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having assurance of the requisite supplies for his
troops from the Prussians.
the Poles made preparations of defence cor-

responding to the danger. On the 1st of July
cultivators, and this was completed by the charter estab-
and equal before the law, although few of the peasants were
tion of lord and serf. In 1830 the Poles were all freemen,
lishing the Duchy of Warsaw, which abolished the rela-

the Diet authorized the calling out of the pospo-
lite, the levy of the male population capable to
bear arms, calling upon the people to arm, In the
name of God, — in the name of liberty, and of the
nation placed now between life and death, in the
names of the kings and heroes, who have com-
batted in past times for religion and humanity, -
in the name of future generations, – in the name
of justice and the deliverance of Europe. - It was
proposed in the Diet to accompany the call with
a law securing to the cultivators the property of
the soil which they held enly as tenants; and this
might have produced great results*. As it prov-
ed, the levy en masse did not serve to affect the
result of the war, or even to protract the final
catastrophe. Many of the cultivators staid at
home, for the approaching harvest; and there was
an extreme deficiency of arms for those who actu-
ally obeyed the summons. Ineffective, however,
as the call proved, it was evidence of new energy
being infused into the government by the pros-
pect

of an impending crisis.

Breaking up from their quarters along the
Narew on the 4th of July, the Russian army

* Individual proprietors had previously done this in regard
of the peasantry on their respective estates. In the

interval between the first and third partitions, the Polish nobles, of their own free will, began the legal emancipation of the

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their power to prevent the transit of arms, money, and other supplies into Poland, although Russia received every possible facility from Prussia in this respect. We are not neutral, said the Prussians; we are only quiescent. But they were not even quiescent; for the Prussian frontier bristled with bayonets, which shut out the friends of the Poles, and furnished invaluable succor to the Russians.

Poland was anxious to engage other nations, which had been despoiled by Russia at different epochs, to make common cause with her for the restoration of their conquered provinces. Zabinski was sent to Sweden to urge her to reclaim Finland; but had effected nothing; and Wolycki went from Paris to Constantinople, to stir up the Turks and the Persians to strike their great enemy now, when his armies were employed at the other western extremity of his vast Empire, and his forces were exhausted by a protracted struggle. But however well inclined the Sultan or the tribes of the Caucasus and Persia may have been to witness the abasement of Russia, they had not courage to assail the colossus.

"I am as good a Pole as you,' said the Seraskier to Wolycki; nine times each day I pray God for the success of your cause; but good wishes are all we can contribute in your behalf.' Thus the Poles were obliged to continue the struggle single handed, although, independently of the universal sympathies of the world in favor of their gallant nobility of spirit, a multitude of selfish considerations would have made so many surrounding governments rejoice to witness a check, from any quarter, to the excessive aggrandisement of Russia.

Incidents transpired in Warsaw at this period, which had a very important bearing on the issue of the Revolution. The war had not gone well

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COUNCIL OF WAR.

169

tia. They had ammunition enough for three battles, and provisions for one month's consumption, and no more. The insufficiency of the munitions of war and mouth for prolonged operations, not less than the actual strength of the army, decided the council to march upon the Russians and give battle. Skrzynecki alone opposed this; but the others insisting, he yielded, adding: I recoiled before the responsibility of such a movement; but since the generals think that the hour to strike is come, I go to prepare for battle; the army and its chief will not hesitate to shed the last drop of their blood at the call of their country. This language was just, noble, and suited to the times; but it was not followed by acts. On the 28th of July the commission made report of their doings to the Diet, transmitting the formal assurance of the General in Chief that he would give battle:upon which they resigned themselves to a false and fatal security.

The next day the army was advanced to the Bzura; but Skrzynecki remained in Warsaw. By the 3rd of August, on the other hand, the Russians had come up as far as Lowicz. Meanwhile despatch was received from Comte Flahaut, the French Ambassador at Berlin, counselling the Poles not to run the risk of a battle, but to wait the issue of pending negociations. Skrzynecki called together the committee of the Diet on diplomatic affairs, and suggested the expediency of reversing the decision of the council of war; but they replied that this was impossible, and advised him to follow the instructions he had received. Still he tarried; and it was not until the 3rd of August that he repaired to Sochaczew. Then was the time to fight. In fact, Skrzynecki set the army in motion on the 4th, and the enthu. siasm of the soldiers passed all bounds. They

signs of its inhabitants.

General Gielgud committed another fault. Lithuania is bounded, on the side towards Warsaw, by the river Niemen, or Memel as it is called in a part of its course. Wilna is situated on a small branch of this river, called Wilyia, which flows into the Niemen at Kowno. It so happened that the brave little corps under Chłapowski had already passed Grodno, and pushed itself forward to the tract of country between Kowno and Wilna; and had Gielgud crossed the Niemen in the direct course towards Kowno, he would have been but a day's march from Chlapowski. Instead of this he continued on to a place called Gielgudiski, thirty two miles below Wilna.

Having passed the Niemen, and entered Lithuania, Gielgud was joined by Chlapowski on the 6th of June, and the united corps marched to Zeymy. Many Lithuanians rallied around the Poles on their march; and among them was the celebrated Countess Emilia Plater, who came in with a regiment of five hundred Lithuanians raised and equipped at her own expense,

This young heroine was uniformly at the head of her regiment in the hottest engagements, and sacrificed every thing in her country's cause.

The ancients would have raised altars to such a splendid example of female patriotism as being something divine; in the middle age knights and men at arms would have flocked to her banners from the remotest corners of Christendom, as to a crusade; but in these calculating days of political combination, when protocols alone are potent to save, the Countess Plater enjoys the melancholy honors of a glorious exile.

The Polish generals commenced operations by an attempt on Wilna. Their plan was that General Dembinski should make a detour so as to

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