« FöregåendeFortsätt »
There will be a fair exhibition of a certain class of articles. The total number of applications was fifty. These were passed upon by competent committees of experts.
Among the gentlemen and firms who have been consulted may be mentioned the following:
Dr. James H. Bowen, Chicago; Messrs. G. Collamore & Co., New York;
Mr. Elliot C. Cowdin, Chairman of Group 4, reports : That this group, which embraces cotton, woollen, and rubber goods, men's clothing, boots and shoes, and other articles of similar character, will be well represented.
Its most striking features are the implements of war and articles for army use, prominent among which are rifles, breech-loading fire-arms, howitzers, revolvers, battery guns, &c.
The following officers of the United States army and prominent citizens aided in the selection of proper articles for transmission to Paris :
Dr. F. A. P. Barnard, New York; i Mr. E. R. Mudge, Boston;
Mr. J. L. Butler, St. Louis;
Mr. William G. Lambert, New York ; Brig. Gen’l B. S. Alexander, U. S. A.; Mr. Stephen Hyatt, New York. There will be sixty-one exhibitors in this group.
The chairman deems it proper to ask for additional appropriations to pay for the return freight and the installation of these valuable contributions to the Exposition. Mr. SAMUEL B. Ruggles, Chairman of Group 5, embracing products of mines
and metallurgy, of the forest, of fisheries, of chemistry and pharmacy, &c.:
reports : That the prominent feature of this group for the United States is class No. 40, the products of mines and metallurgy.
The applications have been very numerous, embracing nearly every State and Territory in the American Union, and largely exhibiting its vast metallic resources. Several thousands of specimens, some of them of large size, will be transmitted within the months of December and January to Mr. Derby, who early made arrangements to secure adequate spaces in the palace for the mineral and cereal products of all the States and Territories from which applications have been received or were expected.
The chairman of this group, soon after his appointment by the government in July as one of the ten professional commissioners, for the purpose of securing
adequate action by the country, personally visited all the States from New York westward to Minnesota and Iowa inclusive, explaining the importance of the Exposition to the interests of the various portions of the United States.
In these efforts, and especially in the northwestern States, he was actively and efficiently aided by two of his associates in the commission, Mr. James H. Bowen, of Chicago, and Mr. Henry F. Q. d'Aligny, of the upper peninsula of Michigan, and also by the zealous co-operation of several of the commissioners appointed by the several States, including Mr. J. L. Butler, of Missouri, Mr. J. P. Reynolds, of Illinois, and Mr. J. A. Wilstach, of Indiana.
The results of these efforts will be to accumulate so great a mass of specimens, mineral and cereal, in the city of New York, that it will become necessary to organize a large advisory committee of geologists and mineralogists for the purpose of selecting from the whole, the portion for which space can be obtained in the palace.
Meanwhile, a correspondence has been opened with Commissioner General Beckwith at Paris, to extend the time for placing these specimens to the latest allowable period. Mr. Beckwith in a recent letter states:
"There will be, as it now stands, abundance of room for minerals: no application was refused, all were accepted, about fifty in number; and the aggregate space allotted is between sixty and seventy square metres, say seven hundred square feet, of shelf.
"You need therefore have no uneasiness about room: if the half of this space is filled with specimens, properly prepared for exhibition, it will be superb, and if the whole is thus filled, it will create astonishment.”
Some of the States, rich in minerals, have been somewhat dilatory in sending forward their specimens for shipment, but any omissions on their part will be supplied, in a good degree, by valuable specimens which will be actively collected by the New York Mining Board, under the direction of their president, Mr. Salem T. Russell, with the aid of a special committee of their body.
There is now good reason to expect that all the specimens, properly selected, labelled and arranged, which can reach Paris by the 1st, and perhaps by the 15th of March, may be duly placed and exhibited.
The magnitude of the various accessions in this particular class renders it Decessary to select only the portions most important and characteristic.
It has therefore become necessary to call in the aid of experts, not only to make the necessary selections, but to classify, label, and properly pack in boxes the specimens to be sent, and for that purpose to procure suitable rooms and several skilled assistants.
The principal scientific labor will be gratuitously performed by the distinguished professors of the “School of Mines” of Columbia College, in the city of New York, to which place all specimens not otherwise directed by the exhibitors
The geologists, mineralogists, and other men of science, whose counsel has been requested in making these important selections, are: F. A. P. Barnard, president of Columbia College, Charles A. Joy, professor in Columbia College and School of Mines, New York; Professors Thomas Egleston, John S. Newberry, and Charles F. Chandler, School of Mines, Columbia College; Professor J. P. Kimball, Bureau of Mines, New York city; Professors Benjamin Silliman and George J. Brush, New Haven; Professors Wm. B. Rogers and J. P. Cooke, Boston and Cambridge; Professor Wm. H Clark, Amherst; Mr. Wm. S. Vaux and Dr. F. A. Genth, Philadelphia ; Professor George H. Cook, New Brunswick ; Professor Ed. C. Boynton, West Point; Professors John C Draper and Charles S. Stone, New York; Professor Charles U. Shepard, Amherst; Mr. George W. Maynard, Colorado.
will be sent.
Class 41.- Products of the forest—Dr. John Torrey, Mr. William H. Webb.
Spencer F. Baird, Washington ; Mr. Thomas Bland, Mr. Robert
Hon. A. H. Laflin. CLASS 44.—Chemical products, &c.—Dr. John Torrey, Dr. R. Ogden Doremus.
New York; Professor John W. Fraser, Philadelphia; Frank H. Storer, Boston; E. N. Horsford, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, Cambridge; Mr. Ed. N. Kent, Dr. E. L. Youmans, Dr. Ed. R. Squibb,
Professor Charles A. Joy, Professor Charles F. Chandler. Class 46.—Leather and skins.—Mr. Loring Andrews, Mr. Jackson S. Shultz,
Mr. Oliver Hoyt, New York. The preliminary work of preparation for making the selections of mineral specimens has been already commenced, under the advice and at the request of President Barnard, of Columbia College, one of the professional commissioners of the United States ; but in order to secure its due completion, it will be indispensably necessary for the government to provide at once for the actual expense of the hired assistants, and of labelling, packing and boxing the specimens, the whole of which may be covered by two thousand dollars.
The large amount of minerals and cereals added to the exposition will also increase the necessary expense of shipment to Paris, requiring an addition to the existing appropriation, of eight thousand dollars. Mr. F. W. Evans, Chairman of GROUP 6, embracing machinery, &c., reports :
The committee on Group 6 was organized in July last, as soon as the action of Congress rendered it certain that the articles accepted could be sent. They had to select from abont 500 applications, and their aim has been to fiil up the space allotted to them with representative articles for each class, paying no regard to priority of application, and taking care that every branch of manufaeture and of industry comprised in this group should be represented.
In order to do this, the space being limited, the committee had first to decide on the relative amount of ground to be allotted to each class, and then to fill up such space with the representative articles corresponding. This part of the work required careful study, much correspondence, and some travel, in order to see and understand, so as to decide knowingly on the merits of the articles for which space was demanded.
Some of the best articles not being forthcoming, the committee deemed it advisable to solicit their representation, especially when such exhibition would necessarily entail great expense upon the owners. And it is to be regretted that it was not in the power of the agency to furnish material aid for some of the manufacturers of expensive and complicated machinery, whose exhibition would confer lasting honor upon the mechanical skill of the country without any immediate pecuniary benefit to the owners.
As examples of this class of machinery we might instance the Hoe printing press, the steam fire-engine, &c.
We have in this group apparatus for mining and metallurgy ; fertilizers and the methods of distributing the same; plans, designs and models; agricultural implements; hunting apparatus; methods of alimentary industry; grain eleva tors; chemical and pharmaceutical products; petroleum and gas apparatus ; motors and steam generators ; machines and mechanical apparatus in general ; pumps; steam, air, and hydraulic engines; standard scales, weights and measures; machine tools ; complete sets of iron-working machinery, from the caps and dies for a one-eighth bolt up to the machine capable of planing a piece of metal cight feet
broad, eight feet high, and sixteen feet long; wool-spinning; flax and hempdressing ma hinery; cotton gins and apparatus, and methods of rope-making ; apparatus and methods of weaving ; machines for weaving any irregular forms; weaving cassimeres ; knitting, carding, spinuing machines; burring pickers, &c.; machines and methods of sewing leather; cloth or cambric embroidering, and making button-holes; boots, shoes, harness, &c.; apparatus and methods for making furniture and household objects; complete sets of wood-working machinery ; apparatus and methods of paper-making, coloring and stamping; type setting and distributing machine, and a printing press which prints both sides at once from a roll of paper 800 yards long; machines for cutting, paring and stamping paper, for stereotyping; machines for cutting files ; nail-making and screw-making machines ; carriage and cart work, phætons, buggies, sleighs, carriages army wagons, ambulances, &c; ploughs, reapers, agricultural machines, harness work, and saddlery; materials for railroad cars, horse railroad cars, sleeping cars; American locomotives, car wheels, locomotive lamps, brakes, &c.; apparatus and methods of telegraphy; plans of villas, churches, tunnels, &c.; brick machines; builders' hardware; railroad and canal locks; models of steamers, sailing vessels, iron-clads, life-saving apparatus, ship-making machinery, disengaging tackles for ship boats; apparatus for marine salvage, &c.
Most of the articles enumerated above are of a very heavy and bulky nature, requiring much time for their-fabrication.
The final action of Congress took place in July last, and the successful applicants were notified as soon thereafter as possible. The time was too short, however, for some of the most important machines to be built before the sailing of the vessels freighted for the Exposition, and it will therefore be necessary to send them by steamer.
Congress authorized the construction of a supplementary building, but made no provisions for the extra freight on articles to fill it, neither for the furnishing of motite power for the machinery in the "annex”--that of the main building being furnished by the Imperial Commission.
It is the opinion of the committee that for a full, complete, and national exposition of the instruments and processes of common arts, the further sum of $50,000 should be furnished by the government. Then we could compete successfully with the other manufacturing nations of the globe. The following gentlemen have acted on this committee : Mr. John Stephenson,
Mr. B. P. Johnson, Albany, N. Y., Mr. J. Vaughn Merrick,
Mr. William Allen, Auburn, N. Y., Mr. James Dougherty,
Mr. T. R. Pickering, Mr. James C. Rand,
Mr. H. D. J. Pratt, Mr. W. E. Worthen,
Mr. Norman Wiard, Mr. R. Bali,
Mr. Thomas McElrath, Mr. J. A. Fay,
Mr. U. D. Stoops, Mr. Charles H. Haswell,
Mr. Aquila Adams, Mr. Henry T. Brown,
Mr. S. Edward Todd, Mr. H. P. Gengembre,
Mr. W. S. Carpenter, Mr. Myers Coryell,
Mr. J. Stanton Gould, Mr. William Wright,
Mr. J. H. Bowen, Mr. T. D. Stetson,
Mr. Frank Leslie, Mr. William E. Everett,
Mr. Richard M. Hunt.
Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, Chairman of GROUP 7, embracing cereals,
vegetables, sugars, and fermented drinks, reports: That some of the commissioners of the western States have been very active in collecting material for this group. The various kinds of grain grown in the west, the amount produced per acre, the variety of soil, the extent of undeveloped land, the cost of tillage, and in fact every species of information likely to be of interest to emigrants, will be found at the Exposition disposed in a manner in the highest degree creditable to the country.
By a singular coincidence which it may not be inappropriate to notice, three members of your committee were the original founders of the Vine-Growers' Association in 1858, which was so instrumental in introducing the culture of the grape in the west.
Since the organization of this association great progress has been made in the culture of the grape, and we shall forward samples of wine from California, Missouri, Obio, New York, and in fact from nearly every section of the country.
Through the active instrumentality of Mr. Commissioner Bowen, specimens of the houses, such as are sold by hundreds to emigrants, will be set up in the park at Paris. Specimens of the soil and its products and of the dwellings in common use will thus be made known to the world.
The following gentlemen have been consulted in the formation of Group 7:
Mr. W. S. CARPENTER, Chairman of GROUP 8, embracing animals and speci
mens of agricultural establishments, reports : That, under the prohibition by the minister of the interior in France, in view of the danger from the prevalent cattle plague, it was found impracticable to send live animals to the Exposition. The few articles applied for were transferred to Group 6.
Mr. John Stanton Gould, president of the Agricultural Society of the State of New York, and Mr. B. P. Johnson, our former commissioner to Paris, and at present the secretary of the Agricultural Society, have rendered important aid and advice in the selection of the articles which have been transferred to Group 6.
Mr. Gould, in addition, has contributed, as one of the committee of experts, valuable and reliable statements and estimates of the extent and value of the agricultural machines used in this country and of the immense saving they effect in human labor, which he estimates as equivalent to the labor of 2,000,000
Mr. Thomas McELRATH, Chairman of GROUP 9, embracing horticulture,
reports : That the applications in this particular group were not numerous, only two or three being regarded as meritorious, but not of themselves sufficient to justify a separate installation, and hence were accepted and transferred to Group 6.
As this group embraces horticulture and floriculture, it is possible that application may be made and space granted during the progress of the Exposition, and therefore it is considered advisable to continue the group organization.
The services of Mr. McElrath have been chiefly given to the selectiou of articles under the 6th group, and have been continuous throughout the year.