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1863;

1:46.

LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 22, 1863.

In the course of his speech Mr. Clutterbuck, the

counsel for the defence, said, that Pershore was CONTENTS.-No. 86.

not the only place where similar customs existed. NOTES:-Pershore “Bush-houses, 141 Strange Deriva - He instanced a fair held by the Lord of the tions, 142--Marwood Family, 143 -- Earldom of Carric: Sir John Mennis : Endymion Porter, 144.

Manor at Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire, and the MINOR NOTES: -Lord Loughborough: Earl of Rosslyn

Barton Fair, Gloucester, where the Excise authoCyclones at the Seychelles - Liston, the Actor - Ancient rities attempted to upset ancient rights, and were Cereal Productiveness - Coatbridge : Strange Production signally beaten. from a Blast Furnace-John Locke: Father of the Philosopher, 144.

The foregoing case has drawn forth a very in. QUERIES: - Aērostation Joseph Addison and the teresting communication on “ Bush-Houses,” pub“Spectator - George Bellas - Burnet Family

lished in The Worcester Herald for August 8,

Col. Collet - Epistle to a Young Lady: J

1757

the which I herewith transmit to you, in Margaret Fox - Gambrinus Goetie - Greek Pronun. ciation -- Hearn -“ To hit :" " To hitch” - Lake Dwel

case you should agree with me in thinking it worthy lings -- Inglott — Lines on the Committal of O'Connell in of preservation in “ N. & Q." From its initial thon-- Passage in Aristophanes -- Read--Title borne by signature “ N.," it is evidently written

by a former Clergymen - Treffry Family --“Vitruvius, in English,

contributor to these pages, Mr. John Noake: the

learned author of Worcester in the Olden Time; QUERIES WITI ANSWERS: - Gilbert Stuart, Portrait Pain

Rambler in Worcestershire; Notes and Queries for ter - John Donne, LL.D., Son of the Dean of St. Paul's Worcestershire, &c. &c.

Quotations Wanted — Ben Jonson and Mrs. Bulstrode, 146.

“ Some interest has been excited, not only among the REPLIES: - - The “ Arcadia" Unveiled, 150 – Law of Lau- parties immediately. concerned, but with the general riston, 151 - James Shergold Boone, 153 – Magical Crys- public, and antiquaries especially, by the Excise informtals or Mirrors, 155 - The Primrose -- Ring Motto -- Fami- ations against the Pershore 'bush-houses, which the lies of Beke and Speke-- Incomes of Peers in the Seven.

local magistrates last week thought proper to dismiss. teenth Century Bochart – Thomas, Earl of Norfolk Rooke Family - Proverb -- Fast - Great Crosby Goose

The question is one of greater significance than at first Feast — Crush a Cup- The Sacrifice of Isaac New Ross, sight appears, owing to the right claimed by the Excise co. Wexford — Sir Toby Mathew — Cold in June - Jest to override an ancient charter by the statute of 25 and Books - Lady Lisle, &c. 156.

26 Victoria. Notes on Books, &c.

“ Henry the Third, on the 4th of May, in the 11th year of his reign, 'gave to God, our blessed Lady, and St.

Edburgh of Pershore, and to the abbot and monks there, Notes.

a fair on the feast of St. Edburgh and two days following;

now kept June 26, according to ancient custom." So PERSHORE “ BUSH-HOUSES.”

says Nash, and so far Mr. Clutterbuck was correct in From time immemorial the inhabitants of Per- quoting the historian of Worcestershire; but the penalty

of 101. on anybody who should intrude on their games shore have claimed, and a great number have was incorrectly coupled with the fair, with which it exercised, the right to sell beer for three days at had nothing to do, but was a penalty levied on any one " the fair” without licenses. The exercise of the who should intrude' on the abbot and convent's free right is notorious; the oldest inhabitant recollects

warren of various manors named in the charter, and take

their it “ever since he was a boy," and his father sold

game.

“ King Edward the Second recited the above charter, before him. Indeed, “the memory of man run- and conferred a further patent, which was rehearsed and neth not to the contrary." The custom has never renewed by Henry the Fifth and Henry the Sixth; and been interfered with or even questioned by the

under that charter Pershore fair and all its concomitants Excise or other authorities, up to the passing of continue to be held, the statute of 25 and 26 Vic. cap. 22, which in- during the five or six centuries that the Pershore charter

“ Meanwhile let us see what legislation has been doing troduced the “ occasional license" system. After has been in existence. The first enactment by which the last Pershore Fair, held on three days in the alehouses were regulated by Act of Parliament was the last week of June, 1863, the Excise authorities, of 11th of Henry the Seventh-an Act against vacabounds course acting under legal advice, laid informations and beggers, which empowered two justices to rejecte against a batch of alleged contraveners of the said

and put awey comen ale selling in townes and places

where they shall think convenyent, and to take suertie statute, alias "bush-house keepers,” and sum- of the keepers of alehouses of theyr gode behavyng. In monses were issued against_ten persons, who 1828, the 9th Geo. IV. c. 61, a general Act was passed, were severally charged, upon Excise informations, which repealed all former statutes on the subject, and under 4th and 5th William IV. c. 85, s. 17, with regulated the granting of alehouse licenses. The 1st selling “half a pint of beer,” on the 26th of June

Wm. IV. c. 64, withdrew the authority of granting li

censes to houses for the sale of ale, beer, and cider only, last (Pershore Fair day), without a license. These

from the local magistrates, in whose hands it had been were not the only bush-house keepers that sold vested for three centuries, and created a new class of alebeer, but the others who sold were not summoned. house keepers, distinct from those licensed by magistrates,

The case was heard at Petty Sessions, on July giving to the former facilities for obtaining licenses upon 28, before an unusually full bench of magistrates; IV. c. 85, and 3 and 4 Vic. c. 6i, amended and slightly and, after a lengthened inquiry, was dismissed. modified former Acts; and 25 and 26 Vic. c. 22, which

introduced the occasional license' system, enacts (clause “Here, then, we have the bush in connection with wine 12): So much of any Act as permits the sale of beer, vending carried back to a remote antiquity; and through spirits, or wine, at fairs or races, without an Excise that period, as well as the succeeding one, when ale license, shall be and the same is hereby repealed.'

became the more popular liquor, the bush seems to have “The charter, then, by which Pershore fair and its been used at Pershore in an unbroken succession. It is

as

unaffected by any statute hitherto passed, it only remains been attempted on other occasions than fairs, but conto connect the bush-houses ' with the other privileges fined to thein - a confirmation of the popular tradition hitherto enjoyed under that charter. This brings us to that the two privileges (the holding of fairs and selling the origin of bush-houses.' The very use of a bush im- by the bush) had in some way a common origin, and deplies great antiquity, for long before Henry the Seventh scended to them together, as a twin legacy, from remote first handled alehouses by Act of Parliament, the bush antiquity. Besides which, although Pershore fair has was hung out as a sign that something good was to faded away to two days, the custom is never to remove the be had within. It is a question still whether bushes bushes till the end of the third day; thus further identipreceded signs proper. The proverb is well-known, fying it with the ancient three days' fair. And up to the Good wine needs no bush;' that is, needs nothing to present time the bush-house keepers claim to sell for point out where good stuff is on sale, as its merits soon three whole days. A similar custom, the writer was told, becoming known in the vicinity, would be sufficient to prevailed at Gloucester, where it was confined to a particuattract customers without the invitation of a sign. The lar street, and was for the fair and three successive Monfollowing passage from Good Newes and Bad Newes, by days.

N. S. R. (1622), seems to prove that anciently tavern keepers “N.B.- The Bush Inn, Worcester, is one of the earliest had both a sign and a bush. A landlord (a host,' we inns mentioned in the Corporation archives nearly as far ought to say) was speaking:

back as the Reformation, and may have existed much I rather will take down my bush and sign

earlier." Than live by means of riotous expense.'

CUTHBERT BEDE. As does the following, that anciently putting up boughs upon anything was an indication that it was to be sold,

STRANGE DERIVATIONS. which may also be the reason why an old besom — which is a sort of dried bush - is put up at the topmast head of Perhaps the monkish derivation of the Isle of a ship or boat when she is to be sold. Brand, in his Po- Ely is no bad instance of how philology has been prilar Antiquities, quotes an author, who, in 1598, wrote pressed into the service of credulity: The story "Good wyne needes no ivie bush.' In England's Parnas

is told in an old treatise on " Marriage,” Anon., sus (1600) the first line of the address to the reader runs thus: “I hang no ivie out to sell my wine.' And in

where the author, speaking of the celibacy of the Braithwaite's Strappado for the Divell (1615), p. 1, there clergy, and the efforts of St. Dunstan to render it is a dedication to Bacchus, sole soveraigne of the ivy compulsory, writes thus :bush.' In Dekker's Wonderful Yeare (1603) we read : “ But when St. Dunstan had got King Edgar on his

"Spied a bush at the ende of a pole, the aunciente badge side to favour the monks, then he pressed the married I of a countrey alehouse.' At Pershore, instances have clergy to leave their wives, which they refusing, were

been known of a bough being suspended from a pole, deprived, and the monks put in their benefices; who inbut this does not appear to have formed part of the cus- vented this story, viz., that those married Persons who tom proper. In Vaughan's Golden Grove (1608) is the disobeyed St. Dunstan's order were, with their wives and following passage: •Like as an ivy bush, put forth at a

children, transformed into Eels, from whence the Isle of vintrie, is not the cause of the wine, but a signe that Ely took'ils name, and this I take to be as credible a mewine is to be sold there: so likewise if we see smoke ap- tamorphosis as any in Ovid.” pearing in a chimney we know that fyre is there, albeit ye smoke is not ye cause of ye fyre. The following is There is an astounding derivation of the Ludi from Harris's Drunkard's Cup, p. 299: Nay, if the house Circenses given in a work entitled The Romane be not worth an ivy-bush, let him have his tooles about Antiquities Expounded in English, London, 1628 : hym; nutmegs, rosemary, tobacco, with other the appurtenances, and he knowes how of puddle ale to make

a cup

“ Lastly, these Cirque shews had their appellation of of English wine.' Coles, in his Introduction to the Know

Circenses, either from the Great Cirque or shew-place ledge of Plants, p. 65, says: • Box and ivy last long green,

called Circus Maximus, where the games were exhibited; and therefore vintners make their garlands thereof;

or from the Swords wherewith the plaiers were environed, though perhaps ivy is the rather used because of the anti- as one would say Circa Enses ! " pathy between it and wine.' The Pershore people gene- These Circuses Kennett, in his Roma Antiquce rally use oak and elm boughs, though a cabbage has been Notitia, London, 1704, always styles “Circos.” known to be substituted. In a curious poem entitled Poor Robin's Perambulation from Saffron Walden to Lon

The same work, which gives the “ Circa Enses," don, July, 1678, at p. 16, we read:

deduces Feriæ from ferire," because," as it goes •Some alehouses upon the road I saw,

on to say, “they did upon such daies Ferire vicAnd some with bushes, showing they wine did draw.' timas, id est, offer up sacrifice." The difference A note in the Lansd. MS. 226, f. 171, upon the Tavern in quantity between the antepenult of ferie and Bush, by Bishop Kennett, says: The dressing the frame ferio would make against this; and the word or bush with ivy leaves fresh from the plant was the cus, seems to be better traced to the same root as festom forty years since, now generally left off for carved work.' In Scotland a wisp of straw upon a pole was for

tus. At p. 81 the twofold derivation of funus is merly the indication of an alehouse; and in old times such mentioned, with a leaning towards funis : as sold horses were wont to put flowers or boughs upon

• Now these Funerals sometimes were commonly totheir heads, “to reveale that ihey were vendible.'

wards night, insomuch that they used torches: these

torches they properly called • Funalia, a funibus cero of Little Busby. Mr. Ord assigns two wives only circumdatis, unde et Funus dicitur.' Others are of opinion to Sir Henry Marwood, second bart. :that Funus is so said from the Greeke word Póvos, signifying death or slaughter."

“Margaret, daughter of Conyers, Lord Darcy and ConWheatly, Common Prayer, p. 474, ed. Bohn, yers, buried at Stokesly, June 18, 1600.” (Ist wife.) has the following on the use of torches at fune

“ Dorothy, daughter of Sir Allen Bellingham, of Lerals: –

rens, in co. Westmoreland, married at Heversham, July

6, 1663.” (2nd wife.) The primitive Christians, indeed, by reason of their persecutions, were obliged to bury their dead in the I find that “ Henry Marwood, esqr. and Mris. night; but when afterwards they were delivered from Margarett D'arcy," were married at Hornby, co. these apprehensions, they voluntarily retained their old, York, May 19, 1658. (Nichols's Topog. and Gecustom, only making use of lighted torches, which we still continue, as well, I suppose, for convenience, as to express

nealogist.) their hope of the departed's being gone into the regions

The above-named Dorothy was second daughof light.

ter of (not Sir Allen Bellingham, but of) Alan Thomas Godwyn, in his book, Moses and Aaron, Bellingham, Esq. Alan appears to be the correct London, “ Printed by John Haviland, and are to spelling, as it was in allusion to the first purchaser be sold by Philemon Stephens & Christopher of Levins that the rhyme, occurring in painted Meredith at their shop at the Signe of the Golden glass at the hall, was made: Lion in Paul's Churchyard,” 1628, derives Oepa

“ Amicus Amico Alanus Teúelv, ingeniously enough, from the Hebrew

Belliger Belligero Bellinghamus." Taraph, or Tharaph, the root of Teraphim, which

[Nicolson and Burn, Hist. of West

moreland and Cumberland. root, 900, he says, signifieth in general the complete image of a man;" and so, more par- Henry Marwood married, 3rdly (before 1679), ticularly taken, an idol, answering to the Penates Martha, second daughter of Sir Thomas Wentor Lares of the Romans. He gives a curious ac- worth of Empsall, in Yorkshire, Knt. (Wotton's count of the mode in which the Rabbis say these Baronetage. Guillim, 5th edit. “Atchievements images were made:

of Esquires.") She was buried at Kensington, as “They killed a man that was a first borne sonne, and shown by the register :wrung off his head, and seasoned it with salt and spices, and wrote upon a plate of gold the name of an uncleane buried Sep. 28, 1704." -Lysons's Environs of London.

“The Lady Marwood, from St. Ann's, Westminster, spirit, and put it under the head upon a wall, and lighted candles before it and worshipped it.”

Mr. Ord says of Sir Samuel Marwood, third Liddell and Scott make Jepareceu to be akin to bart. that he married . daughter of dépw, báarw, answering to Lat. fuveo, foveo. God. Peirson, of Stokesly (married in or about May, wyn also gives two derivations of the name Her- 1735)." I find in Gent. Mog. the following: cules; the one “ from the Hebrew ba 720, heir

“ 1735, May 8. Sir James [by mistake for Samuel] col, illuminavit omnia," and the other from the Marwood of Bushy Hall [?], Hertfordshire, Bart. Greek: “Heracles, quid aliud est quam hpas Miss Nancy Pierson of Stokesly, a 10,0001. fortune.” Kéos, i. e. æris gloria : quæ porro alia est æris The date of the decease and the burial place of nisi solis illuminatio?” Lidd. and Scott, how- Sir William Marwood, fourth and last baronet, ever, derive it from "Hpa quasi Ápws, German, Herr are not given by Mr. Ord. The Gent. Mag. an(Ang. Sir), in its earliest usage, and Kréms, kéos. nounces the death “ Feb. 23, 1740, near Leicester They compare also the Latin Herus. Donaldson, Fields." Sir Wm. was buried at Paddington, as New Cratylus, section 329, connects it with 'Hpa by the register as well as mpws. “"HBn,” he says,

appears as the

“Sir William Marwood, Bart., buried Feb. 29, 1740; wife of 'Hpákams, and the daughter of "Hpa.” In Margaret Lady Marwood, Aug. 16, 1740." the next section he compares kúpos with the German Herr and Latin herus ; and conceives that

In Paddington church, pulled down 1791, there hpes and kúpos may have a cognate origin. 'Eppos, Environs of London.)

was a monument to Sir W. Marwood. (Lysons's he says, was another name for Zeús, " and as the old Greek Gods went in pairs, ...

My interest in the Marwoods, however, is diwe may

well suppose that this is but another way of writing and I shall be glad indeed if any of your readers

rected more particularly to the Honiton family; the masculine of "Hpa. W. Bowen RowLANDS.

can assist me with any information that will con

nect Dr. Thomas Marwood, physician to Queen MARWOOD FAMILY.

Elizabeth, with the main line of Westcote, from In the course of some attempts to connect the which it seems probable that he was descended. different branches of Marwood, I have looked into The Marwoods of Westcote bad some local conOrd's Hist. of Cleveland, and found two or three nection with the town, for the widow of John omissions as well as inaccuracies in the otherwise Marwood (daughter and heir of John Holbeam) complete and careful pedigree of the Marwoods married, 2ndly, Robert Pollard, of Honiton. The

.

to

Harl. MSS. state also that Joane Marwoodcase, after taking the opinion of the twelve judges. (daughter of Wm. Marwood by his second wife, (See Collins, 268.) It is, moreover, not unlikely Àgnes, daughter and heir of Wm. Squire), married that the Mennis family was ignorant of the oriRobt. Pollard, whose son, Sir Lewis, was father ginal constitution of the barony of Kinclevin, and of Sir Hugh Pollard, who was connected with gave themselves no trouble about what was, after Honiton, and suffered during the Commonwealth. all, a landless peerage, of no great moment to an

John A. C. VINCENT. Englishman, and one to be litigated about at a 90, Great Russell Street.

time when civil war was raging over the whole face of the country.

The Willoughby de Brokes last century made EARLDOM OF CARRIC: SIR JOHN MENNIS:

some inquiry about the earldom ; at least a notice ENDYMION PORTER.

to that effect occurs in a Scotch newspaper; but In the Observations on the Ancient Earldom of if the English professional adviser sent down on Carric, a few copies of which were printed a few the errand knew as little about Scotch law as years ago by me, after referring to the more re- usually happens, his discovery of a remainder to cent creation of John Stewart, second son of the heirs “ male gotten" of the earl's body would Earl of Orkney, by patent from Charles I., misled easily induce him to think that there was no occaby the last edition of Douglas, I adopted the state- sion for further inquiry. ment without proper investigation, that the Lady Sir Mathew Mennis was, as his will indicates, Margaret Stewart, the only child of the Earl

, a man of considerable wealth. Besides providing married Sir John Mennis, and that by an only handsomely both in lands and money for his daughter the Carric representation had devolved daughter, he devised valuable estates to his upon the Lords Willoughby de Broke.

brother Sir John, whose satirical powers, as This assumption turns out to be erroneous ; evinced in his poetical lucubrations, are only infor although a Mennis married the Lady Margaret, ferior — if they are at all inferior to those of it was not Sir John, but his elder brother Sir Butler. Mathew, Knight of the Bath. Their only child There is one part of Sir Mathew's will in relawas a female, who was twice a wife; and having tion to Endymion Porter which we have thought had no surviving issue of the first marriage, her worthy of transcribing, and it is not unlikely that only daughter by the second one carried the re- some of your readers may be able to throw light presentation into the family of Heath, and from upon it : them it was transferred to the Willoughbies de

“ And as touchinge the great plott and Conspiracy Brokes.

against me by Indimion Porter and his agents, wherein By faroily papers it now is proved that the Earl 1 suffered in my estate seventeen thousand pounds, at covenanted to give a goodly “ tocher,” as it is least as appears in the Petition exhibited in the Comcalled in Scotland, on occasion of the nuptials, not,

mons house, I so desire that such reparation may bee enhowever, to be payable until bis demise. When

deavoured to be had as shall bee just, and myself restored,

from the scandall so unjustly thrown upon me.” that event occurred, it turned out that during his lifetime he had given bis heritable property in

What was the conspiracy, and in what way Orkney to his natural son, to whom also at his could Sir Mathew have been mulcted in so large demise he devised all his moveable effects, so

a sum as 17,000l. ? The will bears date May 7th, that Sir Mathew took nothing by the contract but 1648, and upon June 2 of the following year the luxury of a law-suit, if he chose to indulge in letters of administration were taken out by Edone. Lady Margaret died before her husband, ward Leventhorpe, Esq., one of the executors. leaving an only child, a daughter, as just men

The other three were Sir Thomas Peyton, Knight tioned; but the earldom was destined to heirs and Baronet; Sir John Mennis, and Edward

gotten of bis body," so that it became extinct. Boyse, Senior, Esq. It is very probable that the Kinclevin, a barony created by charter, would, if | Mennis family was Scotish, and that it was ori

J. M. it had been looked into at the time, have gone to ginally spelt Menzies. his granddaughter ; but the young lady was a minor at the time, and her father, Sir Mathew, died before she came of age; indeed, she was,

Minor Notes. upon attaining her majority, not likely to derive LORD LOUGHBOROUGH: EARL OF Rosslyn.any benefit from her several claims. She and her The following interesting statement is given in husband did not perhaps fancy there was much Kay's Edinburgh Portraits, vol. i. p. 381. It is to be got in that country, or her English legal not noticed by Lord Campbell in his Life of this advisers might have imagined that the inferior Chancellor : title bad merged or been absorbed in the higher

During the brief interval allowed to him between the one, according to a notion then existing, but ex- theatre of public business and the grave, he paid a visit to ploded in the next century in the Fitz-Walter Edinburgh, from which he had been habitually absent for

Dearly fifty years. With a feeling, quite natural perhaps, but ning. It was probably a cyclone of no very great diayet hardly to be expected in one who had passed through meter, as the Nepaul' steampacket experienced it at so many of the more elevated of the artificial scenes of thirty miles distance from the island.” life, he caused himself to be carried in a chair to an obscure part of the Old Town, where he had resided during

Here then, we have additional proof that Pidthe most of his early years. He expressed a particular dington's warning should not be unheeded. Q. anxiety to know if a set of holes in the paved court before his father's house, which he had used for some youth

LISTON, THE ACTOR.–Amongst some old family ful sport, continued in existence; and on finding them papers I lately found a letter, or copy of a letter, still there, it is said that the aged statesman was moved of which I subjoin a transcript. It is addressed almost to tears."

to Liston, and is made up of the names of plays From what is said in a foot-note in the same which were popular in the last century. I shall publication, it might be inferred that the house be glad if any reader of “N. & Q." can tell me here mentioned does not now exist, but that is a the name of the writer, and whether the letter has mistake. The house and the paved court before ever been published :it yet remain, and are situated in what is called

“ Friend Liston, Better late than never. You are All in the Mint Close, one of the narrow lanes which the wrong to make yourself such a Busybody about acting; run from the High Street to the Cowgate ; but but Every Man in his humour. I'll tell you what, he there is now no vestige of the holes in the pave

would if he could be a Critic, a very Peeping Tom; such ment.

things are the rage. Al's well that ends well. I scorn to

play the Hypocrite, and wish we were Next door NeighIn the same article it is said, that Lord Lough

bours, then we could have the School for Scandal, a Quarborough was born at Chesterball, in East Lothian;

ter of an Hour before Dinner, or Half an Hour after and that statement was made also in the first Supper; talk of Ways and Means, the Wheel of Fortune, edition of Lord Campbell's work, but his Lord- the Follies of a Day, Humours of an Election, and make ship corrected it in the second edition, vol. vi. p. 3, quite a Family Party, be all in Good Humour, and never

have the Blue Devils; but may you and your lady always there having been sent to him an extract from

prove the Constant Couple. Pray how is Miss in her the parish register of Edinburgh, which proves | Teens? By-and-by she will be sighing Heigho for a Husthat the birth took place in that city on February band. I hope he will

not prove a Deaf Lover, but may 13, 1733. The note which contains the correc- they possess Love for Love. You are a Married Man, and tion adds :

know how to Rule a Wife, and Mrs. L. I have no doubt

understands The Way to keep him; may she prove a Grand“ All the Scotsmen who have ever held the Great Seal mother, and be happy in her Son-in-Law. Now as to of England, were natives of Edinburgh-Loughborough, this letter, What d’ye call it? Believe me, in this Romance Erskine, Brougham.”

of an Hour I do not mean Cross Purposes, but rather Lord Campbell himself subsequently became hope it will be the Agreeable Surprise. You may wonder, an exception.

G.

but the author is the Child of Nature, whose whole life

has been a Chapter of Accidents and Much Ado about Edinburgh.

Nothing, who endeavours to keep up his vivacity Abroad

and at Home, has Two Strings to his Bow, and is no Liar CYCLONES AT THE SEYCHELLES.-Admiral Fitz

when he says he is

Yours truly, F. L. roy, in his Weather-Book (p. 128), states that, “Aug. 8th, 1802. Sunday, Sevenoaks, Kent." " at the Seychelle Islands, north of Madagascar,

EDWARD J. Wood. storms are unknown." This is not quite correct: for Piddington, in his Sailor's Horn-book for the relates that the millet in the Mesopotamian plains

ANCIENT CEREAL PRODUCTIVENESS.—Diodorus Law of Storms (3rd edition, London, 1860, p. 49), relates that

attained the height of twelve feet, with propor

tional weight of grain ; and we read in Pliny “ in September, 1851, the 'Seringapatam,' Captain Fur-(Nat. Hist. 1. xviii.c. 10), that the Procurator of nell, experienced a severe cyclone there, which was ap- Byzacium (now Tunis) sent to Augustus a fasciparently travelling to the W. b. S, or W.S.W. Captain Culus of 400 stalks, the produce of a single grain. F., warned by his barometer and the sea, very properly hove to in 70'S., long. 580 east, till the centre had passed Subsequently a similar sample was presented to him; his barometer falling from 30-50 to 29.50. Hence, Nero of 360 stalks, with proportional weight of ships should be on their guard even in this low latitude.”

Thus were the granaries filled by the emSince the publication of the Weather-Book, perors for the turbulent populace of Rome, with another cyclone has been recorded in the same the produce of the Asian and African plains, now locality by Mr. R. P. Brunton (Proceedings of the utterly barren and waste from want of tilth and British Meteorological Society, March 1863, p. irrigation. “ Vix credibile dictu," Pliny adds, and 330). This was on the 11th and 12th of October, we may well share his astonishment, when he re1862; and Mr. Brunton who, like Admiral Fitz- lates the ridiculously inexpert method of cultivaroy, appears to have overlooked the case recorded tion; the plough being drawn by a donkey and an by Piddington, says that

old woman

“ vili asino et anu (1. xvii. c. 5). « This hurricane, the only one on record as having done

I believe this extraordinary productiveness was 50, passed directly over Mahé; it was accompanied by in chief part due to careful manual tilth, and incessant and heavy rain, but with no thunder or light- dibbling grain by grain at due intervals; and if

corn.

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