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would do right if he knew how. They who undertake to guide him have a fearful responsibility. The service ended, a way was cleared through the crowd. Carrera, accompanied by the priests and the chief of the state, awkward in his movements, with his eyes fixed on the ground, or with furtive glances, as if ill at ease in being an object of so much attention, walked down the aisle. A thousand ferocious-looking soldiers were drawn up before the door. A wild burst of music greeted him, and the faces of the men glowed with devotion to their chief. A broad banner was unfurled, with stripes of black and red, a device of a death's head and legs in the centre, and on one side the words "Viva la religion!" and on the other "Paz o muerte a los Liberales!" Carrera placed himself at their head, and with Rivera Paz by his side, and the fearful banner floating in the air, and wild and thrilling music, and the stillness of death around, they escorted the chief of the state to his house. How different from Newyear's Day at home!

Fanatic as I knew the people to be in religion, and violent in political animosities, I did not believe that such an outrage would be countenanced as flaunting in the plaza of the capital a banner linking together the support of religion and the death or submission of the Liberal party. Afterward, in a conversation with the chief of the state, I referred to this banner. He had not noticed it, but thought that the last clause was " Paz o muerte a los qui no lo quieroii," "to those who do not wish it." This does not alter its atrocious character, and only adds to fanaticism what it takes from party spirit. I think, however, that I am right; for on the return of the soldiers to the plaza, Mr. C. and I followed it, till, as we thought, the standard-bearer contracted its folds ex


pressly to hide it, and some of the officers looked at us so suspiciously that we withdrew.

For the sake of home associations, I called on my fair countrywoman; dined at Mr. Hall's, and in the afternoon went to the cockpit, a large circular building handsomely proportioned, with a high seat for the judges, who rang a bell as a signal for the fight, when commenced a clamour: "I offer five dollars!" "I offer twenty," &c.; and I am happy to say that in this crowded den I saw but one man whom I had ever seen before; from there I went to the bullfight, and then to the theatre. The reader will admit that I made a brilliant beginning to the year 1840.


Hunt for a Government.—Diplomatic Difficulties.—Departure from Guatimala. —Lake of Amatitan.—Attack of Fever and Ague.—Overo.—Istapa.—A French Merchant Ship.—Port of Acajmla.—Illness.—Zonzonate.—The Government found.—Visit to the Volcano of Izalco.—Course of the Eruptions.—Descent from the Volcano.

On Sunday, the fifth of January, I rose to set out in search of a government. Don Manuel Pavon, with his usual kindness, brought me a packet of letters of introduction to his friends in San Salvador. Mr. Catherwood intended to accompany me to the Pacific. We had not packed up, the muleteer had not made his appearance, and my passport had not been sent. Captain De Nouvelle waited till nine o'clock, and then went on in advance. In the midst of my confusion I received a visit from a distinguished canonigo. The reverend prelate was surprised at my setting out on that day. I was about pleading my necessities as an excuse for travelling on the Sabbath; but he relieved me by adding that there was to be a dinner-party, a bullfight, and a play, and he wondered that I could resist such temptations. At eleven o'clock the muleteer came, with his mules, his wife, and a ragged little son; and Mr. Savage, who was always my help through the little vexations attendant upon doing anything in that country, as well as in more important matters, returned from the Government House with word that my passport had been sent to me. I knew that the government was displeased with my purpose of going to the capitol. The night before it had been currently reported that I intended to present my credentials at San Salvador, and recognise the existence of the Federal Government; newspapers received


the same night by the courier from Mexico were burdened with accounts of an invasion of that country by the Texans. I had before received a piece of infor mation that was new to me, and of which it was considered diplomatic that I should profess ignorance, viz., that, though not so avowed, the Texans were supported and urged on by the government of the United States. We were considered as bent upon the conquest of Mexico; and, of course, Guatimala would come next. The odium of our ambitious pretensions increased the feeling of coldness and distrust toward me, arising from my not having attached myself to the dominant party. In general I was considered as the successor of Mr. De Witt. It was known among politicians that proceedings were pending for the renewal of a treaty, and that our government had a claim for the destruction of property of our citizens in one of the revolutions of the country; but some imagined that the special object of my mission was very deep, and in favour of the party at San Salvador. When Mr. Savage returned without any passport, suspecting that there was an intention to embarrass me and make me lose the opportunity of going by sea, I went immediately to the Government House, where I received the same answer that had been given to Mr. Savage. I requested another, but the secretary of state objected, on the ground that none could be made out on that day. There were several clerks in the office, and I urged my pressing necessity, the actual departure of Captain De Nouvelle, my seasonable application, and the promise that it should be sent to my house. After an unpleasant parley, one was given me, but without assigning me any official character. I pointed out the omission, and the secretary said that I had not presented my credentials. I answered that my credentials were to the general government, and not to that of the State of Guatimala, which alone he represented; but he persisted that it was not the custom of his government to recognise an official character unless he presented his credentials. His government had been in existence about six months, and during that time no person claiming to be official had been near the country. I put into his hands my passport from my own government, reminded him that I had been arrested and imprisoned once, assured him that I should at all events set out for San Salvador, and wished to know definitively whether he would give me such a passport as I had a right to ask for. After much hesitation, and with a very bad grace, he interlined before the official title the words con el caracter. I make great allowance for party feeling in a country where political divisions are matters of life and death, more particularly for Don Joaquim Durand, whose brother, a priest, was shot a short time before by the Morazan party; but this attempt to embarrass my movements, by depriving me of the benefit of official character, excited a feeling of indignation which I did not attempt to conceal. To refuse accepting the passport altogether, or to wait a day for remonstrance, would cause me to lose my passage by sea, and make it necessary to undertake a dangerous journey by land, or abandon going to the capitol; which, I believe, was precisely what was wished. I was resolved not to be prevented by any indirect means. I only needed a passport to the port—the best they could give I did not value very highly—in San Salvador it would be utterly worthless; and with the uncourteous paper thus ungraciously bestowed, I returned to the house, and at

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