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Mr. CHARLES L. BRACE, Chairman of GROUP 10, embracing objects exhibited
with a special view to the amelioration of the moral and physical condition of the population, stated : That efforts bad been made to collect plans and models of school-houses, school-furniture, school-books, and apparatus. There was not much response, and it was thought advisable to remove some articles to Group 2.
The question of transportation and expense has been detrimental to the execution of plans entertained by some of our citizens of arranging a complete representation of the common-school system of our country.
It was proposed to set up a school-house in the park and have it thoroughly furni-hed, and it is even yet not too late for it, if timely appropriations are made for this object.
On the earnest invitation of the Imperial Commission, transmitted through Mr. Beckwith to this government by Colonel Rowland, an offer has been made of a company of Indians from the Sioux, Dakota, and Chippewa tribes to take their places among the numerous races to be represented at Paris. They will be sent under the charge of interpreters and experienced agents, and ail expenses are guaranteed by our enlightened and liberal citizens, and the government is simply called upon to give its official sanction and protection.
From the preceding abstracts of the reports of the chairmen of the ten (10) groups some idea may be formed of the amount of work that has been accomplished by your committees in the limited time at their disposal. There have been abont 1,200 applications for permission to exhibit products. Some of them were made in the name of States and cover a large number of individuals. The number of persons directly interested in the Exposition amounts to several thousands.
The money value of the articles to be exhibited cannot be stated with accuracy. It would be difficult to form a just estimate; but as only choice articles have been acccepted, it can safely be put down at many hundred thousand dollars.
Many products, the exhibition of which would bave proved highly advantageous to the country, were practically excluded for the reason that there was no provision for return freight. To send them to Paris was, in some instances, equivalent to giving them away.
There has been much enlightened patriotism displayed on the part of exhibitors. Many of them have expended large sums of money for the purpose of showing to the world what we can produce, and western railroad companies have liberally offered to carry freight for the Exposition free of charge.
Your committee having been familiar with all the details of the work from the beginning, knowing what has been accomplished and how much may yet be done, are in the condition to state what further sums are required to maintain the credit of our country in participating in this world-wide enterprise.
To sum up these necessities, there is urgent need of an immediate additional appropriation of one hundred thousand dollars to save the property of exhibitors and to complete the work begun.
The enlightened citizens who have loaned their valuable works of art must be secured from pecuniary loss on freight and insurance; the expense of collecting, assorting, selecting, and labelling ores and minerals, and of publishing concise statistical statements of the extent and value of our mineral lands, ought to be defrayed by the government, with additional appropriation for return freight of suites of specimens, which institutions and individuals are willing to
In the department of machinery the sum at the disposal of the agency is
loan for the Exposition.
altogether inadequate; there is an absolute necessity for motive power in the sup plementary building in the park, or a very large class of exhibitors will be de prived of the opportunity of showing their machines in motion, and a considerable addition to the transportation fund is required to enable the agent to forward some of the most important machines yet offered.
The fund is also inadequate for inland transportation in France and return of the packages to the seaport; also for the care of them in Paris and the neces sary services of agents and interpreters.
There is not sufficient money to defray the necessary expenses of the agent in New York, and it is safe to say that, but for the gratuitous aid received from persons not officially connected with the Exposition, and the meagre salaries accepted by yourself and others, the work would have been seriously interrupted.
In the original plan of organization, prepared by the secretary of this committee, provision was made for the appointment of ten commissioners to report the scientific results of the Exposition, and it was proposed to give each commissioner authority to employ the necessary assistants. They should also be authorized, as a body, to appoint a secretary to keep and preserve proper records of their proceedings and their correspondence, and to provide rooms at Paris for meetings and business, with the necessary incidental expenses.
Adequate provision should also be made for the expense of collecting and exhibiting the weights and measures, and especially the coins of the United States, reaching back to our colonial era, to properly prepare for the international discussion invited by the French commission of the very important question of a common unit of money for the use of the civilized world. . The successful establishment of a coinage of uniform weight and fineness, and common to all the nations of the world, would annually save hundreds of thousands of dollars to the citizens of the United States.
For the necessary objects above specified, your Advisory Committee are of opinion that an expenditure of filty thousand dollars by the professional commissioners will be necessary, and should be appropriated by Congress.
It should be considered, moreover, that the task which has been assigned to these ten commissioners, of preparing a report or series of reports upon the Exposition, and upon the several departments of industry which will be represented in it, is one which, for its proper execution, will require a species of assistance for which no provision has been made in the resolutions under which they have been appointed. In order that such reports may subserve the parpose intended of promoting the advancement of the arts of industry in the country, and thus contributing to the national wealth, they should exhibit not only the present condition of each department, but also some sketch of its history, and some account of the progressive steps by which it has reached its present state of perfection. They will consequently require a large amount of special study and of correspondence or personal communication with the scientific and practical men of other countries.
For the intelligible presentation of the results they will require to be illustrated by numerous drawings and diagrams, exhibiting the constructions, apparatus, and machinery employed in the various processes which they describe. The purely mechanical labor of digesting the literary material thus collected, and of preparing the illustrations necessary, would be more than sufficient to occupy all the time of the commissioners, were not their proper task a bigher one than that of mere historians. If their labors are to be practically useful, they must be free to study, discuss, and criticise the objects and processes upon which they report, to bring into clear relief whatever is most meritorious in each, and to point out the particulars in which improvement is still to be desired, and the directions in which it may be sought. They should, therefore, be authorized and enabled to employ such artistic and professional assistance as
may relieve them of that portion of their work which they could only perform in person, to the great prejudice of the final value of their reports.
The necessity of providing the commissioners with such assistance was early perceived and pointed out by Professor Joy in a letter to yourself published by Congress and by the commissioner general of the United States in Paris.
In a communication addressed to the Secretary of State under date of 31st January, 1866, Mr. Beckwith, with the intelligent forecast characterizing all his official communications, remarks: "The resolutions presented to Congress on the 21st of December proposed appropriations for a scientific commission of ten members corresponding to the ten groups of products.
But this number, unassisted will not be sufficient. It will devolve upon them not only to make the requisite studies and reports, but also to serve on international juries. The latter service, thongh requiring much time, will afford the best opportunities for information resulting from the investigations, experiments, and discussions of the juries. But they will not be equal to the work without assistants, and they can be obtained at a moderate cost.
* The services of scientific and professional assistants can be engaged, whose special studies, colloquial knowledge of continental languages, familiarity wit the continental nomenclature of the sciences and industrial arts, together with their personal acquaintances, access to sources of information and works of authority and local knowledge in general, will render their services as assistants highly efficient.
" The scientific commission thus supplemented will be equal to the work required of it, and more useful labor can be accomplished in this way at less cost than in any other way."
The Advisory Committee have reason to believe that the several governments of Europe which have resolved to participate in the Exposition have not been in any case unmindful of this important provision. Our professional and scientific commissioners cannot but deeply feel the disadvantage under which they must necessarily labor, unless Congress shall see fit to concede to them the same aid in the execution of their task as will be enjoyed by their fellowcommissioners from other lands.
By reference to the early correspondence between the commissioner general and the minister of the United States in Paris, it will be seen that the appropriations already made by Congress fall short by more than forty thousand dollars of the sum estimated by the commissioner general as the very minimum necessary to secure for our country a creditable representation at the Exposition, and very much further below what he thought desirable. These esti mates were made with a perfect knowledge of what other governments were doing, and could have been dictated solely by a patriotic desire, not only to secure to our country all the important advantages which may be made to flow from this great international comparison of industries, but also to see her honorably sustaining her part in this most generous of rivalries.
His estimates will be found in a published correspondence, in a letter addressed to Mr. Bigelow under date of November 22, 1865, and it will be seen that all the additional appropriations asked for by the undersigned might be made without transcending the limits assigned by him, and which the necessities of the case, as they have developed themselves, have shown to be too low.
The Advisory Committee beg leave further to submit that the provision of the joint resolution of Congress making an appropriation of a certain definite snm for the purpose of defraying the personal expenses of the ten commissioners while engaged in the discharge of their duties, might with propriety be modified. While these professional men may desire to derive no pecuniary advantage from their connection with the cominission, it cannot be proper or just that they should suffer positive pecuniary loss. Tueir services, if properly performed, cannot fail to be of material benefit to the country. If worth having, they are worth paying for. Their terms of service, including the time occupied in going and returning, extend over a period of eight months. A moment's consideration is enough to show that the cost of a voyage to France, out and back, and the necessary expense of living for such a length of time in a foreign capital crowded with visitors and at prices greatly enhanced, are most inadequately met by the appropriation in the joint resolution. It would surely be more just, and far more consistent with the dignity of the nation, that provision should be made for the payment of the actually necessary expenses of the ten commissioners, to be duly audited on proper vouchers by any appropriate officer of the government.
In conclusion, and in view of the preceding facts and considerations, we, the undersigned, are of opinion that the pecuniary means now at your disposal are quite inadequate to the requirements of the various industrial and public interests of the country.
We therefore respectfully recommend that you make immediate application to Congress for an additional appropriations amounting in the aggregate to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars.
The total expenditure would even then fall considerably short of the proportionate expenditure by most of the countries represented in the Exposition, but it would enable the United States to maintain to a fair extent its just rank in this great concourse of nations.
WILLIAM J. HOPPIN,
Chairman of Group One. CHARLES A. JOY,
Chair nan of Group Two. RICHARD M. HUNT,
Chairman of Group Three. ELLIOT C. COWDIN,
Chairman of Group Four. SAMUEL B. RUGGLES,
Chairman of Group Five. FRANCISCO W. EVANS,
Chairman of Group Siz. FREDERICK LAW OLMS LED,
Chairman of Group Sever. WILLIAM S. CARPENTER,
Chairman of Group Eight. THOMAS MCELRATH,
Chairman of Group Vine. CHARLES L. BRACE,
Chairman of Group Ten. Mr. J. C. DERBY,
United States Agent for the Paris Exposition.
Mr. Beckuith to Mr. Seward.
PARIS, June 29, 1866. SIR: I had the honor to address you on the 14th December last in relation to the scientific commission formed by the French government and charged with various labors. The coinmission was directed in particular to promote international co-operation in the propagation of the use of new and important discoreries, and for the adoption of a uniform system of weights, measures, and coios.
I beg now to advise you of the steps which have since been taken.
posed of members of the scientific commission, the imperial commission, and the foreign commissioners, for the purpose of consultation regarding proper measures to be adopted in connection with the exhibition of 1867, for drawing public attention to the subject of uniformity in weights, measures, and coins.
The following suggestions were made by the English scientific association and approved by the meetings :
let. To form a collection of the weights, measures, and coins of all nations, to be exhibited in the Palace of the Universal Exposition of 1867.
2d. To organize an international committee charged especially with the formation and exhibition of this collection of weights, measures, and coins, and to devise the most efficacious methods of promoting uniformity.
3d. In accordance with these views the imperial commission appointed the space requisite for the exhibition of weights and coins in the exhibition parlor, and formed a special committee connected with their scientific commission, which special committee is the commencement of the international committee alluded to to be charged with the subject.
I annex hereto three documents, numbered 1, 2, and 3.
No. 2 contains the approval of the proceedings of the minister of state, and a decree constituting a special committee, giving the names and professions of the persons appointed, which committee forms the nucleus of the international committee on weights, coins, &c., to be constituted.
No. 3 is a letter from this special committee asking my adhesion to the project in principle, and desiring me to take the further necessary proceedings.
It will be observed that article five of the decree provides that additional members may be added to the international committee by the foreign commissioners of those nations who take part in the exhibition of weights, measures, and coins.
At the particular request of the imperial commission I now present the subject for the consideration of the government of the United States, and respectfully solicit their co-operation in the formation of the collection of national weights, measures, and coins to be exhibited, and in appointing or authorizing the appointment of commissioners to be added to the international committee above named, and charged with the particular business herein described.
I have read with great pleasure the recent proceedings in the House of Representatives relating to the introduction of the metrical decimal system into the United States, and I observe that those proceedings provide for a commission to be charged with the subject of a common unit of coin.
If the general purposes and method of proceeding herein reported receive the approval of the government, I would venture to suggest that the commissioner to be appointed under the congressional authority alluded to be directed to prepare the proposed exhibition of weights, measures, and coins, and that he be nominated to the aforesaid international committee.
This arrangement will place the commissioner at once in direct relation with professional and learned persons occupied with coinage and analogous subjects, and best qualified to co-operate with him in the accomplishment of his particu
The committee is now organized according to the usual forms on this side, to give additional weight to its proceedings, and it is probable that its numbers and nationalities will be increased to an extent that will comprise much ability and appropriate knowledge, and produce an influence favorable to the objects of its labor. I have the honor to be, with great respect, your
N. M. BECKWITH,
United States Commissioner Generat. Hon. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.
Ex. Doc. 52