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The negotiations in which I had the bonour to immediately on the return of the secretary to
J. J. W.
(To be concluled in our next.)
STRANGE DERIVATIONS: TREACLE.
(3rd S. iv. 135.)
qu'ils ont donné le nom de Thériaque à quatre drogues posal.* However, shortly after the negotiation
car ils ont appellé l'ail la Thériaque des pauvres. Et de commenced, the magisterial secretary was de là il assert, que nous n'aurons pas beaucoup de peine à puted to visit England to inquire into that and juger, que les vertus que la Thériaque a pour combattre other pleas advanced by the Langue, as claims et pour surmonter toute sorte de venins luy peuvent for recognition ; and the unhappy result was, that
avoir acquis en partie ce nom-là. Quelques-uns s'atta
chans aux mots, ont tiré son nom de onplov, qui signifie • The difference in the question of an amalgamation feram, c'est à dire, une beste farouche, pour denoter que with a legally constituted corporation, and with the Langue la Thériaque est propre non seulement contre le venin de as they really were and continue to be, needs no comment. toute sorte d'animaux, mais aussi contre une infinitie de
maladies, lesquelles ils comparent à des bestes farouches. abundant. Had they departed when beaver hats D'autres ont crû qu' Andromachus a voulu changer le
came into fashion ?
FITZHOPKINS. nom de Mithrydat en celuy de Thériaque, à cause de vipères, auxquelles il a attribué le nom de onplov, et les
Mantes. quelles il a ajouté pour la base principale de cette composition. Cette pensée me semble la plus raisonable de toutes, puisque la Thériaque n'a commencé de prendre ce TREACLE, AND OYSTER GROTTOES. nom-là que lorsque la chair des vipères est entré dans sa composition.” (Ch. ii. p. 9.) - Histoire Naturelle des
(3rd S. iv. 135, 140.) Animaux, des Plantes, et des Mineraux, qui entrent dans la
In all our etymologies we are much inclined to Composition de la Thériuque d'Andromachus, by Moyse Charas, l'un des Apoticaires de Monsigneur le Duc look too high. A more humble aspiration would d'Orléans, frère unique du Roy. 12mo, pp. 310. Paris, frequently give us much better insight into the 1668.
real meaning of the words we use than big tiI do not know whether the book from which I words of Kotzebue's beautiful lyric, translated
flying excursus into Greek or Latin. have copied the above is scarce. I saw it on a stall a few days ago, and should have passed it
into English under the title of “ Life let us che
rish," he says: over but for the "treacle question.” It has a frontispiece representing a beaver, several snakes, “ Man schafft so gern sich Sorg' und Müh,
Sucht Dörner auf und findet sie, and herbs which are used in the composition. A
Und lässt das Veilchen unbemerkt, list of the ingredients, to the number of sixty
Das dicht am Auge blühet.” seven, is given in the fourth chapter. So far as I can judge, the medicine would be innocent and I forget the English words; but true it is, we not very nasty, under the liberty allowed with often overlook what is immediately at our feet. the last : “ Vini generosi quantum satis."
I take this to be the case with our word treacle, Moyse Charas must have been very superior to which, from its being affectedly carried into our his contemporary apothecaries
. His style is clear Pharmacopeias as theriacum, your correspondent and neat, and he puts the substance of each
thinks must be a Greek word. It is evident that
can have no chapter at its head in very fair Latin sapphics, for sugar and its products, we thus :
indigenous nomenclature till its arrival on our “ Du Vin, C. LXXIII.
shores. Assucar, Muscovado, and Molasses, are Si celebrato careas Falerno
all Spanish names, referring to the mode of exLimpidum quæres, validumque vinum,
pressing the juice of the sugar cane in a mill in Collibus nascens, silices et inter, Solis ad ortam."
Jamaica, before Oliver Cromwell took the island
from the Spanish crown; and the significance of Moyse Charas has been an apothecary many these words will have to be discovered in the years, and bas assisted in making theriacum under Spanish language. Molasses is evidently derived the best masters at Marseilles, Lyons, and Mont- from the Ibero-Latinised mola, the mill ; and lasso, pellier. He is engaged in preparing a hundred or some similar word, indicating dropping. It is pounds of it, which will soon be ready for sale; not treacle. and he hopes that the physicians will not quit When we get the Muscovado sugar to Europe, their own department, which they understand, to to crystallise into loaf-sugar, we have two modes meddle with inferior branches which, for want of of procedure: the raw material, when boiled, is experience, they cannot. Perhaps there was in cast into conical forms placed on their apices, France at that time some such feeling between which have perforated holes at the bottom; trom the two ranks of the medical profession as that to them exudes a liquor which, if not escaping, would which we are indebted for The Dispensary: prevent the perfect crystallization of the loaves,
If Charas made theriacum according to his book, as we see them in the shops; the liquor is nearly he must have been a very honest man; as many white, and is called in the German sugar-houses, of the ingredients were expensive, and their ab- nachlauf. A still finer and paler sort is gotten, when sence could not be detected by analysis. He in the final process lime or lime-water is ad red. seems to be trustworthy, and to describe clearly Both these runnings are used for the making of what he has seen. Having exceeded my usual capillaire. But do we not perceive that both are bounds, I will mention only one thing more. I obtained by trickling of the syrup from the cones; knew that the beavers had been inhabitants of and as our physicians and grocers must bave rethe banks of the Rhone ; but thought they had ceived the article from the sugar baker, who left, or been killed there, before the middle of the must have given it a name, is it likely that he seventeenth century. Charas says they were would have recourse to a Greek nomenclature ? often taken there; that he had a live one which No! he would rather have said to an inquiry as he bought for three crowns of the peasant who to its name, “ This is our trickle.” It was a refinecaught it; and that no physician ought to be ig- ment, or misconception, that carried this fine old norant of the quality of animals so near and so English word over into dictionaries as Treacle.
If we examine the English word syrup, or the abounded in it.* Whatever we may think of the etymoGerman syrop, their designation of treacle, we
logical skill displayed in the suggestion, the words call shall find support to this view. Taking the first up a picture of the great Roman encyclopædist in earnest
talk with some master of legions, newly returned from syllable sy or su as cognate with suc in succus ; Britain-it may be with Vespasian himself--and plying the second, rob, is identical with many West him with eager questions about the woods of the remote Indian words for the inspissated juice of vege- province under whose branches his troops had so often tables : as citron-rob for concentrated lemon juice, rested. We look with almost a new pleasure on the roses in appearance exactly like treacle.
of our own hedgerows, when regarding them as descended Oyster-shell Grottoes. – " Please to remember
in a straight line from the “rosas albas' of those far-off the grotto, it comes but once a year," was the annual apostrophe before these delicacies were
However strange it may seem, Pliny says not brought to London fresh every day, sometimes
one word about the name being derived from twice in the twenty-four hours, by rail ; and was
either white rocks or white roses. His expression confined to the 4th of August, the day when the is, “ Albion ipsi nomen fuit cum Britanniæ voca“close" season of the beds ended. It is now ex
rentur omnes.”+ Now Pliny very generally gives tended by our juvenile gamins to many days pre
his authorities, and, like other literary men, had vious and subsequent to that date; so that instead of
recourse either to his own or other libraries ; and it occurring only once a year, it must be the wish it is to be hoped, had he troubled any Roman of all that it never came at all. But to suppose have got kicked for his pains. "It is really sad to
general with such ridiculous questions, he would that it had any connection with Santo Jacopo at Compostella, appears to me straining at a gnat and
see this sort of sensation writing getting into such swallowing a camel. In the first place, in the
a work as the Quarterly Review; and when a man Roman Calendar, the 4th of August is appro- taken in, we may imagine the great mischief
of Mr. Dalton's learning and position could be priated to the veneration of neither James the
I Greater of St. Iago, nor any other James; and which such careless statements must cause. shells were too general emblems of pilgrimage to hope you will not think me out of place in be appropriated to any one
shrine in particular. drawing from it a lesson or two for our future The association between shell and grotto was suf
1. Always doubt a quotation till ficiently near for the common mind; and the day fied it. It is astonishing how many will be found
you have verioffered sufficient shells when the 4th of August either wilfully or thoughtlessly falsified. was the period when the juicy esculent could be first enjoyed, after a long interval of reticence,
2. Be particular in giving such a reference as to furnish any quantity of grottoes; and the ven
may be easily found. Assist, in fact, the “gentle dors might encourage the construction as an easy the compliment with kindly feelings and double
reader" as much as possible, and he will return method of getting quit of a plethora of what they thanks for saving his time and trouble. would otherwise have some trouble in disposing of.
With reference to these particular etymological It would seem that formerly the grotto was
inquiries, it would be too much to say “Never really dressed out with some display, as I recol- word Albion. Everybody knows that there are
make them;" but let us get a lesson out of this lect the account of a very fine Teniers having the white cliffs of Dover, and that albus is the been bought for the merest trifle, which had been Latin for white. What can be plainer ? But it used as a decoration, and sold by the boy unconscious of his treasure. WILLIAM BELL, Ph. D.
unluckily happens that the name was given long
before the Romans knew anything of the island, 2, Burton Street, Euston Square.
and before they had a ship on the sea. The name first appears in Aristotle; and the Greek word
for white is not albus. But whether the name ALBION AND HER WHITE ROSES.
was given by the Greeks, the Phænicians, Car
thaginians, or anybody else, it is pretty generally (3rd S. iv. 104.)
acknowledged that the south-west, not the southIn a late number a correspondent put a ques- there the rocks are not chalk : so that the deriva
east corner of the island, was first known, and tion as to the derivation of the word Albion, tion fails both subjectively and objectively, and a with reference to an alleged quotation from Pliny. close examination of etymologies of proper names I have just read a long, rambling, and unsatisfac
will show that this is almost always necessarily tory article on “ Sacred Trees and Flowers," in the last number of the Quarterly Review, in which
* “ Albion insula sic dicta ab albis rupibus quas mare we find the following curious statement:
alluit, vel ob rosas albas quibus abundat." - Hist. Nat.,
iv. 16. “ The elder Pliny, in discussing the etymology of the + Nat. Hist., iv. 16, Elzevir, 1635. In later editions, word Albion, suggests that the land may have been so as Leipsic, 1830, is chap. xxx, vol. i. p. 294. Albion named from the white roses ('ob rosas albas ') which was the chief of the Britannic Isles.
It is useless to enter into any etymo- he used to describe the astonishment with which logical inquiry, unless the language to which the he was hurried along, driven by a rapid wind, word belongs is known; and to refer again to the which was yet not perceived by those in the chaword Albion, we neither know, nor is it all likely riot, for they went as fast as the wind itself. we ever shall know, what tongue it belongs to.
“ Commemorare solebat stuporem quo correptus fuerat, Another point may be mentioned. When a
cum vento translatus citatissimo non persentiscere tamen, querist asks about the meaning or derivation of a
nempe tam citus erat quam ventus." word, the least he can do is to give the passage in which it is found, and any further explanation
Peirescius describes the sailing chariot as goin which he can afford. But in your pages it not from Sceveling to Putten, about forty-two Eng. unfrequently happens that your readers are asked lish miles, in two hours. Another contempora" What does such a word mean?” and no further neous writer, Walceius, describes the carriage as information is given. And such questioners must carrying six or ten persons
a distance of twenty not be surprised to find no notice taken of them.
or thirty German miles in a few hours, with far At the risk of trespassing still further upon your greater speed than the swiftest ship on the sea, space, will you allow me to relate a story in point, being completely under the easy command of the which is to be found in the Gentleman's Magazine man at the helm. for 1786, vol. ii.
It is known that Peirescius was obliged, by p. 553. A gentleman met with the word auca, and ap- family affairs, to return to Paris in September plied to a learned friend for an explanation, and 1606; and thus the striking invention, or pos. the result was a letter beginning :
sibly application of a kind of locomotive used
before in China, and even in Spain, would be Perhaps auca may be from the Gothic auktigard, made known to his literary and scientific friends hortus, kuros: a word probably derived from aukan, Sax. in France and in England. eacan, Island. auka," &c., &c.
Grotius celebrated the ingenuity of Stevinus After going fully into the matter, and adding a in two epigrams. The fifth epigram contained in trifle of Hebrew, he comes to the conclusion that his Poemata is as follows :auca was a garden. This was on Sept. 14, 1774. Four days after, however, he found the word in “ Imposuit plaustro vectantem carbasa navim? Littleton's Barbarous Latin Dictionary, and that
An potius navi subdidit ille rotas? it meant goose. If this serves as a hint, perhaps
Scandit aquas navis: currus ruit aere prono:
Et merito dicas, · Hic volat, illa natat.'" even this long letter may be useful in saving the time of your numerous correspondents.
In his fifteenth Epigram he pays a graceful JANNOC.
and elegant tribute to Stevinus, after the Roman fashion, a reference being made, in the second
line, to the celestial constellation, Argo Navis : AËROSTATION.
“ Ventivolum Tiphys deduxit in æquora navim : (3rd S. iv. 146.)
Jupiter in stellas ætheriamque domum:
In terrestre solum virtus Stevinia: nam nec, The passage, supposed to relate to a discovery Tiphy, tuum fuerat, nec Jovis istud opus." of aërostation as early as 1607, is very short, and for the sake of clearness may be here repeated :
The success of the experiment in Holland at “ Sept. 27, 1607.
least as early as September 1606, was likely to “ The greatest newes of this countrie is of an ingenious produce imitators in England as early as Sepfellow, that in Barkeshire sailed or went over a high tember 1607; and “the ingenious fellow in Barkesteeple in a boat, all of his owne making; and, without shire" appears to have been one. He conveyed other help then himself in her, conveyed her above twenty “ a boat all of his owne making,"
" « above twenty miles by land over hills and dales to the river, and so miles by land, over hills and dales," —upon one of down to London.”
which hills he might well be over, or above, "a Now in 1606 the celebrated Peirescius (Nicolas high steeple" in a dale — and so arriving at the Uande Fabri de Peiresc) came with the French river, might proceed to London by water in his Ambassador to England, was graciously received boat, detached from its temporary wheels
. by King James, and having gone to Oxford, and That it is possible for a wheeled carriage, driven visited Camden, Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Henry by sails, to pass over uneven ground, was experi, Saville, and other literary men, went over to mentally proved about the year 1820, when such Holland. While there, he travelled to Sceveling a carriage travelled along the turnpike road from for the purpose of seeing a sailing chariot lately Great Chesterford to Newmarket, a distance of made under the direction of the celebrated mathe- about fifteen miles, over some considerable hills, matician and mechanist Simon Stevinus. Peires- at the rate, it is said, of about thirteen miles an cius was much struck with the invention, and, hour. The writer of this reply saw that sailing according to Gassendus (Vita Peireskii, lib. ii.), carriage in motion on Newmarket Heath.
It was cutter rigged, with a fore-and-aft mainsail and haste, we shall say no more at this time, but that we
remain, triangular fore-sail. It carried several
6i6 Your most aff. friends to serve you, worked easily to windward, coming up to the
« Covent Garden,
• LOTHIAN. wind and tacking as readily as a boat on the
30 Jany, 1645
Jo. CHAISELIE. water; and its speed was then such as to keep a
Ro. BLAIR. horse at a moderate canter in order to accompany
"* For the Rt. Revd, the Comrs it.
of the Kirk of Scotland It would thus appear that the above passage
met at Edinburgh.' has probably no reference to aërostation. If such “ This Epistle, which is curious for its succinctness, its a discovery bad been made at the beginning of cautiousness, and its unfeelingness, has never, I believe,
been printed.” the seventeenth century, it never could have been lost. We should have found allusions to it in The above forms the first part of a letter from Bp. Wilkins' Discourse concerning the Possibility George Chalmers to the Rt. Hon. Sir Joseph of a Passage to the World in the Moon, 1638, and Banks, Bart., and is dated Whitehall, 20 April, in his Mathematical Magic, 1648. Yet, while 1813: it is preserved in the British Museum, that daring and most original thinker describes Add. MS. 6306. The words in italics in the at length Stevinus's sailing chariot, and discusses letter will draw attention to the point in quesseveral means by which flight might be effected tion, the purport of this note. mechanically, he makes no mention of a balloon, Considering that this historical letter was an or any similar means of rising in the air. He authority, and having lately tried to identify this does not appear to be acquainted even with the window by the letter, I arrived at a singular theoretical notion of his contemporary, the Jesuit result. I looked at all the prints in the Cole's Lana, who proposed to exhaust hollow balls of Pennant Collection ; not even the print therein metal, and thus to render them specifically lighter after Hollar's drawing in the Pepysian Library than the atmosphere, forgetful that such balls at Cambridge, stated to be of the early part of would be crushed by the enormous pressure of the the reign of Charles I., affords any clue to a external air, unsupported by a fluid within. solution, but it shows that the small projection on
T. C. the north side was then in existence. · The ques
tion is, which is the balcony ? Could this projec
tion be so called ? Was the term given to those EXECUTION OF CHARLES I.
small projecting balustrades to the three middle
windows of the first floor? But why " the window (3rd S. iii. 213, 292.)
of the balcony," and not " the centre window,”
or the end window ? Wishing to explain to a May I add another quotation on this subject, friend the difficulty, I opened London and its and ask your esteemed correspondent A. A., on Environs Described, and turning up the small the next occasion that he visits the library at plate showing the Banqueting House, we were Windsor Castle, to see if he can identify the surprised to find that the window on each side window in the first four plates to which he refers, of the centre window of the lower range is repreby the following statement in a letter, which, if sented a blank one, that is, they are both filled in now printed, should it be still somewhat unknown, with stone-work! It is drawn by Samuel Wale may serve two purposes ?
(afterwards R.A.), and published 1761. This “ The Scotsmen who sold their king, for a valuable centre window might thus perhaps be called “the consideration, to the English, appointed a Committee, window of the balcony." Not having before consisting of the Earl of Lothian, Sir John Chaiselie, and noticed this peculiarity of the façade in the Robert Blair, to repair to London, when the sad cata- prints, I looked at the engravings in the King's strophe approached to do everything which might con
Collection; the result is, that Spilbergh's fine and duce to the good of Scotland. These three Commissioners life; and the General Assembly of the Kirk gave in a Fave in a protestation against taking away the King's large print of 1683, like most other illustrations
of this building, shows all windows ; that a drawn Testimony to the same purpose. But the Independents plan of the first floor, made in 1796 by J. T. were too slye and powerful for the Presbyterians: and Groves, an Arcbitect, and also Clerk of the Works the unfortunate king was ordered to be put to death by for Whitehall under the Board of Works, shows a public execution. The Scots Commissioners gave the following account of that abominable event to the Kirk
two windows on each side of the centre window as in these terms :
blanks ! and still further, that T. Malton's large
perspective view, in 1781, shows the same two "•Right Revd and Honble,
blank windows on each side! This print also gives ** This day, about two of the Clock in the afternoon, the north projection, and its two small windows, his Majesty was brought out, at the window of the balcony of the Banqueting House of Whitehall, near which a stage
one above the other, much smaller than those of was set up, and his head struck off with an axe; where the façade, and out of which the king could not with we hold it our duty to inform you: and so, being in have gone, as regards height. Does not all this