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Library? The true story is that Nicholson was an officer of the library all his life. He was the porter, or beadle, whose duty it was to carry books to those Masters of Arts who wanted them. He was very illiterate, and thought that all large folios were books of maps; whence the cry which he raised at the doors of those to whom he had to deliver books. He was also a bookseller, at first, no doubt, with a stall; but he afterwards originated the plan of supplying undergraduates with their class-books by subscription. In this way he got a good business, which was augmented by his son. But he was dead long before the time indicated; for he died many years before 1823, and the screen was not built till about 1830. His son's shop was, in 1823, opposite the Senatehouse. Dr. Richard Farmer, who placed his portrait in the library, died in 1797.

Neither was his name lost during his life, as Mr. Gunning seems to intimate. The undergraduates knew it well by the line —

Μαψ αὐτον καλεουσι θεοι, άνδρες δε Νιχολσον. One of your correspondents has spoiled this line by proposing veo for Seo, which he says he always heard. Surely the reader of Homer should see that the joke turns wholly on the parody of those cases in which gods and men are described as using different names. I never heard anything but SeoL.

There was not, in my time, any tradition of his supplying themes, declamations, &c. Some of your readers may be able to say whether he was in this line of business, or whether Mr. Gunning's memory has confounded him with Jemmy Gordon, of whom he gives a sufficient account. A. DE MORGAN.

ORIGIN OF THE WORD "BIGOT."
(1st S. v. 277, 331; 3rd S. iv. 39, &c.)

With the greatest deference for the opinions of MR. TRENCH, and those of your correspondents who are inclined to endorse his theory of the derivation of the word bigot, I venture to think that the old-fashioned derivation from the Low Latin begutta is far more likely to be the true one.

In the first place, the whole point of the Spanish derivation lies in the idea that from and after the fifteenth century the mustachio was almost peculiar to the Spaniard. Are not the facts, at any rate as regards France and Germany, at variance with this suggestion?

The word bigot, in its modern sense, is alluded to by Etienne Pasquier (Rech. viii. 2), who died in 1615, as being in his day in common use in France; so that we must conceive its origin (which he explains as arising from the old German or old French oath, bey-got) to be at least as ancient as the middle of the sixteenth century.

He further relates, on the authority of Guillaume de Nangy [+1302], that the Normans, who, under the reign of Charles the Simple, desired to be admitted into the Christian church, ran about crying bigot! bigot! bigot! that is, "for the love of God" baptise us.

The strongest argument in favour of the derivation of this word (which is common to the French, German, and English languages) from the name of the Belgian pietists, may be found in the wide-spread celebrity of that sect.

The austerity of their manners, and their claims to greater spirituality than their neighbours, were sure to provoke the misrepresentation and sarcasm of a somewhat licentious age; and it would be almost matter of surprise if so important a movement as that of the Beghurds, Beguines, or Begutta had not left its mark on the language of the countries in which its influence was so powerfully felt.

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The common derivations from Bei Gott and Visigoth are not satisfactory. May not the word be from bigote, "bourse qu'on portoit à la ceinture; et ses moustaches"; or from bigote, étui dans lequel on serroit pendant la nuit sa barbe "la bourse que les bigotes de ce temps-là portaient à leur ceinture pour faire leur aumônes." The French word bigote is also applied to two pieces of wood of elm, which form part of the panel of a sail

* Bescherelle derives the former from the latter.

yard (partie du racage d'une vergue de hune); from the Med. Lat. bigus, a piece of wood. (Cf. Dufresne under Bigus.) But the word bigot may have also been derived from the surname Bigot or Bigod, which would seem to be the same as Pigot, Pigott, Piggott, Picot, which again are doubtless diminutives formed from the Celtic

pig, Aquitanian pech, puech, puich; Old French, pug, puig, pec, pié, pech, piech, pioch, piei, pio, piu, poet, poy, poya, py; a mountain, hill, elevation; modern French, puy; whence probably the English and French surnames Peach, Peak, Peake, Pech, Peek, Pick, Pigg, Pique; and as diminutives, Pechin, Pechon, Péchon, Pichon, Pidgeon, Pigeon, Poyen, Pechell, Poyal, Pechaut, Pechot, Pichot, Peckett, Poett, Poyett; and as patronymics, Pechard, Pechart, Poyard, Poyart. Hence also the French surnames, Puybusque, Puyferrand, Puynode, Puységur.

R. S. CHARNOCK.

ROMAN USES.

(3rd S. iv. 129.)

I proceed to answer the several queries of L. J.: ·

1. A religious of a discalceated or barefooted Order does wear shoes when celebrating Mass, or officiating as deacon or subdeacon.

2. A cope is never worn by the celebrant at Mass. The assistant priest alone wears it at the High Mass, sung by a bishop. It has no connection with the Holy Sacrifice; but is worn occasionally even by laymen, such as cantors, and those who serve at solemn benediction when given by a bishop, and are styled copemen. Though now become an ecclesiastical ornamental vesture, it was originally a cloak for protection from the weather in out-of-door processions, as indicated by the name pluviale, which it still retains. It is never worn by priest or bishop when celebrating Mass. In small churches, so far from being worn at Mass, it is rarely worn at all, being chiefly used in the more solemn ceremonials.

3. The Litany of Intercession for England was written most probably in the seventeenth century. The earliest copy I have seen of it occurs in an edition of the Manual in my possession, printed at London by H. Hills, in 1688. It is inserted there among the prayers for Sunday, and in later editions of the Manual among the prayers for Wednesday, on which day indeed it is directed to be said likewise in the above edition. It contains, however, two petitions, which were afterwards omitted. One was in these terms:

"That it would please Thee to incline the hearts of all our magistrates rightly to understand our Religion, and impartially consider our sufferings; and, how hardly soever they may deal with us, make us still with exactest fidelity to perform our duties to them."

The other was as follows:

"That it would please Thee to grant us the grace of improving such restraints and temporal disadvantages as we fall under into an occasion of retiredness and Christian severity, supplying our want of publick assemblies. by a greater diligence in private devotions."

It is most probable that this litany occurred in still earlier editions of the Manual, which was the usual prayer-book of Catholics, with the Primer, which it finally superseded. The first edition of the Manual seems to have been the following: —

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BUNBURY'S ENGRAVINGS (3rd S. iv. 48.)-Agreeing with your correspondent C. in his estimate of the interest of this and other old engravings, in which portraits of celebrities are preserved, I am happy to be able to contribute a little, though it is but a little, towards identifying the personages represented in Bunbury's "Conversazione," and "Gardens of Carlton House." In a copy of the former, which I have seen, the figure on Dr. Johnson's right is stated to be Dr. Parr, and the cauliflower wig sufficiently identifies him. And in a copy of the latter, the lady on the Prince's right hand is described as the Duchess of Devonshire; and the lady on his left, the Duchess of Rutland. I think C. is wrong in his opinion that the fair dame, or, as I should be inclined from the costume to say, fair widow, on the right, in shade, has loved not wisely but too well. I think that impression is simply owing to the peculiar three-quarter position of the figure.

B. E.

WILLIAM BILLYNG (1st S. viii. 110; 3rd S. iv. 113.)- We venture to suggest that the author of

The Five Wounds of Christ was William Billyng; who, in 1474, became Rector of Toft Monks, in Norfolk, on the presentation of the Provost and Scholars of King's College, Cambridge; and who appears to have held that benefice till 1506. (Blomefield's Norfolk, viii. 63.) C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER.

Cambridge.

LEGACY DUTY (3rd S. iv. 128).-By the Act of 36 Geo. III. c. 52, a legacy which was given by the will of a person, who should die after the passing of the Act, to a brother or sister, or any descendant of a brother or sister of the deceased, was made subject to a duty of two per cent. As these were the only relations who were made liable by the Act to pay duty at that rate, the legatee referred to by your correspondent must have been a brother or sister, or a descendant of

a brother or sister of the testatrix. There is now no rate of duty between one and three per cent. The Act of 55 Geo. III. c. 184, which now regulates the legacy duties, charges one per cent. on a legacy given to a child or a descendant of a child of the deceased, or to the father or mother, or any lineal ancestor of the deceased; and three per cent. on a legacy given to a brother or sister, or any descendant of a brother or sister of the deceased. W. J. TILL. Croydon. QUOTATION WANTED: "THE DUNCIAD ” (3rd S. ii. 9.)

"On applaudit, car chez le Peuple sot, L'injure plait, et tient lieu de bon mot." Palissot, La Dunciade, ch. v., ad Londres,

1781.

I do not think that Palissot's Dunciad has been translated into English, and those who take the opinions of French critics are not likely to read it. I recommend a trial. Though not a great poem, it is generally amusing, and sometimes very clever. FITZHOPKINS. Rouen.

Buckingham Water Gate (3rd S. iv. 108.)I think your readers have already been warned that this gate is not by Inigo Jones, but a work of the sculptor Nicholas Stone, Sen. For this statement, see The Builder for 1854, p. 252. However, I quite agree with MR. HUSK in the hope that this fine gate will not be destroyed. No doubt, an appropriate place will be found for it. The only fear I have, is, that if re-erected in a large area, its small size will cause it to be completely lost and its suitableness destroyed.

W. P. FAMILY OF BRAY (3rd S. iv. 28, 98.)-W. P. should also look at Bigland's Collections relating to the County of Gloucester. Under the head of "Great Barrington" he will find the copy inscription on a monument, erected in the church

of an

by the Edmund Bray, Esq., to whom he refers. This inscription, beside being a perfect model for genealogical epitaphs, is curious also as a record of the extraordinary fatality of smallpox in this family, no matter whether in or out of England. JOHN A. C. VINCENT.

99

The

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"MENDING THE PIGGENS" (3rd S. iv. 104.) — piggens would be vessels of wood. Piggin, a small wooden cylindrical vessel, made with staves and bound with hoops like a pail." (Brockett's Glossary.) Piggin, a milking-pail, a small vessel of wood." (Jamieson's Dictionary.) A miniature pail or tub, with an erect handle, is a" piggin" in Scotland; while an earthen vessel is a pig." A "pig-wife" deals in earthenware; and one of Jamieson's illustrations is the old proverb, founded on the frailty of crockery, "to gang to pigs and whistles" (to go to wreck, to be ruined in one's circumstances); a proverb in which the ingenious reader, poring over the sign of" The Pig and Whistle," and endeavouring to fathom its meaning, may possibly find a ray of light. C.

MEANING OF BOUMAN (3rd S. iii. 512 ; iv. 37, 95.) May_not_the following, from Sir John Skene's treatise, De Verborum Significatione (1579), assist your correspondent to the derivation and meaning of this word?

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"Bothna, Buthna, Bothena, 1. iv. c. Si quis namos 30, appearis to be ane Parke, quhair cattel are fed and inclused. Ut in Libro M. Alexandri Skene, fratris mei Germani, quondam in supremo Senatu Advocati.' Quhilk is confirmed be Hector Boetius, 1. vii. c. 123, Nu. 35: Cum scribit maritimam Thessaliæ partem a vectigali, quod Regiis procuratoribus ab incolis in annos pendi solitum erat, cum gregum multitudine abundarent, Buthquhaniam appellata, est enim, quhain, idé quod vectigal, prisca Scotorum lingua: et Buth, ovium collectio; hæc ille. And it is manifest, that the place in the quhilk the zowes are inclosed quhen they are milked, is commonly called an Bucht. Siklike Aulus Gellius, lib. ii. c. 1, writis, that Italy is so called a Bubus, because Iraλot in the auld Greek language signifies Oxen, of the quhilk quhilk is confirmed be Paulus Vanefridus, lib. ii. c. 24: there was great aboundance and multitude in Italy,

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Italia (inquit) ab Italo, Siculorum duce, qui eam antiquitus invasit; sive ob hoc Italia dicitur, quia magni in ea boves, h, e. Itali habentur, ab eo namque quod est Italus, per diminutionem, una litera addita, altera immutata, vitulus appellatur.' Item. Bothena, Stat. Wilh. is manifest, Ex. Libro Sconens, c. 99, Assis. Regis c. ii. signifies ane Barronie, Lordship, or Schireffedome, as David.' Et Dominus Bothenæ,' is the Lord of the Barronie, land, or ground. Leg Port. c. i. in Libro M. Willielmi Skene, fratris mei, Commissarii Sancti Andreæ, p. 149, c. 79.Item, it is statute and ordained, that the Kingis Mute, that is, the Kingis Court of ilk Bothene, that is, of ilk Schireffedome, sall be halden within fourtie daies. Ass. Reg. Da. c. 6, in Libr. quondam M. Roberti

Carbraith, I. C. Doctissimi.'"

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D. M. STEVENS. PRINCE CHRISTIERN (3rd S. iv. 96.) - Your correspondent, T. J. BUCKTON, instead of giving

me the genealogy of Prince Christiern of Denmark, father of the Princess of Wales, has given me that of Prince Christiern of Holstein-Augustenbourg. I shall be much obliged, too, if you could refer me to Koch's genealogical tables, either for inspection or purchase.* G. W. M.

ST. DIGGLE (3rd S. iv. 111.)-St. Diggle appears to be no other than St. Deicolus. The name

Deicolus, in process of time, assumed,the various forms of Deicola, Dicullus, and Dicul. This last was probably the immediate source of Diggle; Deicolus becoming first Dicul in Irish, and then Diggle in the Doric of East Kent. Besides these, the name experienced other changes. In France it became Deel; and accordingly we are assured by Father Butler (Jan. 18) that in Franchecomté the name Deel is frequently given in baptism to males, and Deele to females. This may be very well in France, but would not be quite the thing in Scotland.

Among the saintly luminaries of times now past, there were several natives of Ireland who bore the name of Deicolus, or one of its modifications. See Butler as cited above; Zedler on Deicolus; Britannia Sancta, i. 52; Acta Sanctorum among the "Prætermissi," June 1, p. 5; Bede, Hist. Eccles. IV. xiii. § 289, ad fin., &c. Bede's Dicul comes the nearest to Dover; for though we cannot trace him into Kent, he had in the seventh century a small monastery at "Bosanhamm" (since Bosham) in Sussex.

SCHIN.

"Thou ridden! No-no fear of that,

By prophet or by priest;

For Balaam's dead; and no one else
Would mount so dull a beast!"

"Thou ridden! No- of that no fear,
By prophet or by priest;

For Balaam's dead: and were he here,

He'd scorn so dull a beast!"

I do not think the friend I allude to wrote this: but he certainly wrote the following upon a person whom he held no conjuror, and who had taken two ravens as his supporters:

[* Mr. Quaritch, Piccadilly, would probably supply a copy. It may also be consulted in the British Museum. ED.]

"Two ravens supporters! Oh! sage,
Hast thou ancestry Israelite sported?
Art sprung from Elijah? In history's page,
None but he was by ravens supported.
To exhibit the birds none will question thy right,
For none of thy pedigree can tell;

But the world would have laughed, had the heralds, in

spite,

Emblazoned thy shield with the mantle."

Pierre Thomas Du Fossé was born at Rouen in

EPIGRAM (3rd S. iv. 129.) — I find this epigram in the album of a friend who died long ago, a book containing many things of his own, and many of other people, undistinguished. It is not given 1634 of one of the principal families there, and at as a satire upon Lord John Russell, but upon nine years of age became an inmate of the celeN―n F—s, whom I conjecture to be New-brated abbey of Port-Royal, with two elder ton Fellowes. Whoever it was, it was says the heading-some person who had said in a public speech that he would not be "priest-ridden"; on which the satirist sings as follows:

brothers, to receive a Christian education, and to be instructed in letters. He continued to belong all his life to the Port-Royalists, and followed them in their various wanderings and persecutions. He was directed in his studies by Lemaitre de Sacy, who asked for his assistance in writing the Life of Dom Barthélémi des Martyrs, Archbishop of

Civil, and not well pointed: but anything does at Braga. Du Fossé had the chief share in writing

election time. Balaam's ass was not a dull beast: and the whole ought to have run thus

this life. He also assisted De Sacy in his com-
mentary on the Bible, and wrote several mémoires
that throw much light on the history and sufferings
of the pious recluses of Port-Royal. See Biog.
Univ. t. xv.
J. MACRAY.
Oxford.

I find in the same collection a riddle on the

letter W, resembling the celebrated one on H. Has it been given in print? A. DE MORGgan.

"BLOOD IS THICKER THAN WATER" (3rd S. iii. 367.)- There is another quotation of this proverb in Guy Mannering, in the scene after reading the will: :

had digested the shock, contained a magnanimous de-
"The first words he (Dandie Dinmont) said, when he
claration, which he probably was not conscious of having
uttered aloud-Weel, blude's thicker than water! she's
welcome to the cheeses and the hams just the same.""
W. D. BAGENdon.

ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON'S LIBRARY AT DUNBLANE (3rd S. iv. 63.) - The following is a list of the first and some of the subsequent editions of the Stimulus Pastorum: Rome, 1564, 1572, and 1582; Lisbon, 1565; Paris, 1583, 1586, 1644, and 1667. The author's life was written by Ludovicus Granatensis, Ludov. Cacegas, Ludov. Sousa, and Rodericus de Cunna.

Bayle says that it has been found impossible to discover the author of Moyens sûrs et honnêtes pour la Conversion de tous les Hérétiques. See his Euvres Diverses, t. ii. p. 780.

Besides these references, it might be useful to RULE AND ROD (2nd S. xi. 328; xii. 427.) — quote the following lines from Martial's Epigrams, showing the early use of the five foot rod. I quote from Elphinston's edition, 8vo, London, 1783; and his translation, 8vo, London, 1782, book xi. cxlvi.:

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"He dyed on Friday, the 3 of September, at 3 of the Clock in the afternoon, though divers rumors were spread that he was carried away in the Tempest the day before: his body being opened and Embalmed, his milt was found full of corruption and filth; which was so strong and stinking, that after the Corps were Embalmed and filled with Aromaticke odours, and wrapt in Cere cloth six double, in an inner sheet of lead, and a strong wooden coffin, yet the filth broke through them all, and raised such a noisome stink, that they were forced to bury him out of hand; but his name and memory stinks worse. The Corps (presently after his expiration) being buryed for the aforesaid reason, a Coffin was, on the 26 of September, about 10 at night, privatly removed from Whitehall in a Mourning Herse, attended by his Domestick Servants, none of whom shed one Tear, to Somersethouse; where it remained in private for some Dayes, till all things were in readiness for publick view [The public burial in Westminster Abbey is then described.]Ja. Heath, Flagellum; or, The Life and Death, Birth and Burial of Oliver Cromwell, The Late Usurper, 2nd edition enlarged, 8vo, London, 1663, pp. 198, 199.

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W. P.

MR. JOHN COLLET (3rd S. iv. 47, 94.)-Mr. Collet, in his Common-Place Book, alluded to by MR. HAZLITT, states that he was born on the 4th June, 1633; and that he was the son of Thomas Collet, and the father of Thomas, William, and John, all of whom he survived. Can you inform me whom he married? He was descended from a

Humphrey Collet of London (see Heralds' Visit. 1664, pedigree of Collet of Highgate). Is this Humphrey identical with the Humphrey Collet who was Member for Southwark in 1553? And can the connection, if any, be traced between him and the family of Colet of Wendover, co. Bucks, ancestors of Dean Colet. ST. LIZ.

HOLY COMMUNION AT WEDDINGS (3rd S. iv. 104.) The Decrees of Pope Siricius, A.D. 385, can. ix., speaks of marriage as regularly contracted "by the benediction of the priest ;" and the Canonical Answers of Timothy, who succeeded his brother Peter in the bishopric of Alexandria, A.D. 380, mention also, Qu. xí., the "performing of the oblation." The question propounded is, "If a clergyman be called to celebrate a marriage, and have heard that it is incestuous, ought he to comply and perform the oblation?" This is answered in the negative. The hackneyed quotation from Tertullian coincides well with

* Notis, in some editions.

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this: "Unde sufficiam ad enarrandum felicitatem ejus matrimonii, quod Ecclesia conciliat et confirmat oblatio." About the year 1700 we find the authors of the Life of Kettlewell, when stating that he received the Blessed Sacrament at his marriage, lamenting that the practice was then so much neglected," -a lament re-echoed in a more recent sketch of Kettlewell published 1850. Hooker also, in the well-known passage where he treats of this matter, seems to imply that this "religious and holy custom" was then in some measure disused. Previous to the Savoy Conference, the rubric made it imperative that the

new married persons, the same day of their marriage, must receive the Holy Communion." To please the Dissenters it was afterwards made optional; they objected against it as Popish !! Bucer appears to have approved the custom. Indeed it is difficult to conceive Christians objecting to it. The most solemn form of marriage the "farreum libum" and a sheep were offered in among the Romans was the confarreatio, in which sacrifice to the gods: so that, ratifying this sacred tie by the most solemn act of religion seems to have been in some sort a dictate of nature. W. BOWEN ROWLANDS.

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