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the serpent, nor would he have received a wound, by the power and influence of Satan, upon his own heel. : Fulfilling the moral law does not redeem from sin, does not make atonement. If suffering the penalty of the law were making atonement, then, many, who are now receiving the wages of sin, liave been employed in the work of atonement for ages. But atonement for sin cannot be made by suffering deserved punishment. This will apply whether you were speaking of the transgressor himself, or of his substitute.

To suppose that atonement consists in suffering deserved evil, is totally inconsistent with the very idea of salvation by grace. For when a transgressor has suffered all that which he deserved to suffer, he is exempted by law and justice froin any further sufferings: the idea of grace or pardon is entirely out of the question.

Those sinners who are delivered from suffering, according to the Bible representation, are delivered in a way of grace; their sins are pardoned. But their salvation is through the atoneinent of Christ. Salvation through the atonement, therefore, is of grace. Consequently atonement cannot consist in sullering deseryed punishment.

l'o this it may he objected, that, although a transgressor cannot make atonement for his sins, by suffering in his own person, yet the sufferings of another in his room and siead, would make an atonement for the sins of the transgressor: And, through this atonement

be pardoned and saved by grace. I answer; whatever grace

there might be in Christ, in suffering for the sinner, as stated by the objector; yet, there could be no grace in God the Father, who sent him, in exempting the sinner from punishment, when Christ had suffered in his room and stead all that which he 'deserved to suffer. A transgressor, however deserving of punishment, ought not to be punished himself and bis substitute also. That this would be unreasonable, is too evident to need an argument to make it more plain.

Some divines make atonemeul to consist wholly in'. suffering the penalty of the moral law in the room and ştead of the transgressor: And, as the wages of sin is death, they think therefore, that Christ, in order to make an atonement for sin, must suffer all that which is equivalent to the eternal damnation of all mankind. They suppose that the work of redemption is more extensive than the work of atonement, and therefore, suppose that the work of redemption comprehends the work of atonement, together with obeying all the precepts of the moral law. The work of atonement, therefore, with them is confined to suffering; but the work of redemption comprehends both obeying and suffering That is, they believe that Christ redeemed his people from the curse of the law, by suffering its curse in their room and stead; and has procured for them a place at God's right hand in the heavens, by obeying the precepts of the moral law. But Christ never transgressed any precept of the moral law, and he never suffered any penalty of it. “The soul that sinneth, it shall die." But Christ never sinned, neither did he ever die the death threatened the transgressor of the moral law. And however Christ kept perfectly within the bounds of all the commands and prohibitions of the moral law, yet, this did not in any degree, or in any sense, comprehend the work of atonement

It was ever in the purpose of God to destroy the works of the devil, to restore the divine image which was lost in the apostasy of our first parents; and to save man from that eternal perdition to which he was exposed by transgression. To lay a foundation for the accomplishment of this divine purpose was a great work. For this end the Court of heaven commissioned the Son of God to come down into this world; for this world was the stage, on which the work of redemption was to be wrought. To him power and authority were delegated to enter upon, and to finish the work. To this end it was necessary, not only that Jesus be a divine Person, but also that he be possessed

of human nature. “For verily, he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham."*

As soon as Christ became man, and had accomplished the work which was appointed bim, an atone. ment was made for fallen man, and therefore a fount dation laid for his eternal salvation.

Sin was introduced into the world by the disobedience of man; and it was the will of God to put an end to sin by the sacrifice of one, who was more than a man, but clothed in human nature. It was the mind of God, that there should be one Perfect Man, through whom salvation should come to sinful man. Not only that he should begin to exist in a state of perfect holiness, but that he should continue so through the state of his trial. That he should not fail as the first man did by trangressing the law of his God; but that he should perfect a human character by doing the will of him who had appointed him to office, to act the part. of a faithful High Priest,

Particular things were required of Adam aside from the moral law, or law of nature. It would not have been a sin iņ Ada 0 eat of the tree in the midst of the garden, if God. had not said to him, Thou shalt not eat of it. So Christ had a work appointed him to perform, aside from the law given to Moses on the mount.

And as the particular law which Adam was under, when God said to him, Thou shalt not eat of a particular tree, may be called the law of Paradise, so the particular law which Christ or the Redeemer was under, aside from the moral law, may be called the law of redemption. This law Christ fulfilled in human nature, and in fulfilling this law, he did the will of him who sent him; and in doing this, he laid a foundation for man's salvation.

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It was impossible in the nature of things for Christ to inake an atonement for sin without being united to luman nature, or becoming a man. Hence the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us.” Had Christ always remained separate from human nature, he. could not have redeemed us by his blood. Divinity cannot bleed. Deity cannot suffer. If it were not impossible in the nature of things for the Divinity to make atonement aside from human nature; yet the construction of things in the covenant of redemption, was such, as rendered it impossible for Christ to make an atonement, except he should be born of a woman, and take on him the seed of Abraham. In order that the Messiah might come into the world and fulfil his commission, which we may with great propriety consider a transcript of the everlasting covenant, it was absolutely necessary that he be a man, divinity clothed with humanity. It was not only necessary that Chi:st should be a man, but that as a man he should do the will of his Father perfectly in every scene to the end of life. Although Christ must be obedient unto death, even the death of the cross; yet he knew that he should rise again, and ascend to heaven, and take posa session of the glory which he had with the Father before the world was. To make an atonement, and to take possession of the glory of heaven, it was necessary ihat Christ fulfil bis commission, by finishing the work which the Father had given hum to do. Therefore, “It became him. for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salvation perfect through fufterings.”*

And Paul teaches the necessity of Christ's being clothed in human nature, in the following words: "Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren; that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the peo

* Heb, ii, 10:

ple."* Hence Christ, in order to make reconciliation or atonement, which is the same, for the sins of the people, must be made like unto his brethren.

The reason why things were so constructed in the covenant of redemption, can be imputed to nothing aside from the will of God.

It was necessary that Christ should do the will of him who sent him; it was necessary, therefore, that he should be put into a situation to do it. Hence Paul to the Hebrews observes the following things, concerning the true Saviour. “It is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. Wherefore, when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me: then said I, Lo, I come. (in the volume of the book it is written of me) to do thy will O God-Above when he said, Sacrifice and of fering for sin, thou wouldest not, neither badst. pleasure therein, (which were offered hy the law.) 'Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second.” He taketh away the first, that is, barni-offerings and sacrifices, that he may establish the second, that is doing the willof God Dr. Watts’ version of the 40th Psalm, is well expressed to illusrate the subject under consid eration, especially the following lines:

Thus saith the Lord, Your work is vain,

Give your burnt-offerings o’cr; In dying goals avd bullocks slain,

My soul delighis no more. Then spake the Saviour, Lo, I'm here,

My God, to do thy will;
Whate'er ihy sacred books declare,

Thy servant shall fuifil.
Thy law is ever in my sight,

I keep it near my heart;
Mive ears are opened with delight

To what thy lips impart.

* Heb.it, 172

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