speedily arrests him. perhaps principally for the accomplish- Long had he been the object of Papal ment of his own purposes, and because intrigue and hatred; and these now,

with accumulated force, find vent | earth was strewed with his ashes—the against him. “ The archers sorely minions of the Pope rejoiced to behold grieve him, and shoot at him." Mary them—but heaven triumphed when he encourages all; nay, is determined he entered there! Who can but exclaim, shall not live. He is imprisoned—ex with the pious Doddridgeamined-condemned - degraded: the

“Blest men, who stretch their willing hands common jail of Oxford receives him;

Submissive to their Lord's commands, and, in solemn mockery of earth and of

And yield their liberty and breath heaven, he is handed over to the secular To Him that loved their souls in death. power. Whilst in that condition, awed " Lead me to suffer, and to die, by his superior sanctity, learning, and If thou, my gracious Lord, art nigh:

One smile from thee my heart shall fire, talents, the emissaries of Rome wish, if

And teach me, smiling, to expire. possible, to have to say that so great a

If nature at the trial slake, man was secretly on their side. For this

And from the cross, or flames, draw back, purpose they prepare an equivocal docu- Grace can its feeble courage raise, ment, which they style a recantation, And turn its trembling into praise. and, either by threats or allurements, " While scarce I dare, with Peter, say constrain the venerable sufferer to affix I'll boldly tread the bleeding way;' to it his signature. It was an unhappy

Yet in thy steps, like John, I'd move

With humble hope and silent love." hour. The terrors of death were before him. The love of life, and probably the Unfeigned pleasure would it give us hope of longer usefulness, was in him; to expatiate among the rest of the and nature failed ;-to teach us that the “great cloud of witnesses” which stood greatest and best of men, when left to up so nobly for the truth of God in themselves, are weak and frail, and, as those days, and to ruminate over the much as the humblest, dependent upon remains which have come down to us Him who hath said, “Without me ye of their faithfulness and zeal, their can do nothing." Cranmer fell; but labours and sufferings in the cause of he rose again. Like Peter, he dis- righteousness. Who that ever glances honoured his Lord; but like that at their eventful history, or more paApostle, too, it cost him many tears, tiently investigates their writings and and " he went out and wept bitterly.” | their doings, but must glorify God in In private, they extorted from him an them, and be thankful that ever such equivocal recantation; in public he heroes for the truth were raised up in soon renounced it, and testified his our native land ? A great fight of faith in those great truths and doctrines afflictions" indeed did they endure; and he had professed so long, and for attach- pitiless was the storm of persecution ment to which he was doomed to die. which burst upon their heads. But in St. Mary's Church at Oxford witnessed the midst of sufferings, and rebukes, his penitential sorrows, his fervent and difficulties unparalleled, they laid prayers, and the noble confession which the foundation of that superstructure he made in the presence of many wit- beneath which we now repose with nesses. And as he was led to the spot on safety and delight. The wonder is, that which he was to suffer, and chained to they accomplished so much, not that the awful stake,“ This hand,” said he, they paused in the great work of re" that hath offended, this unworthy formation, and proceeded with it no right hand, shall suffer first.” So say. further, but that, amidst circumstances ing, he thrust it first into the flames, so unfavourable, in spite of such powerexclaiming, as they kindled around him, ful opposition, and themselves but and consumed his emaciated frame, lately come out of Egypt, they were the " Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!” The instruments of carrying it forward to

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VOL. XXX.

such a degree. But recently they were their principles; to further and finish enveloped in the thick darkness of the work which they begun? A voice Popery; trained up in its obscurity; seems to come out of the stones of and, with all the prejudices and predi- Oxford, on which they individually suflections which association and early fered, of some import to those that education gave, how bright must have follow them, and second only in truth been that light which shone upon their and authority to that of the apostle, minds; bright especially in contrast I have laid the foundation, but let with the surrounding gloom! How every man take heed how he buildeth strong must have been the principles thereupon.” And shall their successors which had laid hold of their hearts! not hear, and heed it? These devoted Their faith, how mighty! Their zeal, men, whilst they were the property of how fervent! Their convictions of the the universal Church of Christ, more evils of Rome, how great! And their particularly belonged to that portion of perception of and adherence to the it which prevails at Oxford still. And, word of God, how clear and firm! within its very borders, are their prinVerily, they grasped with a tenacious ciples to be forgotten, their sufferings hand “the sword of the Spirit.” They mocked, and their ashes despised ? waged unsparing warfare against its Forbid it, every emotion of gratitude, enemies. They attacked the strong. patriotism, philanthropy, and Christian holds of the Papacy without much trem- love! All the recollections of the past, bling, respect, or fear. Theirs was an the obligations of the present, and the opposition which no secondary motives hopes of the future, unite to condemn could have prompted, which no false it." Arise, O Lord, and plead thine enthusiasm could have sustained, and own cause.” Let the set time to favour which no mere expediency regulated the British Zion, in that part of it “Rase it, rase it to the ground!” was where darkness seems longest to linger, their watchword and their cry; and had speedily come. Pour out thy Spirit their lives been spared, and their labours afresh, and let there be a second Reprolonged, we cannot for a moment form. “ How long, O Lord, holy and doubt that every vestige of "the Man of true, dost thou not judge, and avenge Sin," and his accursed doings, would our blood on them that dwell on the have been obliterated before now from earth!” “Come forth out of thy royal our land. ( what would they not have chambers, O Prince of all the kings of given for light, for privileges, for the eartb. Put on the visible robes of liberty, for facilities like ours! What thy imperial majesty; take up that would the Church of God at large, or unlimited sceptre which thy almighty the Episcopal Church in England, now Father hath bequeathed thee: for now have been, had they lived in our days! the voice of thy bride calls thee, and all And shall there be none in these times creatures sigh to be renewed." to emulate their zeal, and carry out

M. C.

THE FAMILY ALTAR.

"FAMILY PRAYER,” says Mr. Cecil, for his character. It proclaims life to "may be made a vast engine of power come, and points to the spirit-land. It to the whole domestic circle. It says fixes the idea of responsibility in the there is a God, and inspires reverence mind, while it diffuses sympathy through

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