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means runner.

was also done between the Metropolis and Ire- ways have effected a great change, and the old land, Holyhead, Chester, and Exeter. Thomas system of relays of horses and men, which gave Randolf was appointed postmaster in 1581. the name of post to the conveyance of the mails of James I. established a post-office under Mathew letters, is nearly superseded. Before the railways, de Quester or de l'Equester (Latch. Rep. 87; 1 the mail-bags were deposited in a receptacle above Black, 327), and other offices were erected in the boot, which opened at the top, and on which 1643 and 1657. Mathew de Quester was suc- the Guard placed bis feet when mounted on his ceeded by Lord Stanhope, Wm. Frizell, Thomas iron chair behind, with his long metal horn in his Witherings, and Pbilip Burlamachy. But our hand, and a blunderbuss within reach. The four present system was first conceived' by Edmond horses were changed at stations or inns about ten Prideaux, at one time Attorney-General, and miles apart; the coachman or driver was changed afterwards Post-Master, and it is founded on the after a spell of sixty or seventy miles, whilst the statute 12 Car. II. c. 35, and moderated, regu- guard went about three times that distance. lated, and improved by 9 Anne, c. 10; 6 Geo. I.

T. J. BUCKTON. c. 21; 26 Geo. II. c. 2 and 13; 4 Geo. III. c. 24; 5 Geo. III. c. 25; 7 Geo. III. c. 50; 24 Geo. III. The first institution of posts is ascribed to the st. 2, c. 37; 28 Geo. III. c. 9 ; 34 Geo. III. c. 17; Persians (see Diodorus Siculus, book xix.) They 35 Geo. III. c. 53, &c. WYNNE E. BAXTER.

placed sentinels on eminences at different distances, who gave notice of public occurrences to

one another with a very loud shrill voice, by The word translated post in the Old Testament which means news was transmitted speedily from These runners were similar to the

one end of the kingdom to the other. But as running footmen of a recent age. The same name this could not be made use of for private purin rats, was applied also to those who were sent

poses, Cyrus, as Xenophon relates (Cyropædiu, out on horses, mules, camels, and young drome-book viii.), set up couriers, places for post horses daries. (Esther, viii. 10.) They were properly on all high roads, and offices where packets were a body-guard (1 Sam. xxii

. 17; 2 Kings, s. 25, delivered from one to another. This, says Xenoxi. 6; 1 Kings, i. 5, xiv. 27;2 Sam. xv. l), called phon, they did night and day, neither rain nor hard sometimes runners, post, guards, and captains in weather stopping them. Herodotus (book viii.) our version. (See Kitto on Esther, viii. 10; 1 gives similar testimony; and he tells us also, that Sam. viii. 11.)

Xerxes, in his expedition against Greece, planted In the Old Testament there is no evidence of posts from the Ægean Sea to Shushan at the disfixed stations for relays of horses or men, which tance which a horse could go with speed. The is essential to our notions of posting and postal Greeks borrowed the use of posts from the Perarrangements. Such arrangements were first sians, and in imitation of them called them oryaput. regal; and it is only in modern times that they In the Roman empire the Emperor Augustus were made general for the accommodation of the first set up public posts; which were running public, as well as for the advantage of the state. footmen, afterwards changed into post chariots

Herodotus (viii. 98) and Xenophon (Instit. and horses for the greater expedition. Adrian Cyr., viii. 6), mention that, among the ancient reduced them to regularity: he also discharged Persians, stations were appointed at intervals the people from the obligation they were under along the great roads of the empire, where cou- of finding horses and chariots. They fell with the riers were constantly kept in readiness, night and empire. About 807, Charlemagne endeavoured day, to bear despatches and intelligence. Simi- to restore them ; but was not successful, and his lar institutions, as we learn from Suetonius, were successors did not follow up his intentions. maintained amongst the Romans in the time of In France, Louis IX. set up posts at two Julius Cæsar (57). These were royal posts. Ge- leagues distance through the kingdom. In Gerneral posts were first instituted in modern Europe many, Count Taxis made a postal arrangement; by Charlemagne, Louis XI. (19 June, 1464), by the and, in 1816, he had the office of PostmasterEmperor Charles V., and by our Edward' iv. General conferred on him and his heirs for ever. (1481). In the reign of Henry VIII. men and horses In our own country, Postmasters existed in were pressed for the post, sent not so often as twice very early times; but their duty was only to find in a month, at the rate of twelve pence daily to the post-horses for persons who wished to travel exgovernment for one borse and man. Sir Brian peditiously, and dispatching extraordinary packets Tuke was the first post-master (1533), succeeded upon special occasions. In the time of James I. by Sir Wm. Paget and John Mason, Esq., in 1545, a government post office was created, under the their wages being 66l. 138. 4d. a year, in addition control of one Matthew de Quester, or L'Equesto cost of carrying letters, of which they had to ter, for the conveyance of letters to and from render accounts periodically for reimbursement. foreign parts. This was claimed by Lord StanSee Encyc. Brit., art. “ Post-Office.") The rail. hope; but was continued to William Frizell and

one

Thomas Witherings by King Charles I., 1632, for HOOPS AND CRINOLINES, ETC. the better accommodation of the English mer

(3rd S. iv. 85, 238, &c.) chants. In 1635, Charles I. erected a letter office for England and Scotland : and the same Thomas

“ Pars minima est ipsa puella sui.” Witherings settled the rates of postage and di- This line which, incorrectly quoted by J. L. in rected it. The postmasters on the road were to find horses for the mail at the rate of 24d. per LORD LYTTELTON (p. 260), was prefixed by Ad

p. 238, jars so unpleasantly on the musical ear of mile. This Witherings was found guilty of abuses dison to the Tatler, No. 116; in which he lashes in 1640, and Philip Borlamachy exercised his with no sparing hand the then prevailing mode of power under the Secretary of State. On the

wearing large petticoats, which “monstrous inbreaking out of the Civil War great confusion was ventions” he appears to have detested as much as occasioned; but the outline of the present postal the modern Tatler Punch (for both the papers system was conceived by Mr. Edmund Prideaux,

on this subject in the Spectator and Tatler are who was Attorney-General to the Commonwealth attributed to him): observing (Spectator, 127,) after the murder of King Charles. He was chair- that the first time he saw a lady so attired, he man of a committee, in 1642, for considering what could not help blaming her in his thoughts for rates should be set upon inland letters, and after walking abroad when “so near her time;" and wards was appointed Postmaster by an ordinance insinuating, that the fashion was introduced by of both Houses (see Commons' Journal). He first

some crafty women, in order to conceal their conestablished a weekly conveyance of letters into dition and so escape the censure of the world. all parts of the kingdom. The Common Council But the fact is, that this same fashion was far of London endeavoured to oppose his post office, from being a novelty even in the Augustan age: and Parliament declared it had the disposal of for it is as old, if not older, than the time of posts. One

Manley afterwards farmed the office Queen Elizabeth; whose august person, in comin 16.54. The Protector and his Parliament

mon with that of Sir Roger de Coverley's greatmodelled it nearly the same as it continued until grandmother (who, Addison tells us, wore the reign of Queen Anne. After the Restoration of the modern petticoats"), was adorned with a a similar office, with some improvements, was farthingale - certainly the ancestor of the farestablished by statute 12 Car. II. c. 25. The famed crinoline. rates of letters were altered, and other regulations

Farthingales, or fardingales, seem to have died added, by 9 Anne, c. 10. Alterations were made

out before 1640, as they do not appear in Holby Georges I. II. and III., and penalties were

bein's dresses (“N. & Q.," 1st S. iii. 53). Queen exacted to confine the sending of letters by post Anne's era, however, revived them under another only. The privilege of sending letters free through

name; and they continued to be worn more or post, or franking, was claimed by Members of less either in ordinary, or court dress, till they were Parliament in 1660; when the post office was ignominiously expelled from St. James's by the regulated nearly as it has continued, except some

" first gentleman in Europe;" who, as the “slave slight alterations regarding weight, franking, &c., of buttons and tight breeches,” strongly objected until the present Penny Postage was introduced

to so loose a costume. by the great benefactor of letters-Rowland Hill.

In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1753 (p. 483), W. I. S. HORTON.

is a poem, styled “ A Recipe for a Lady's Dress,

in which the sex is enjoined to The literal translation of 1799, Job ix. 25, is,

“ Make your petticoat short, that a hoop eight yards than a runner, or courier; and does not of neces- wide, sity imply the existence of anything correspond- May decently show how your garters are ty’d.” ing to our postal system.

About 1793 the hoop, or fardingale, took a peIn Esther viii. 10 and 14, however, we find the culiar form called the pad," which excited the definite article employed, D'877," the couriers ;" abuse of the scribblers of George 1II.'s reign, as and these couriers appear to have been mounted much as its predecessor had done those of Anne. on horses and other swift animals, though it is by A farce was brought on the stage to ridicule it; no means certain what those animals were.

and the press teemed with scurrilous pamphlets Houbigant translates thus : “ Missæque sunt and lampoons, attributing the wearing it, as Ad. per cursores litteræ vectos equis celeribus,” &c. dison had done before, to the worst of purposes.* This verse certainly appears to support the idea that there was a certain class of men who were * The following is a portion of the title of a brochure usually employed in this specific occupation. of 1793: “Humorous Hints to Ladies of Fashion, who

C. J. ELLIOTT. wish to appear perpetually Prolific. In Letters from Winkfield Vicarage.

Lady Tabitha Twins in London, to her Friends in the Country. Embellished with a portrait of a lady of extraordinary fecundity," &c. (Symonds, 8vo, 1793.)

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It is odd that this fashion should have had its muff; the sea shall be searched for shells, and the rocks rise under Queen Elizabeth, been revived under for gems; and every part of nature furnish out its share

towards the embellishment of a creature that is the most Queen Anne, and, finally let us hope, reached its

consummate of it. All this I shall indulge them in; bat climax under Queen Victoria.

as for the PETTICOAT I have been speaking of, I neither Let us console ourselves, however, that the in

can nor will allow it." troduction of hoops has at least not been followed

H, S. G. by the revival of the other fashionable absurdities of a bygone day: such as pet monkeys, china mori

NEWSPAPER FOLK LORE. sters, musty snuff ;* and though last, not least, that monstrous abortion the perriwig.f

(1st S. vi. 221, 338, 466 ; ix. 29, 84, 276, 523.) It is said that the “flowing peruke,” worn by The early numbers of “ N. & Q." recorded Colley Cibber in the character of Lord Fopping many supposed cases of reptile swallowing. They ton, I was so immense, that when it was carried

are of course fictitious. The following cutting across the stage in a sedan chair, his own absence from the Leeds Mercury of August 19, shows that from under, or rather out of, it was not discovered the superstition is current in Sweden as well as by the audience! In fact, to quote from the play Britain: itself, “it would serve him for hat and cloak in

"* A peasant from Trehërningssjö Kapell,' says a phy, all weathers."

sician at Dernköldsvik, in his official report to the Royal In the Prologue to Haut Ton, written by Geo. Swedish Sanitary College, “visited me at the beginning Colman, I find enumerated :

of this year to consult me regarding an unwelcome guest “ The Tyburn scratch, thick Club and Temple tyes,

that had got into his stomach, namely, a snake. During The parson's feather-top, frizzed, broad, and high!

a journey, he had slept one night in a peasant's cottage The coachman's cauliflower, built tiers on tiers ! ”S

in a wicker basket which stood upon the floor, and at

once he woke, feeling something which resembled a cold There were also “triple-bobs" and “bob- live body sliding down his throat. He remembered that majors," &c.

he had seen some large and half-decayed logs brought in Although I fear my paper is much too long for the fire-place, and at once bethought himself that already, I cannot resist transcribing the following very likely a snake might have lain in one of the holes observations, of Addison's at the end of the

in these logs, and during the night have come out to seek “Petticoat Trial" (Tatler, 116):

a warmer dwelling by sliding down the sleeper's open

mouth into his stomach. This idea became quite rooted “ I consider," says he, “woman as a beautiful romantic with him. When he got home he took Epsom salts and animal, that may be adorned with furs and feathers, aloes in enormous doses, but the snake, which had at pearls and diamonds, ores and silks. The lynx shall once notified its presence by suckings just below the cast its skin at her feet to make her a tippet; the pea

navel and bites in the abdomen (!), was not brought to cock, parrot, and swan, shall pay contributions to her light. After this the poor sufferer drank at once half-a

gallon or more of warm mare's urine, but of no avail. * “A great quantity of musty snuff was captured in Had he had more, he said, he should have drank more. the Spanish fleet which was taken, or burnt, at Vigo, Now he drank a quartern of nitric acid mixed with three 1703: it soon became fashionable to use no snuff but what had this musty flavour.”—Nichols's Tatler, No. 27,

pints of water, but equally unavailing; the snake only grew more restive. Next a sort of soup was made of

thin sour ale and the juice from tobacco pipes which had “ Sincerity in love," say Lady Betty Modish, “is as much out of fashion as sweet snuff ; nobody takes it retchings, and at last vomiting followed, but the man only

not been cleaned for more than a year. Cold sweatings

, now.”—Cibber's Careless Husband, A.D. 1704.

got worse. He now tried, assisted by two friends, to kill + The dandies of Queen Anne's time used to carry a comb in their pockets, and it was considered a fast thing continued during nine hours to knead away, and the snake

the snake by squeezing it to death; and he and his friends to comb the periwig in public! This monstrously absurd really became more quiet for about twenty-four hours, custom is frequently alluded to in contemporaneous literature. Molière, in the Impromptu de Versailles, giving

but that was all. After having drunk several quarterns directions to La Grange how to enact the part of a Mar

of turpentine to no use, an attempt was made at angling

for it." A sort of fish hook was made of iron wire, and a quis ridicule, bids him remember to enter “avec cet air lump of dough composed of flour, white of eggs, treacle

, qu'on nomme le bel air, peignant votre perruque, &c. It is noticed in the Tatler, and, not to multiply instances, in

and butter, was put on as bait. The hook, fixed to :

string, was then swallowed, and after about balf an hour, the following extracts from Some Observations on the Answer to { Echard's? ] Enquiry into the Grounds of the and the patient could distinctly feel how the snake elung

bite' was felt, and the string was therefore hauled in, Contempt of the Clergy, by J. B., 1696:

to the book; but unfortunately, just as it came to the “ As having nothing (poor heart) to say against the

gorge the snake let go its hold, and down it sank again clergyman, he combs his peruke at him."It is no such easy matter, upon my word, to judge fortunate, as the hook got fixed in the throat, and it took

into the stomach. The next attempt was still more un how much of the handkerchief shall hang out of the coat long to get it loose again. It would have been thought pocket, and how to poyse it exactly with the tortoiseshell that this would have induced the patient to give up any comb on the other side," &c. I In Vanbrugh's Relapse, better known as altered by made, and an extra tackle fixed at the hollow part of the

further attempts at angling; but no, a third attempt was Sheridan, A Trip to Scarborough. § Comp. Juvenal, Sat. VI. 500:

hook, to be able to get it loose if it should fix again.

This time the snake would not bite at all; the honk was “ Tot premit ordinibus, tot ad huc compagibus altum drawn up bare, and all further attempts at angling relin, Ædificat caput."

quished. Quite in despair, the peasant now consulted

note.

a

mon once more.

me (the physician spoken of above). I tried to reason as now usually worn, The Roman fashion has curwith him, but it was no use; he clung to his idea. I tailed the dalmatic as it has all other ecclesiastical have since heard that he has consulted both physicians and others, and was at last obliged to return home unal

vestments - a practice which has quite spoilt their leviated. When he got home he became addicted to beauty (this is particularly noticeable in the drink, which seems to have been the only remedy which chasuble and surplice), and is justly stigmatised after some time really has cured him.' The tale seems so by Jebb as corrupt. wonderful that it is difficult to believe it, but as it is taken of the scarf but little need be said: it is worn from an official report of a Swedish physician, there can be no doubt of its truth.”-Swedish Paper.

by all cathedral dignitaries and chaplains as of GRIME.

right, and represents probably the choir tippet; the stole ought to be worn over it. The modern

practice of the ordinary clergy wearing the scarf BISHOPS' ROBES.

instead of the stole has, like many other customs,

no warrant whatever. (3rd S. iv. 267.)

I do not think that the trencher cap so much in The impression of J. B. regarding the dress of vogue with our bishops was ever worn during an Anglican bishop of the present day is not quite divine service, although the zuchetto and biretta accurate. This dress consists of-(1) the cassock; were so worn by priests. The proper bead dress (2) the sleeveless rochet; (3) the chimere, with of a bishop during the divine mysteries is a mitre; lawn sleeves attached; (4) the scarf; (5) the tren- and it is to be hoped that the use of this most ancher-cap. On each of these I propose to say a

cient and symbolical ornament will become comfew words. The cassock when worn without the

Some of the colonial bishops other episcopal vestments, is most improperly cut have revived its proper use, but the majority of short at the knees, which has led to the vulgar our right reverend prelates are content to see it error of calling it “the bishop's apron;" the figured as an heraldic (pace Mr. Lower) embelsame thing has occurred with the cassocks ordi-lishment, although it is by no means uncommon narily worn by deans and archdeacons. At the to find the marble effigies of deceased bishops present time, too, the bishop's cassock is black adorned with mitres. York Minster furnishes instead of purple, as it should be. Bishop Twells numerous instances of post-reformation archwore one of the

proper
colour.

bishops represented with mitre and pastoral staff. The rochet is a linen vestment less ample than J. B. is doubtless aware that by the rubric a a surplice, but made in plaits, and having close bishop is bound to wear an alb or surplice over sleeves like an alb. The lawn sleeves are the his rochet and a cope when celebrating the Holy sleeves of the rochet, although now very impro- Communion, and also to have his pastoral staff perly fastened to the chimere, and exaggerated to

with him.

J. A. Pn. an almost ludicrous extent. The rochet was the canonical dress of a bishop in public until the The rochette, according to Tyrwhitt, was a woman's Reformation, but was also worn by doctors of loose upper garment. (Chaucer's Romaunt of the laws, canons of cathedrals, and other dignitaries, Rose). From Palmer's Origines Liturgicæ and the as may be seen from many brasses, tombs, and dress of Bishop Fox, represented in Fairholt's Cospictures. A priest too often wore a sleeveless tume of England (p. 275), it appears that the lower rochet at baptisms, in order that his arms might part is the chimere, and the upper part (breast be more at liberty.

and sleeves) is the rochette, defined as “a black The chimere is generally considered to be a satin dress, with lawn sleeves worn by Protestant sort of cope with holes for the arms : its colour bishops." “ The word rochette is not of great anwas scarlet, and its material silk until the time of tiquity, and perhaps cannot be traced back further Bishop Hooper, who got the black satin chimere than the thirteenth century.” (Fairholt, p. 276). substituted for the more ancient one. A scarlet | It was adopted by the clergy in the Middle Ages, silk cbimere is worn by the bishops at the meet- and is still worn (id. p. 591). " The alb is the ings of convocation, and when the sovereign opens origin of all surplices and rochets, and the former Parliament. Jebb says, “ Perhaps, however, the article only varies from it now in having wider origin of both the chimere, the Oxford habit, and sleeves.” (Id. p. 409, and pl. at p. 50; Jebb's Cambridge doctorial cope, and the episcopal man- Choral Services, p. 219). telletum may all be derived from the dulmatic or If the square cap of the universities was fortunicle, which was formerly a characteristic part of merly that part of the amice which covered the the dress of bishops and deacons.” If this sup- head, and afterwards became separated from it, position be correct—which is very probable as the as Du Cange supposes, it was originally worn Greek dalmatic or colobion, as it is called by the during divine service. (Fairholt, pp. 276, 410.) Eastern Church, unlike the Roman vestment, has | It was customary in France to wear the amice on no sleeves the chimere should not reach much the head from the Feast of All Saints until Easter, below the knee, instead of extending to the feet, letting it fall back upon the shoulders during the

your

gospel. Anciently, as capuchon or bood, it was, Joseph Fowke (3rd S. iv. 287.)—“Died at Bath, according to Durand, typical of the helmet of sal- aged eighty-four, Joseph Fowke, Esq. (May 16, vation. (Id. 411.) A bishop of the time of Charles 1800)." See Gentleman's Magazine for 1800, II. wears a cap approximating to the present vol. Ixx. part 1. p. 493.

'Adieus. square cap, as represented by Fairholt (p. 327). Dublin.

T. J. BuckToN. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD (3rd S. iv. 188.)– The

following extract from a note appended to CarYour correspondent J. B. inquires if the “square i dinal Wiseman's Lectures on the Principal Doccap," pow carried by bishops, was not at one time trines and Practices of the Catholic Church, worn by them during divine service? I should say delivered in Moorfields in 1836, will throw light certainly not; for the cap in question is the or- upon the observation of Daillé, that the Church dinary out-door college cap, and is very different of Rome has utterly abolished the custom of

prayfrom the square priest's cap still worn by Roman ing for the saints departed, of which Lord LyrCatholic clergy, and which was retained in our TELTON seeks an explanation in

columns : own church up to the last century. There is, or

“ Dr. Pusey's opinion is — 1st. That in the ancient was, one of these square caps preserved in this church, prayers were offered for all the departed, includtown, which was unquestionably worn by a vicar ing apostles and martyrs, in the same manner. 2ndly; of one of the parish churches about the time of That such prayers had reference, not to the alleviation of the invasion of the Pretender. He must have pain, but to the augmentation of happiness, or the hastenbeen a high-churchman, for it is recorded of him, ing of perfect joy, not possessed by them till the end

of time. 3rdly. That the cruel'invention of purgatory that he prayed publicly for “ King James” during is modern. 4thly. That the English Church allows the occupancy of the town by Prince Charles prayer for the dead, in that more comprehensive and Edward.

J. B. general form. As to the first, there is no doubt that, Derby.

in the ancient liturgies, the saints are mentioned in the same prayer as the other departed faithful: from the

simple circumstance, that they were so united before the The rochet is certainly an ancient ecclesiastical public suffrage of the church proclaimed them to belong to dress; a kind of surplice, but differing from it in

a hippier order. * Dr. Pusey, too, is doubtless well having either close sleeves, or no sleeves at all. acquainted with the saying of the same father (St. AuWide sleeves were never any part of a rochet.

gustine), that he does injury to a martyr who prays for

à martyr,'— Injuriam facio martyri, qui orat pro marThough it was originally worn by priests, and tyre.? » even sometimes by acolyths, it became afterwards,

It is well known that the Church of Rome dis. and long before the change of religion in this tinguishes between those who die in a state of country, a vestment reserved for bishops.

The square cap began to be used in the fifteenth grace, but have yet to satisfy (as she teaches) in century: it was worn on the head at certain their sins; and “the perfect," who (to use the

purgatory for the temporal punishment due to parts of the divine offices, but not at others, as it words of Liguori)“ leave this world purified from still is in the services of the Catholic Church.

all stain by patience and holy works.” F. C. H.

There is a difference of opinion in the Church of Rome with regard to the former, whether they can pray for others or not.

Thomas Aquinas Brian King and MARTYR (3rd S. iv. 304.)-1 maintaining the affirmative, and Bellarmin and presume that the martyr king in question is no other others the negative; but with regard to the saints than the celebrated Brian Boromhe, or Buru, "reigning together with Christ," in the words of slain by the Danish admiral, Bruadair, at the the Council of Trent, the Roman Church teaches battle of Clontarf. The battle was fought on that they are undoubtedly to be invoked and Good Friday, A.D. 1014. The aged Brian was their intercession to be sought. slain whilst earnestly engaged in prayer, and I may add that whilst Berington and Kirk, in while the shouts of his victorious soldiers were ring. The Faith of Catholics, appeal to the same pasing in his ears. “Brianus, rex Hiberniæ, Parasceve sage of Epiphanius – which is cited by Daillé, as Paschæ, sexta feria 9 calendas Maii, manibus et proof of the practice of the ancients — they omit mente ad Deum intentus necatur" are the words that portion of it in which Epipbanius makes menused by the chronicler. The monks of St. Patrick tion of the Apostles, Evangelists, and Martyrs. kept watch over the dead monarch for twelve

C. J. ELLIOTT. days and nights, commending his soul to the mercy

Winkfield Vicarage. of God. If this be the Brian sought for by HIBER

Mrs. HEMANS'S FAMILY (3rd S. iv. 323.) – I Nicus, it certainly does seem strange that he should have always supposed “ The Graves of a Housebe commemorated March 12, and not on April 23, bola” to be imaginary. Is there evidence to the day of his murder. W. Bowen ROWLANDS.

• The italics are mine.

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