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LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1863. to a lady only twenty-eight years of age, and a
daughter just fourteen. Now this play was proCONTENTS.-No. 88.
duced in 1591, and Lady Penelope Devereux was NOTES: – "Juliet” Unveiled, 181 – Random, 183 - The born in 1563, just twenty-eight years before; her City Sceptre, Ib.
father died in September, 1576, earnestly wishing Minor NOTES:-- Relief for the Bewitched - Longevity – Old Almanacs - Robert Greene, the Dramatist - Curious
a marriage might take place between his daughter Impriut - Crude: Cruel - Quantity of " pituita " -- Mis- and Philip Sidney. If then, a poetical marriage takes of the Novelists, 184.
had taken place at that time between Astrophel QUERIES:-"A Short Rule of good Life,"185 --- Atkinson, and Stella, a young muse would have been born Governor of Senegal - Lord Airth's Complaints — Bean Feast — Slingsby Bethel, Lord Mayor and M.P. for Lon
in the summer of 1577, coincident with the birth don, 1755-6 - Boswell - The Game of Cricket - Court of Juliet. Further, it is Benvoglio (Sidney) who Costumes of Louis XIII. of France - Dates Wanted Peter Dos - Rev. William Eastmead - Edgar - Prideaux
urges Romeo to go to the masque, promising to Errington The Fleur-de-Lis forbidden in France show him a more beautiful maiden than his
preLaurence Halsted - "He died and she married the Bar- sent love. Consequently, we are fully justified ber” – Inscription on Crosthwaite Font - Isabel of Gloucester: one more Query – Lady Catherine Rebecca Man- in regarding Juliet as the daughter of Stella. ners - St. Patrick and the Shamrock - Potheen – Prayers In the same category must be placed Rosaline; for the Dead, &c., 185.
each is the muse or feminine reflection of her QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:- Sir Francis Drake - Porter, lover. Is not Juliet the same wilful and paswhere first sold Satirical Epitaph - Battle of Worces
ter, 1651 -- Corn. Schonæus - Joseph Harpur, LL.D., 189. sionate creature as her Romeo ? Is not Rosaline REPLIES: The Knights Hospitallers of St. John of the same saucy dominant spirit as Biron ? Does Jerusalem, 190 - Strange Derivations: Treacle, 191 - she not bear the same relation to the princess as Treacle, and Oyster Grottoes, 192 — Albion and her white Roses, 193 — Åěrostation, 194 — Execution of Charles I., he to the king? And when Shakspeare wrote 195 - Learned Dane on Unicorns - Jacob's Staff Prince Christiern of Denmark - Greek Phrase--"Faerie Queene
* With two pitch balls stuck in her head for eyes,” unveiled - Theta -- The Earl of Sefton-Whitehall Place,
Love's Labour's Lost, &c. - The American Partridge - Thomas, Earl of Norfolk: he must have had in his recollection:his Wives - Ben Jonson and Mrs. Bulstrode - Herod the Great - Waldo Family - Sinavee or Sinavey - Crush a
“Or seeing jets black, but in blackness bright." Cup – Venus chastising Cupid, &c., 196.
Astrophel and Stella, St. 91. Notes on Books, &c.
Notwithstanding that certain nobles and cour
tiers of Queen Elizabeth's court are so distinctly Notes.
marked in Romeo and Juliet, yet we clearly see,
peering through their shadows, the forms and “JULIET" UNVEILED.
features of certain dramatists : and in Tybalt and After these long and, I hope, not uninteresting Mercutio we readily recognise our old friends wanderings through the enchanted regions of Marlowe and Nash, reminding us of Don Armado
The two Faerie Land and Arcady,* let us turn to the and Moth in Love's Labour's Lost.* child of nature, Shakspeare; upon whose early Capulets may be Greene and Lodge, authors of productions we may rest assured, these two great the Looking-glass of London; and John Lyly poets, his instant predecessors, rained their celes- would be the Montague, father of Romeo, and tial influence:
uncle of Benvoglio. And to Shakspeare, on first “ And I in deep delight am chiefly drown'd,
coming to London, Lyly had been a second father, Whenas himself to singing he betakes.”
his best guide and dearest friend ; and he might As the writings of Sidney, like Spenser's, abound well stand as uncle to Sir Philip Sidney, being a in allegory, the supposition naturally arises there
man of Kent, and, as Mr. Bourne says may be something of an allegorical nature in those
“ To some extent, I imagine, the Arcadia owed its ex
“ I have no doubt that the plays which have a reference to Sidney. It has istence to John Lyly.",
reading of Euphues, in 1579, led him many steps towards already been pointed out in “Shakspeare, Sidney, the writing of the Arcadia in 1580.”—P. 323. and Essex" (3rd S. iii. 82, 103, 124), that an allegory may be contained in the tragedy of Hamlet; But it may be asked, how comes Mercutio and it requires no stretch of fancy to imagine (Nash) to be constantly in the company, the in
For the that, in the Two Gentlemen of Verona, the stately timate friend, of Benvoglio (Sidney)? and aristocratic Silvia represents the goddess of very plain and simple reason, that in 1591 Nash chivalry, a second Stella ; whilst there is falseness edited Sidney's poem of Astrophel and Stella. enough in pretty Julia to make a Lady Policy, a
And as he made some caustic remarks in the very proper wife for Maister Robert Cecil. Introduction against his fellow-dramatists, so
But be this as it may, on looking into Romeo young Juvenal receives a deserved castigation, as and Juliet, we find an elderly gentleman married
Mercutio acknowledges, “ for mingling in your
quarrels." The County Paris might be Daniel; * Vide “The Arcadia Unveiled,” 3rd S. iii. 441, 481, 501; “The Faerie Qucene Unveiled,” 3rd S. iv. 21, &c.
* Vide The Footsteps of Shakspere, p. 153.
who was not only a sonnetteer, but also the poet rical figure- the Sonnet-Muse. She is not only of Wilton House, of the Countess of Pembroke. connected with Stella by the sonnets 127 and 132,
This two-fold view of certain nobles and dra. and by those previously mentioned, but more matists being shadowed in the ever-living cha- especially by the sonnets wherein Shakspeare racters of Romeo and Juliet, receives confirmation complains of her tyranny and evil influence over from the fact, that to Nash's edition of Astrophel him; which undoubtedly, I would say, have their and Stella are appended twenty-eight sonnets by origin in the Fifth Song Samuel Daniel ; and also “some poems by E. O., As Spenser accuses his Rosalind of inconstancy, meaning, no doubt, the Earl of Oxford" (Shak- so the sonnet-lady is also faithless, bestowing lier speare Society). Hence it becomes probable this favours on other lovers-probably Daniel, Draypublication, with the letter, prefixed, wherein ton, and Lodge, and especially on the young Earl Shakspeare is satirised as "Ignorance with a of Southampton ; of whom, in imitation of Spenleaden pen," combined with the queen's indigna- ser's fourth Grace, he says: tion at the marriage of Essex with Sidney's widow,
“ Be thou the tenth Muse, ten times more in worth gave rise to the tragedy.
Than those old Nine, which rhymers invocate.” But Shakspeare, as Romeo, in winning the love
Stanza 38. of the muse Juliet, does not arrogate to himself a superiority, as poet, over Daniel ; he merely inti- And in the beautiful sonnet, “ If music and sweet mates thereby, that it was his love and admiration poetry agree," he again compliments his friend : of Astrophel and Stella that turned him into a “One knight loves both, and both in thee resonnetteer. And on looking into his sonnets, we
main." cannot for a moment doubt Shakspeare oft lighted
However fanciful these suppositions may aphis pipe at Stella's eyes. I mean his oaten reed ; | pear, yet it is not easy to deny the connexion for in the favour of tobacco he rejoiced not, between the sonnet-lady and Stella; and it is though he never abuses it, perhaps out of respect only on this plea, the intimate connexion between to his honoured friends John Lyly and Sir Walter Astrophel and Stella and the Sonnets, we can free Ralegh-two inveterate smokers.
our minds from the disagreeable impression, the Not only are we reminded of Astrophel and latter contain a personal history, a tale of error Slella by numerous phrases, but even whole and woe. stanzas have been imitated, or at least the hint This opinion of the unreality of the sonnet-lady has been taken from them : as, for instance, in appears to be confirmed by the inscription preAstrophel and Stella, the stanzas 38, 89, and 99, fixed to the Sonnets, where the word begetter," may have given rise to the sonnets 24, 27, 28, we are given to understand, can only mean in the 43, and 61. Again, the stanza 52, " A strife is Elizabethan sense the dedicatee. Consequently, grown between Virtue ‘and Love," may have Thomas Thorpe, if he wrote the inscription, given Shakspeare the hint for the sonnets 46 and imagined Mr. William Herbert was the person ; 47 : “Mine eye and heart are at a mortal war.” | but if, according to Monsieur Philarète Chasles, All these sonnets are evidently addressed to a the Earl of Pembroke wrote the first part, then lady, and are so placed in the “Sonnets re- all the Sonnets must have been dedicated or prearranged;" and it is only by yielding to a morbid sented to the Earl of Southampton as
" the onlie sentimentalism, we can imagine them as addressed begetter.". to his friend. The line,
În conclusion, I would respectfully draw atten“ Deal thou with powers of thought, leave love to will,”
tion to the opinion of Todd and others, that "
Astrophel and Stella, pleasant Willy," in the Tears of the Muses, is inmay have given our gentle Willy the idea of his tended for Sir Philip Sidney, and that the poem three sonnets on Will. Nor can we doubt the was composed in 1580. In support of his argubeautiful sonnet 146, “Poor soul, the centre of ments, I may adduce the similarity of passages in my sinful earth,” took its rise from the following the Muse Thalia and in October. How peculiarly
appropriate the name is to Sidney, we have seen “ Leave me, O Lore! which reachest but to dust;
in the Arcadia — himself the shepherd Philisides, And thou, my mind, aspire to higher things:
and his friends all shepherds ; in bis humorous Grow rich in that which never taketh rust;
picturing of Harvey and Spenser in love, and Whatever fades, but fading pleasure brings." catching the fair Urania in their arms at Barley
break; the feeding by night the two wild beastsConsidering how Sidney was idolized by Spen- the lion and the bear- - in the place of their passer, and what a halo of glory surrounded his name, torals, alluding to the Shepherd's Calendar, which we need not be surprised Sbakspeare was also was composed in the district where the rebellion deeply influenced thereby; and as Juliet is a broke out; the putting Pamela as a shepherdess daughter of Stella, so may the sonnet-lady, with under the care of the clown Dametas, not merely her black and mournful eyes, also be an allego- for concealment sake, but as a sly satirical stroke
at Burghley's sbabby patronage of literature and notion that a gun is fired direct at the object to the Muses.
be hit. Perhaps those who had this notion, seeTodd is also of opinion that by Ætion, in Colin ing a gun elevated, so as to be fired into the air, Clout's come Home again, Michael Drayton is and said to be fired at a randon, might think this designed. Certainly St. Michael, the archangel was the word for shooting upwards at nothing with the flaming sword, chief of the heavenly particular. All this may be matter of further inhosts, has poetically a far more heroical sound quiry.
A. DE MORGAN. than Shake-speare:
“ St. Michel's Mount who does not know,
THE CITY SCEPTRE.
One of the most remarkable municipal maces time only known as Mr. Shaxper.
now in existence is that belonging to the Lord This pastoral was most probably written in Mayor of the city of London,
a relic, in its 1590, on Spenser's return to Ireland; but after present shape, of the jeweller's work of the fif. wards, on publishing it, he may have added some
teenth century, and probably in part of still passages and altered others, as with regard to
greater antiquity. It has been represented in Amyntas :
the Illustrated London News, but more effectively “ There also is (ah no, he is not now!]
in the Transactions of the London and Middlesex But since I said he is, he quite is gone."
Archæological Society, vol. i. p. 356. A passage As Nash also speaks of an Amyntas in Pierce fro Penniless in 1592, it is probable each poet refers meetings of the Corporation throughout the year,
the civic ordinale, or programme for the to the same nobleman-Ferdinando, Lord Strange, there quoted, shows that it was termed the Scepter Earl of Derby.
at least as early as 1604; and we may therefore presume that it was the same ensign of authority
which is mentioned in the following passage of RANDOM.
Stowe's Annales, where he is describing the ThanksIn our time, to fire at random is to fire with giving procession of Queen Elizabeth to St. Paul's out taking aim : and a random shot is one which after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588:is not especially fired at what it bits.
“Over the gate of Temple Bar were placed the waites word has undergone a very curious change since of the Citie: and at the same bar the Lord Mayor and his its first introduction. of the origin I know her Majesty to her City and Chamber, delivering to her nothing except that it must be connected with the hands the sceptre, which, after certain speeches had, her French randonnée, which, as a term of hunting, Highnes redelivered to the Mayor, and he again taking meant the circuit made by a wounded animal; his horse, bare the same before her.” and in common life, any circuit, especially one to Mr. Peter Cunningham, in his Handbook for no purpose. There is an old French word, randon, London (1849, p. 804), from the Sceptre being which means impetuous motion.
strange to him, has inserted in this passage beThe word, in old English, is randon. The ran- tween brackets the word [sword] ; because the don was the angle of elevation at which the gun City Sword, and not the Sceptre, is now usually must be inclined to the horizon in order to hit the presented to the Sovereign upon his or her mark. To fire at a randon, one randon or another, entrance into the City. În 1588 the Sword of was to fire at a particular angle, in order to State (not the City Sword) was borne before the secure a particular range. In time the word was Queen by the Lord Marquess (of Winchester). used to signify the range itself, as in some of our Progresses
, 8c. of Queen Elizabeth, ii. 542. mathematical dictionaries. The randon is used The City Sceptre, though of the highest curifor the angle in both editions of Leonard Digges's osity as a work of ancient art, as I bave already Stratiotikos (1579 and 1590), in his Pantometria said, has latterly been little regarded. It has (1571), and in various other English works. always, however, been borne by the Lord Mayor
At what time the word became random I cannot at Coronations, and the portrait of the Right tell. Ralphson (1702), Stone (1743), and Whis. Hon. John Thomas Thorp (the Lord Mayor), ton and Ditton (1714), use the m; and all mean represents him carrying it, in Sir George Nay. the range, and not its angle.
lor's magnificent work on the Coronation of King I cannot find the word, as a term of artillery, George IV. At Pensax, an ancient mansion in either in French or Italian: but I have not made Worcestershire, I last year saw an interesting much search. It is certainly not used either by portrait of Sir Allen Cotton, who was Lord Tartaglia, or by Cyprian Lucar, bis English trans- Mayor at the Coronation of King Charles I., and lator (1588).
wbich was painted to commemorate his attendance It is not easy to trace the modern meaning to on that occasion, in the full costume of his office, its source with certainty. It is a very common and bearing the City Sceptre. Sir Allen was the father of Martha, wife of John Chitton, Esq., and The following is a facsimile of three lines, which mother of John Chitton, Esq., of Pensax. (Burke's make it clear that the original is an almanac for Landed Gentry.) John Gough Nichols. the year 1457:
“Cõiūctioēs & opposicoēs solis et lune *
“In anno dñi Mcccclvij cui? b lra dñicalis xiiij aureo
nūs. Minor Notes.
“Interuallū ix ebdomide concurrentes una dies." RELIEF FOR THE BEWITCHED. -- I forward the
This is considerably earlier than Regiomontaenclosed extract from a Surrey newspaper, as a
nus, who only followed his immediate predecescurious instance of the superstition that still pre- lished his almanac.
sors in the form in which he printed and pub
Wm. Davis. vails in some places amongst the lower classes, and one worthy, I think, to be preserved in the ROBERT GREENE, THE DRAMATIST. — I subjoin pages of “N. & Q.:".
two notices of Greene, which I do not remember “The other day a labouring man from Worplesdon to have seen quoted anywhere : called upon a chemist in Guildford, and gravely informed “ She reads Green's works over and over, but is carried him that his wife had been bewitched two years ago, and away with the Mirror of Knighthood; she is many times that she had remained in that state ever since, much to resolv'd to runne out of her selfe, and become a Lady the grief of her husband and family, and annoyance of Errand.” — Overbury's “Character of a Chambermaid.” her neighbours. He said that he had been informed
(Characters, edit. 1632, sign. K, 2nd verse.) that if he got a quarter of a pound of mercury, and mixed
“ If he can purchase but an old satten suit; it up with the yoke of two eggs, and gave a dose to his In 's own surmise hee's straight a gentleman, wife night and morning in water “over which the living
But his opinion I can well confute; and the dead had been carried,' she would soon recover.
For Robert Greene doth say, and wisely scan, Of course the chemist tried to ridicule him out of his
A velvet slop makes not a gentleman.” silly notion; but the foolish man went away as fully persuaded as before that his wife was bewitched, and
Time's Metamorphosis, by R. Middleton avowing his intention of getting the mercury and the
of York (printed with his Epigrams
and Satyres, 1608.) water before he quitted Guildford.”
Middleton's allusion is of course to Greene's Mercury, of course, has always formed a staple
Quip, for an Upstart Courtier, 1592. It may
be commodity of magicians and those who deal'in
worth mentioning that Gabriel Harvey, in his mysteries; but my query is, What is the ground
copy of Gascoigne's Posies, 1575 (now, I believe, of the supposed magical power of “water over
in the Bodleian), wrote a MS. note instituting a which the living and the dead have been carried "?
comparison between the forlorn conditions of Can it possibly have any connection with the
Gascoigne and Greene. This note is, unless I am right of way supposed to exist-rightly or wrongly I know not-where the living and dead have
mistaken, printed entire in Bibliotheca Heberiana, gone? This kind of water is, I believe, held in part iv., art. “Gascoigne's Posies.”
W. CAREW HAZLITT. the same veneration in the Highlands of Scotland.
CURIOUS IMPRINT. Clare Coll. Cambridge.
“The wishing Commonwealth's Man: a queint Dia
logue between Cautious, a Countryman, and Wish-well, a LONGEVITY. - In The Times of Jan. 21, 1863, Citizen Printed in the year of Drums, Trumpets, the decease of persons who have attained the fol
Pikes, and Muskets, 1642." is recorded : 92, 90, 82, 82, 82, 80, 78,
Job J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A. 78, 76, 74, 72, 72, 72, 70, 70. Four males and CRUDE: CRUEL. - It is curious to note the comeleven females, in all fifteen persons. This gives mon origin of these words. Crudus=immature, the high average of seventy-eight years; and it is unploughed. Cruor=murder (Horace), and its rather remarkable that the average of the female Greek root kepúos. The moral is obvious. life is not eighteen months greater than that of
J. D. CAMPBELL. the males ; contrary to the received opinion. Glasgow.
QUANTITY OF “PITUITA." — A correspondent of OLD ALMANACS. There seems to be some
the Gent. Mag. (vol. xlv. p. 330), after praising doubt whether the “Exhortation against the
the Latin version of “A froggy would a wooing Turks" of 1455 is an almanac. But G. Fischer go,” adds — unfortunately, however, a gross false published in 1804 at Mayence a tract consisting quantity occurs in one of the stanzas, “ Vexat of four leaves, and a large folding plate of fac
pituita molesta." simile, entitled
Now, it is true, that the first syllable of pituita “ Notice du premier Monument Typographique en Ca
is long, but why should it not be considered a cactères Mobiles avec date connu jusqu'à ce jour. Dé
word of three syllables, as it must be in Horace? rouvert dans les Archives de Mayence et déposé à la “Præcipue sanus nisi cum pituita molesta est.” Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris, 40.”
Epist. i. 1, last line.
The version appeared in the number for the “ A Collerie to cleare and cure the sight, preceding March. Unfortunately it contains also
A cordiall good to helpe, and heale the harte, a real false quantity –
A preparatyue to put ech greife to flight,
A rare preseruatyue preuentinge smarte, “Inde cito dominæ perventum est muris ad aulam." A water treat, an Öyle, and Balme most pure,
Cito, when an adverb, has always the second To clenze, to heale, to suple and to cure, syllable short. See Bland's Elements, p. ix., In
A rule to Leauell life and death soe true,
As leaueth Hell and leads to heauenly crue. troduction, 1840. Ovid, to say nothing of other
“Which underfoote shall treade the purest goulde, poets, constantly makes it short
Which serues but ther to paue the Pallace floores, “ Sic cito sum verbis capta puella tuis,” &c.
Wher orient pearle most gorgious to behoulde,
Is onlye usd to make the dornes and dores,
And haue it oft in hande, more oft in harte,
Till Wyll doe take the understandinge parte. MISTAKES OF THE NOVELISTS. — There is a No more than druggs or foode will stand in steade, gross error in Marryat's Snarley-yow, which has Till they bo usd to cure or els to feede. been allowed to last even down to the shilling
Take men a tast, and try how sweete it is
To lyve in loue, which leads to heauenly blisse.” edition of last year. He gives all the children of
“ Finis. George and Anne to William and Mary. As in
“ Conuertantur qui oderunt Sion.” chap. 33, “ of the many children born to the heretic William
one only remains, the The work proceeds the foundation and the present Duke of Gloucester”: and again (chap. rules thereof, with dissertations on Christian du43), “ the death of the young Duke of Glouces- ties, an order for holy days, high feasts, confester, the only surviving son of King William.” sion, considerations to settle the mind in the
In Peacock's Headlong Hall, ch. vi., the philo- course of virtue, devotion to saints, and other exsophers are made to talk of the “precession of the ercises of devotion. The MS. is written in a equinoxes” where they mean the variation of the good round hand on 91 pages, 8vo. size. obliquity.” This mistake is enhanced by a setting In the same hand is written a title as follows:of knowledge unusual in a novel; thus it is said “ The Manner of the apprehension of Margaret Clythat “ Laplace has demonstrated that the preces- therowe, late of Yorke, in the yere of our Saviour's sion of the equinoxes is a regular equation of long Incarnation, 1586, and the 28th of the reigne of Queene period.”
A. DE MORGAN.
Eliz: being the 10 day of March, with her Arreigement, condemnatio and execution."
This account takes up 35 pages, and is in a Queries.
different handwriting. “ A SHORT RULE OF GOOD LIFE.”
In the year 1849 was published The Life and Some time
Death of Margaret Clitherow, the Martyr of purchased a volume in MS., York, now first published from the original MS., which is prefaced as follows:
and edited by William Nicholson. London, " A SHORT RULE OF GOOD LYFE.”
12mo, Richardson. Dated from Thelwall Hall, “ The Sonnetts in comendation of this Phamphlett. Cheshire, and approved by Bishop Ullathorne. “ Distillers toyle and beate their busie braines,
In the preface it is stated to be written by the Elixir fair or Quintessence to make;
Rev. John Mush, her spiritual director, who died Which well they thinke will recompence their paines, in 1617, and the MS. to be in the possession of
Yf they performe the thinge they undertake; Yet sekinge that should lengthen life and health,
Peter Middleton, Esq., of Stockeld Park, YorkOf tymes spend both, and wast their tyme and weltb. shire. This copy does not quite agree with the -Gould, pearle, and ston, rich, pretious proude of prise,
printed history. Drake does not make mention of Doe ouer perke most mightie monarks crownes,
the occurrence, and the Surtees Society's Volume And make most men all daungers to despise,
of Depositions does not commence before the With life and lymbe to hazarde their renownes. seventeenth century. Having given a description And why but that they all in small comprise
of this MS. volume, can any one give me informaMore powre then things more base in larger sise; An why then sboulde not this small pamphlett seme,
tion as to the author of the Devotions called The Rule of Life?
EDWARD HALLSTONE. By far more right to haue farre more esteeme.
Horton Hall For all these things yf they be had at last,
Serue but as staues to seruyle bodyes use, And ere they be possest, are gonne and past,
ATKINSON, GOVERNOR OF SENEGAL. — Could And booteless helpes; their masters must refuse When as the Quintessence this booke conteyns,
any of the readers of “ N. & Q.” inform me if any And pearlesse gemme for euer more remaynes.
person of the name of Atkinson was at any time