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straight, and tapers from hilt to point, triangular who was eventually sole heiress both of her father William Waldby, and of her grandfather Walter Strickland. Can any reader direct me to any information concerning the Waldby family? A. L. SWAINSON.

in section and deeply fluted. The hilt is of steel ornamented with pieces cut in shapes to resemble jewels, Was the bayonet-shaped blade in use in Charles I.'s time? And is it likely that a soldier would use a weapon of the sort on service? THORNFIELD.

MILLINGCHAWCan any one give me particulars of the Millingchamp family, who flourished in Derbyshire and Staffordshire in the seventeenth century? There was an Edward Millingchamp, of Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, died about 1740 (?), who married a Miss Holt, and left issue. I am

anxious to trace his ancestry. Jas,

White DUNSUURIB. It appears that on 18 June, 1705, a warrant was issued to Col. William Peartree, mayor of New York, to take under his command the squadron composed of the Elizabeth, Capt. Jones; the Return, Capt. Potter; the Sea Flower, Capt. Cawley; and the Peartree, Capt. Dunscomb. Particulars are wanted concerning Capt. Dunscomb of the Peartree. What was his Christian name; when and where did he enter the service; what were his age, place of birth, and death? Any information about him would be gratefully acknowledged. WILLIAM LITTLE. Wat mount Montreal

EARLS OF DERBY.-In the Monasticon,' v. 553 -also mentioned in Dugdale's Warwickshire (1656), p. 785-a charter to Dore Abbey is shown of Robert, Earl de Ferrers, having wife Sibilla de Braose. The authority cited for this charter is "Vincent contra Broke, p. 677." Is an original record of this charter extant? If so, will somebody kindly examine it, and say whether the earl's name therein is Robert? On what points, or in what ways, does

charter 1 Vincent differ from Broke as to this Jones


Port Ches! MIDDLESEX M.P.s. bery Lote helping to

identify the following will be thankfully received. Sir William le Broke, M.P. in 1295 and 1302. Stephen de Gravesend, M.P. in 1295 (? if related to Stephen Gravesend, Bishop of London, 1319). Sir Richard le Rous, M.P. in 1297, 1302, 1306,

1311, and 1313.

Sir William de Harpedene, M.P. 1305.

Rock House, near Torquay.

CLARKSON STANFIELD.-I possess an original drawing called The Phantom Ship.' On the back it is stated it was "purchased at the sale of the artist." Can any one say when and where this sale took place? T. CANN HUGHES, M.A.


Hallam's Europe in the Middle Ages, the following passage occurs as part of a description of the first Crusade :—

"ANGEL OF ASIA."-In chap. i, pt. i., of

"But their [i.e., the Europeans] losses were least in the field of battle; the intrinsic superiority of European prowess was constantly displayed; the Angel of Asia, to able where her rival was not, became a fear, and the apply the bold language of our poet, high and unmatch. Christian lances bore all before them in their shock from Nice to Antioch, Edessa, and Jerusalem.” Can any correspondent kindly tell me who is meant by "the Angel of Asia," and what poet is referred to as having used this expression? Miss F H. CALDECOTT.

Bridge House to rose bou

AKES. Can any of your readers kindly tell me of cakes which are peculiar to certain counties of Great Britain and Ireland, and also where I can find the recipes for making them? HOUSEWIFE. zaura Alex. Smith 1013 Portman M

J. HUSBANDS, A.M.- Is anything known of this gentleman, who was a Fellow of Pembroke College, Poems by Several Hands'? The book is noteOxford, and in 1731 edited A Miscellany of worthy from the fact that in its pages Johnson

first appeared in print. At p. 111 is a translation of Pope's 'Messiah' into Latin heroic verse, which,

according to the preface,

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was deliver'd to his Tutor, as a College Exercise, by Mr. Johnson, a Commoner of Pembroke College in

Oxford, and 'tis hoped will be no Discredit to the excel

lent Original."

(1887), was the first to notice the fact that among Col. F. Grant, in his Life of Johnson,' p. 23 the list of subscribers appears the name of Richard Savage for twenty copies; but as the friendship

Sir John de la Poyle, M.P. in 1307, 1313, and between Johnson and Savage is not supposed to


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have commenced till several years later, this piece of extravagance on the part of the latter is not easy to explain. It may also be pointed out that a subscriber for two copies was Andrew Corbet, Esq., who is generally supposed to have been the young Shropshire gentleman who, according to Boswell, spontaneously undertook to support Johnson at the University, in the character of his companion, and who failed to carry out his promise. The compiler of the Miscellany,' whose name is not of sufficient importance to figure in the 'Diction.

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ary of National Biography,' supplied it with an excellent preface, in which indications of some of the other contributors are given; but as a rule the pieces are anonymous, and I should be glad to know if it is possible to compile a complete list of the writers. There are two imitations of Chaucer, which, according to Mr. Husbands, are "Pieces of some considerable Date" and "appear'd in Print in the Year 1648 (or perhaps sooner) under the name of William Nelson." I can learn nothing about this William Nelson, or his imitations of Chaucer, which are exceedingly poor, from any ordinary books of reference. The 'Miscellany' is said by Col. Grant to be rare, and I can find no copy of it in the extensive collection of books printed at Oxford which was in the library of Dr. Bliss W. F. PRIDEAUX.

Ringsland fix ewsbury

TWENTY-FOUR HOUR DIALS ON CLOCKS.-In Italy the clock dials are figured from one to twenty-four, a system which has several advantages, especially for railway and shipping time-tables, in which travellers are not puzzled with those tiresome letters P.M. and A.M., which Punch's working man translated into ". penny a mile," and " 'a-penny a mile." I was under the impression that just stumbled across the following foot-note in my just was quite a modern innovation; but I have copy of The Tremendous Adventures of Major Gahagan,' dated 1857:

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"So admirable are the performances of these watches, which will stand in any climate, that I repeatedly heard poor Magillicuddy relate the following fact. The hours, as it is known, count in Italy from one to twenty-four, The day Mac landed at Naples his repeater rung the Italian hours, from one to twenty-four. As soon as he crossed the Alps it sounded as usual."

This jocular anecdote shows that the system was in vogue forty years ago. I want to know when and where it originated. Is the system of marking twenty-four hours on the dial used, and officially recognized, in any other European nation ?


166lms 8 PA ClapR FAMILTON.

CoL. JOHN BOWLES. Who was this officer, colonel of the Surrey Militia, 1759?



griss Theyts Sulḥamprateadofd writes to HARE AND EASTER me, knowing that I was in Germany fifty years ago, wanting to know the legend and story attached to the hare, nest, and eggs which appear at Easter time in all the confectioners' shops in Germany, and are beginning to do so in England. I do not remember the practice in 1847, but in 1880 a German told me the legend and story when I noticed the appearance of what my friend wishes to know about; but I have forgotten it. Can you kindly give me the information? It is a legend which goes back 2,000 years. H. Col. J. H. Wade DEUTSCHE HASE. 6th S. i 388; v. 17 vi. 116.1 Deron and Exeter Club.



(8th S. xi. 405.)

It is scarcely likely that this celebrated signal could have remained distorted for nearly a century, and the extract given by A. B. G. must certainly be held to be incorrect. Presumably the officer had no special means of noting the signal, which would, in the ordinary course, be read by one of the ship's signalmen with the aid of the code. Mahan gives a clear and succinct account of its evolution. The original form suggested by the great admiral ran: "Nelson confides that every man will do his duty." On the suggestion of the officer taking the order, "Nelson was changed to "England," and it would appear that the signalman suggested "expects" for "confides," as the former was in the code and the latter not, and time was important. Undoubtedly the signal was as compressed as possible, and with almost as little doubt one may affirm that on such an occasion Nelson would have drawn no distinction between an "officer" and a "man.'

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horfolk encham Hall HOLCONDS INGLEBY.

Times of 26 December, 1805, is one of the most The rendering given in this extract from the incorrect of the many versions of this famous signal; and your correspondent's comment, "that an officer would hardly be mistaken," is scarcely borne out when we find Blackwood himself, writing to his wife on the day after the battle, giving it as "England expects every officer and man will do their utmost duty" (though it is correctly given in the log of the Euryalus, the ship Blackwood commanded). See Prof. Laughton's 'Nelson

Memorial,' p. 294.

A private letter from an officer of the Euryalus, 26 October, which appeared in the Morning Post, 7 November, 1805, says: "I did not leave the Victory till the shot were flying thick over her; and the last signal Lord Nelson made......That England expected every man would do his duty...... Another letter, from an officer of the same ship, dated 21 October (printed in Naval Chronicle,




July-December, 1805, page 462), gives the rendering "England expects every man will do his duty." The Naval Chronicle's own version appears on p. 412. The Times of 7 November (which reports the victory of Trafalgar) gives "England expects every man will do his duty." Laughton tells us that Collingwood actually had a ring engraved with the posy "England expects everything: men, do your duty." As a matter of fact, the signal Lord Nelson first gave to Pasco, his flag lieutenant, was, "England confides that every man will do his duty," "expects" was, how. ever, substituted for "confides," as this latter word was not in the code, and would have had to be

spelt out. Prof. Laughton adds, "The entry in the logs of the Naiad, which repeated the signal, and of the Orion, which gives the code numbers, and of other ships agree verbatim with Pasco's letter " (Nelson Memorial,' pp. 293, 294).

The frontispiece of the 'Nelson Memorial' gives the signal with the flags opposite each word, in their correct colours, and James's 'Naval History' (1823), vol. iii. p. 289, gives the same wording of the message with the numbers under each word, and in the case of D, U, T, Y, under each letter. In conclusion I should add that Capt. Mahan's great work 'The Life of Nelson' quite bears out the above account (vol. ii. pp. 382, 383); but it should be so readily accessible that I will not further cumber your pages with extracts therefrom. A. B. G.'s excerpt is also incorrect as to the time. James-an infallible guide in such matters-gives it as "about forty minutes past eleven." And, finally, it was not Lord Nelson's last signal!-that was, "Engage the enemy more closely."

Delwood Croft, York.

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CHARTERHOUSE (8th S. xi. 507). - Although W. J. D. Ryder is stated in Halkett and Laing's author of Chronicles of Charter-house: by a 'Dictionary of Anonymous Literature' to be the Carthusian,' 1847, this is one of the many errors of that useful and meritorious, though sometimes misleading book. The author of the Chronicles was William James Duff Roper, and the book was written whilst he was still a schoolboy at Charterhouse. In 1849 or 1850 he matriculated at Oxford as a member of Lincoln College, and whilst an undergraduate there I knew him intimately. Though a fair scholar, his university career was not successful, and he left without taking a degree. He subsequently obtained a clerkship in a Government office-the Post-Office or Customs, I think and died a few years afterwards. I owe to him my first introduction to "Aldines."



at his discretion a licence to officiate in an unconsecrated chapel. During the course of his judgment Dr. Lushington observed :


"I need not say the ancient Canon Law knew nothing of proprietary chapels or unconsecrated chapels at all. The necessity of the times and want of accommodation to the licensing of the ministers of the Church of Eng....gave rise to the erection of chapels of this kind and land to perform duty therein. The licence emanates from his [the bishop's] episcopal authority; he could not, however, grant such a licence without the consent of the Incumbent of the parish."

Dr. Lushington also said "that the bishop may
revoke such licence whenever he thinks fit, accord-
ing to a discretion not examinable by the ecclesi-
astical judge." And unconsecrated proprietary
chapels may revert, at the option of the proprietors,
to other than ecclesiastical uses (2 Hagg. 50).
There appears to be no certain rule" as to the
consecration, or not, of proprietary chapels, "each
case probably depending upon the discretion of the
bishop and the wishes of the proprietors" (Cripps
On Ecol. Law,' p. 450, 1864).

Phillimore, in the second edition of his 'Ecclesiastical Law,' says that " unconsecrated proprietary licence which can be revoked at any time, and chapels are anomalies which have grown up in the last two centuries." The ministers have a bishop's cannot be granted without consent of the incumbent of the parish. A new incumbent may dissent from the licence, and effectually forbid the minister from further officiating. The proprietors of unconsecrated chapels may at any time convert them to secular uses. The proprietor of a licensed chapel retains his right of property in it, and can exclude any one during divine service, even the churchwarden of the parish church. Proprietary chapels tend much to sensational service. As the minister is supported from pew rents, it is his in many cases within the last few years, an inobject to make his services attractive, which means, fraction of rubrics, and a tendency to bring the services to a theatrical display, most admirable in its place, but not

ot in a church. LAYTON, F.s.a.

W. E.

Cuddington Vicarage, Surrey.

officiate in

PROPRIETARY CHAPELS (8th S. xi. 447).-Every book on Ecclesiastical Law has a section which examines at length the question which M. L. H. asks. This means that it must take a large space the chapel than to the chapel itself to be officiated The licence is rather to a minister to of to enter upon the question to any satisfactory in. For full particulars about these places of purpose. These are anomalies from an ecclesiastical point of view, and possess no parochial rights as vol. ii. p. 1183. Not seldom the minister and the worship see Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law,' against the incumbent of a parish. The leading cases in respect of them are Moysey v. Hillcoat proprietor have been the same person. and Hodgson v. Dillon. In the former of these, Hastings in the absence of proof of consecration, or any composition with the patron, incumbent, and ordinary, it was held that a proprietary chapel was not one in which the minister nominated by the rector could perform parochial duties. The latter decided that the bishop has the power of revoking absolutely


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LITERARY WOMEN IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY (8th S. xi. 423). None of the women inquired after in this query belonged to the seventeenth century, but to the sixteenth century and earlier. Elisabetta Gonzaga (sometimes called Isabella), who was so much praised by Bembo

and others, was the daughter of the Marquis Federigo of Mantua and wife of Guido Baldo I., Duke of Urbino. She was born in 1471 and died in 1526. Full and interesting particulars relating to her life will be found in Dennistoun's 'Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino' (vols. i. and ii. passim). She is one of the interlocutors in the Cortegiano' of Balthasar Castiglione, who has extolled her virtuer, her beauty, and her talents.

Hippolyte Taurella (or Torella), was the wife of Castiglione. She died in 1525, and Bembo wrote her epitaph. Among the Latin verses of her husband is one which she is supposed to have written, and there are several in her praise, as well as in that of Elisabetta Gonzaga. She is noticed by Niceron in his account of her husband (Hommes Illustres,' t. xxvi. 94) and in other lives of Castiglione.

London, Past and Present,' 1850, Cunningham,
referring to the building of the first Royal Exchange,
remarks that

"the general design was not unlike the Bourse at Ant-
werp-a quadrangle, with a cloister running round the
interior of the building, a corridor or pawn above, and
what we would call attics or bedrooms at the top."
In a foot-note to the word "pawn" Cunningham

"Bahn (German), a path or walk: Baan (Dutch), a
pathway. These were divided into stalls, and formed a
kind of Bazaar, not much dissimilar perhaps from the
Pantheon in Oxford Street at the present day."
I suppose that the "Pawne" which is here referred
to is that which, under "Pawn," in Wright's
'Provincial Dictionary,' is defined as
"You must to the Pawn to
place in London.
buy the lawn" (Westward Hoe,' 1607).


A daughter of the great Accursius (who died in Wilmot St., H. C. P. HALE, 1260) and sister of Franciscus Accursii is fre- In the late Mr. Thoms's edition of Stow's quently enumerated among the learned lady'Survey,' 1842, p. 73, there is a note (q. v.) deriving professors of Bologna on the authority of Panciroli, this word from German bah or Dutch baan, a


bahnya. W. O. Bouller

De Claris Legum Interpretibus,' but, as Tiraboschi Prison Vicarage (rechen50). —I have

thinks, without any foundation ('Letteratura Italiana,' t. iv. 415). RICHARD C. CHRISTIE.


ADDITION TO NATIONAL ANTHEM (8th S. xi. 323, 358, 471).—In connexion with this subject and the present Jubilee I do not know whether you will allow the laughable element to appear. If you will, the following, taken from 'The Portfolio of Mr. Peter Popkin,' in vol. vii. of Bentley's Miscellany, may be appropriate :



a copy of 'The Book of English Songs, from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century,' published at the office of the "National Illustrated Library," London, 1851, in which there is a small collection of English sporting songs. In all there are about twenty-five songs, fairly representative of the class. In an introductory note to the collection I find mention of two goodly collections which may, perhaps, be useful to MR. REDWAY. One "Immediately after the marriage of the Duke and of these is by Mr. Armiger, of Melton Mowbray, Duchess of Kent, the royal pair visited the theatres who published in 1830 a collection of songs and publicly. It was notified that they were to honour the ballads relating to racing, hunting, coursing, shootperformances at the English Opera-House. Mr. A—, the proprietor, felt it to be his duty on this auspiciousing, hawking, angling, and archery. This volume occasion to add some complimentary stanzas to the is said to contain no fewer than three hundred National Anthem, 'God save the King.' Being, how-lyrics of various kinds. Another, and even more ever, much occupied with perplexing business, he left comprehensive work, was published in 1810, under this task until the last moment. It should be stated that the title of Songs of the Chase,' containing more the notice of the royal visit had been sent to Mr. A's than 340 songs upon similar topics. According house in Golden Square. Mr. A- was all bustle at the theatre for the reception of the royal visitors, but sat to the writer of the introduction, Mr. Armiger's down to write his verses. He had concluded one to his selection is entirely different from those in the satisfaction, and had arrived at the middle of another, latter work, he having, with a view to originality when his muse forsook him. He there stuck, pen in of compilation, purposely excluded every song hand, at published in the Songs of the Chase." REDWAY will be further interested to know that in the latter collection will be found "" some of the most ancient sporting songs in the languagevaluable on that account if on no other-and also some of the most popular of later compositions."

So may the royal pair,
Joy of the nation, share-

Joy of the nation, share

P-came into the room at this moment, and A- put
him in requisition to furnish the absent line, singing,
So may the royal pair,
Joy of the nation, share-
P-(sung) Thirty-one Golden Square,
God gave the king."

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45. Wilmot St., R. ZO. P. HALE.

presume that under the title "Come out, 'tis now September," MR. GEORGE REDWAY refers to the celebrated part-song "All among the barley," composed by the late Mrs. Stirling-Bridge, under her maiden name of Elizabeth Stirling. I am not aware that it has ever been included in any collec

tion of part-songs. It was published originally in
the Musical Times, and forms No. 187 of the
musical supplements to that paper. Mrs. Bridge
was organist of St. Andrew's Undershaft for
twenty-two years, and retired in 1880. She was
one of the first organists in London to play Bach's
pedal fugues. In 1856 she passed the examination
for Mus. Bac. Oxford, but was precluded by her
sex from being awarded the degree. She died in
April, 1895.

West Haddon, Northamptonshire.

"All among the barley," the part-song to which MR. REDWAY erroneously attributes the opening line as the title, which is derived from the refrain, can scarcely be classed as an English sporting song. The only allusion to sport-and that merely incidental and illustrative-occurs in the first stanza-thus:

Come out 'tis now September.
The hunter's moon's begun,
And through the wheaten stubble
Is heard the frequent gun.

I quote from memory. The composition is by a
lady-Miss Elizabeth Stirling-at the time of
publication (1859-60) the accomplished organist of
All Saints (Parish) Church

18 Schubert

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manere vestigia, terramque specie torridam vim frugiferam perdidisse." Historiarum,' lib. v. c, 6, 7.

It is said that Vespasian from curiosity went to the Lacus Asphaltites, and ordered certain persons who could not swim to be flung into it with their arms bound behind their backs, and all of them floated on the surface (Josephus, Bell. Jud. iv. 8). A friend of mine told me that he once bathed in the Dead Sea and was astonished at its wonderful buoyancy, The expression "Apples of Sodom" has passed into the language, indicating anything Lord Byron, in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,' has fair on the outside but full of bitterness within. embalmed the idea :

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but Life will suit Itself to Sorrow's most detested fruit, Like to the apples on the Dead Sea's shore All ashes to the taste. Canto iii, stanza xxxiv. , JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

THE BREDEN STONE (8th S. xi. 424).-I presume that the kind of stone alluded to by Mr. HALL, under the three designations of "breeding," growing," and "pudding," is the same that we here call a "mother" stone. To look at it is not Poplar, E. NO. unlike a piece of concrete. Some workmen I E.. Joyner have employed here got into difficulties, the other In The Universal Songster; or, Museum of day, with one of these stones, which they disMirth,' illustrated by George and Robert Cruik-covered in an old foundation. shank, 3 vols., London, Jones & Co., Temple of the Muses, Finsbury Square, 1825, 1826, 1827, there is a collection of 214 sporting songs, but the two mentioned by your correspondent are not amongst them. The first, ""Tis a fine hunting day," I am informed by a friend, is of more recent date, and the other may be also. J. B. FLEMING. Kelvinside, Glasgow.

West Haddon, Northamptonshire.


'THE GIAOUR' (8th S. ix. 386, 418, 491; x. 11, 120, 240, 302; xi. 13).—I do not think that the line

Of Guebres, Giaours, and Ginns, and Gouls, in hosts, quoted by H. E. M. at the last reference, can be THE PHARAOH OF THE OPPRESSION (8th S. v. used as an argument for the hardness of g in 174, 245, 311; vi. 134, 236).-Some time since admitted that the g in "Ginns" is soft, and, if so, "Giaours," for I suppose it must be generally there was an interesting correspondence on the sub- the alliteration of hard g's falls to the ground, and ject of Lot's wife being turned into a pillar of salt, the g in "Giaours" and I cited some instances of megaliths being found In Nimmo's edition of Byron's Poetical Works,' may as likely be soft as hard. in many parts of the world, mentioning the case of Niobe as described by Sophocles (Antigone, word immortalized by Byron in this poem, and 1876, there is this note on 'Giaour,' p. 164: "This 823-33). Happening to be in Oxford, I mentioned this to Prof. Sayce, the great Orientalist, and he not less by Beckford in Vathek,' means 'infidel,' seemed to think it useful information. The read-other Eastern names." The 'Stanford Dictionary' and is pronounced Djiur, like Giamschid and ing of the lesson, Gen. xix., on the first Sunday in gives as variants of the word "16 c. gawar, 16 c.Lent reminded me of the matter, and a reference to 18 c. gower, 17 c. goure, giaur, gaur(e), 18 c. Tacitus, who wrote about B.c. 70, furnished some interesting illustrative information concerning the jaour, 19 c. ghiaour.' Beckford's Vathek' has scene of the catastrophe, which took place B.C. "Accursed Giaour!" ed. 1883, p. 32. 1898:

"Lacus immenso ambitu specie maris, sapore corruptior, gravitate odoris accolis pestifer, neque vento impellitur, neque pisces aut suetas aquis volucres patitur. Incertæ undæ superjacta, ut solido, ferunt: periti imperiti nandi perinde attolluntur. Certo anni bitumen egerit; cujus legendi usum, ut ceteras artes, experientia docet ......Haud procul inde campi, quos ferunt olim uberes, magnis urbibus habitatos fulminum jactu arsisse; et

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WADDINGTON (8th S. xi. 428, 458, 477).MR. ALGER's letter as to M. Waddington's descent from Mr. Wm. Waddington, who, born in 1751, established the French factories with his father-in-law, Mr. Sykes, in 1792, is interesting, but just fails of touching my point. Had Mr. Wm. Waddington any affinity with Samuel Wad

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