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often subjected to corporal punishments. very plentiful, on account of the numbers The rule is to try the effect of rewards and who enter the learned profession, and fail in of persuasion, until it is plain that these will attaining the higher degrees. not operate ; after which it is the custom to "Every principal city is furnished with disgrace a boy by making him remain on his halls of examination, and the embassy of knees before the whole school, or sometimes 1816 was lodged in one of these buildings, at the door, while a stick of incense (a sort of at Nanheung-foo, a town at the bottom of slow match) burns to a certain point; the the pass which leads northward from Canton last resort is to flog him.
province. It consisted of a number of halls " The object of the Government, as Dr. and courts, surrounded by separate cells for Morrison justly observed, in making educa- the candidates, who are admitted with no. tion general, is not to extend the bounds of thing but blank paper and the implements of knowledge, but to impart the knowledge writing; a part of the system which corres. already possessed to as large a portion as ponds with our college examinations. The possible of the rising generation, and to students who succeed in their own district, pluck out true talento from the mass of the at the annual examination, are ranked as community for its own service. The advance. seutsae, or bachelors, and according to their ment of learning, or discoveries in physical merits are drafted for further advancement science, are not in its contemplation. It until they become fitted for the triennial exprescribes the books to be studied; a depar- amination, held at the provincial capital by ture from which is heterodory, and dis- an officer expressly deputed from the Hanlin countenances all innovations that do not College at Pekin. The papers consist of originate with itself. In this we may per- moral and political essays on texts selected ceive one of the causes, not only of the from the sacred books, as well as of verses stationary and unprogressive character of on given subjects. Pains are taken to pre. Chinese Institutions, but likewise of their vent the examiners from knowing the authors permanency and continuance.
of the essays and poems; but of course this "The process of early instruction in the cannot always be effectual in shutting out language is this : they first teach children a abuses. few of the principal characters (as the names * Those who succeed at the triennial exof the chief objects in nature or art) exactly aminations attain the rank of Kiu-jin, which as we do the letters, by rude pictures, having may be properly termed licentiate, as it the characters attached. Then follows the qualifies for actual employment; and once Santse-king, or trimetrical classic' being a in three years all these licentiates repair to summary of infant erudition, conveyed in Pekin (their expenses being paid if necessary) chiming lines of three words or feet. They to be examined for the Tsin-sse, or doctor's soon after proceed to the 'Four Books,' which
degree, to which only thirty can be admitted contain the doctrines of Confucius, and which, at one time. From these doctors are selected with the Five Classics,' subsequently added, the members of the Imperial college of Hanare in fact the Chinese Scriptures. The lin, after an examination held in the Palace Four Books they learn by heart entirely, and itself. These fortunate and illustrious perthe whole business of the literary class is sons form the body from whom the ministers afterwards to comment on them, or compose of the empire are generally chosen. essays on their tests. Writing is taught by “A man's sons may or may not be intracing the characters with their hair pen. strumental, by their literary success, in recil on transparent paper placed over the flecting honour on their parents, or advancing copy, and they commence with very large them in worldly rank and prosperity; but characters in the first instance. Specimens the mere chance of this, joined to the heavy of this species of caligraphy are contained in responsibility for their conduct, is a great the Royal Asiatic Transactions. In lieu of inducement to fathers to bring them up with slates, they generally nse boards painted care, and may serve to account for the great white, to save paper, washing out the writing and universal prevalence of a certain degree when finished. Instructors are of course of education throughout the empire.”
PUBLIC MEETING ON BEHALF OF THE CHINESE MISSION.
A MEETING of the Subscribers and Friends to the London Missionary Society was held at Exeter Hall, Wednesday, November 30, with a view of considering the present and prospective claims of China, specially upon this Society, for the enlargement of its operations in that empire. The attendance was very numerous. On the platform were observed Sir E. N. Buxton, Bart, M.P., Sir C. Eardley Eardley, the Rev. Drs. Leifchild, Morison, Campbell, Fletcher, and Henderson ; the Rev. Messrs. Mannering, Harrison, Trestrail, Aldis, J. A. James, Sibree, Sherman, Stoughton, Burnet, &c. &c. The Earl of Shaftesbury occupied the chair.
The following is an abridged Report of the proceedings :
The Rev. E. Prout commenced by giving cally the free use, because the highest speout the 66th hynn, Missionary Hymn-book, culation, the deepest researches, the most “Yes, we trust the day is breaking,
profound learning, the most unwearied Joyful times are near at hand,” &c.
study, when taken alone, are of no avail The Rev. Dr. Morison having implored unless reduced to practice; and the greatest the Divine presence and blessing,
theologian that ever lived, or ever will live, The Rev. Dr. TIDMAN read a statement with all his big books, and studies, and midwith reference to the special object of the night lucrubations, will never get beyond meeting, similar in effect to that published those words of Our Blessed Lord, “When in the November Number of the “ Missionary thou art converted strengthen the brethren." Chronicle."
I confess that when I contemplate, as I often The Chairman then rose and said : Were do, the greatness, the power, the renown, it not the invariable custom for the Chair- the science, the wealth, the arms, and the man to open the meeting with some preli- arts of this mighty empire, I do tremble at minary remark, I should, after the paper the responsibility that is attached to these which you have just heard read, and upon a gifts. Sometimes we fear that we shall do subject such as this—great, manifest, and nothing at all, sometimes we must sit down indisputable--have proceeded at once to the with shame under the conviction that we do business of the day. The whole matter so little ; but now, by the blessing of God, commends itself to the judgment and feel. a great opening has been made an opening ings of every man who cares in the least greater than any one dared to hope for, degree for the human race. It requires nei. because greater than any one ever presumed ther statement nor argumentation; the to imagine. We must rush into that openactual reality is before us; the old wall of ing, for we know not how soon it may be Superstition is broken down; the empire of closed. Let us, therefore, thank God that China, with its three hundred millions, is the London Missionary Society has shown open to our efforts; the breach, so to itself equal to the emergency, that it is prespeak, is pregnable; the citadel is to be paring to send out men who shall bear with stormed, not by the potentates and by them the blessings of light and life to the the armies of Europe, but by Protestant nations who are sitting in darkness and in agents—by a noble rivalry of Protestant the shadow of death, and let us hope and Missionaries from every part of the civilized pray that these men will revive the glories of globe, and of crery evangelical denomina- past days, that they will equal, and even tion. Now, in the day in which we live, and excel Morrison, and Moffat, and Medhurst, in this country, thank God! we are no lon- and Williams, and that long list of wortbies ger required to show the principle and the who were an honour to the Society that success of Christian Missions--they have cherished them, to the land tbat gave them proved themselves to be the certain, the birth, and, I boldly maintain, to the whole necessary fruit of the free circulation and the family of mankind. Now, be it remembered, free use of God's Word. I say emphati. that, in advancing the knowledge of spiritual
truth and of the things of eternity, we are of England and America, are summoned to also subserving the interests of temporal action, let us go forward with energy and civilizatioa : this is a secondary, but not un- vigour; having put our hands to the plough, important consideration. Not to dwell upon for God's sake let us not go back. There the long periods of history in ancient times never was such an opportunity in the whole - from the promulgation of the Gospel down history of the Christian world as that which to the present day-not to touch upon the is now open before us. Let us, again I say, history of any race but our own, let me ask, go forward with energy and vigour, trusting What is it but the Bible, with all its blessed that, in so mighty a work, we shall have rigour, that has made you and this country every succour and every light from on high ; what you are? What is it but the Bible and although at the close, when we shall that has given life, and energy, and strength, have done all, we shall say from the heart, and expansive force to the Anglo-Saxon We are unprofitable servants,' yet let us race? What is but the Bible that has made bear in mind there is one other text revealed this little crag of England—a crag in compari- for our encouragement and our joy, “Thereson with the rest of the world, and scarcely fore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast, bigger by contrast than the store-house of its unmoveable, always abounding in the work own Bible Society—the fountain of empires, of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your the mother and sister of that tremendous peo- labour is not in vain in the Lord." ple on the other side of the Atlantic? And The Rev. Dr. LEIFCHILD rose and said : what but the Bible will combine those two I do not know the reason why this posi. great nations till they shall penetrate into tion has been assigned to me, unfit as I am every creek and recess of the earth, till there to lead off the addresses to be made to this shall be not a language, not a nation, or a assembly, excepting it be that I am one of people, where their combined voice shall not the oldest members of the London Missionbe heard? I do believe that there is in the ary Society, and one of the fellow-students of history of every nation, a period when the great Dr. Morrison, so closely connected Almighty Providence, surveying all His with the history of its proceedings. I remercies and His great gifts, determines to member the time when he had pledged himcome to an account for His just expectations. self to this great work, and took leave of us, I believe it is said, “Let us dig about it, and his brethren, to embark for the distant em. dung it; let it abide this year, and, if it bear pire of China. We commended him, from fruit, well; if not, then cut it down." The our hearts, to the grace of God, and listwo great events of this day-the Jubilee of tened to him, when he exhorted us with the Bible Society, and the opening of the tears in his eyes, saying, “ I beseech you, Chinese Empire-signify to us that such a for the Lord Jesus Christ's sake, and for the trial is now proceeding. God grant that we love of the Spirit, that ye strive together may not be found wanting in this great hour with God in your prayers for me.” We folof our trial and of our necessity. So far for lowed him with our prayers, and rejoiced in the country ; but for ourselves, as Christ. his success. Since that period I have been ians, collectively and individually, surely able to afford but little help to the London there is something nobler, higher, and more Missionary Society ; but I will say, that I durable, to be expected ; surely there is at have always been ready to obey its calls, and hand something great, weighty, and ever
With great cordiality, therefore, I lasting. Go where you will, speak to whom- propóse this Resolution for the adoption of soever you may, the most thoughtful or the the meeting :most indifferent, you will now find every one “ That this Meeting, devoutly acknowmusing more or less upon the strange state ledging Jehovah the Most High over all the of affairs. While, on the earth, there is earth, contemplates with wonder and awe " distress of nations, with perplexity, men's the present operations of His providence in hearts failing them for fear,”—while, in this China, by which the animating hope is engreat crisis, the Protestant nations of the couraged, that the system of idolatry which, earth, and especially the two great nations with deadly force, has prevailed for many centuries throughout that vast empire, is this is the Lord's doings, and it is marvel. about to be overthrown, and the millions of lous in our eyes.” I am well aware that we its inhabitants, hitherto shut up in Pagan shall be thought to argue too much from this darkness, to become accessible to the minis. revolutionary movement in a religions point ters of Christ, and the power of His Gos- of view. The remote consequences, in that pel."
respect, it will be said, are very far off. We are assembled to contemplate an event True; but yet I think, that if we examine that has taken place in the Eastern part of the character of the insurrectionary movethe world that wonderful revolution in the ment, we shall find enough to justify us in Chinese empire which has led to the open the view we are taking of it. Whatever be and the wide admission of the Scriptures, the immediate result, the insurgents have and the propagation of the religion con- been led to the demolition of idols, and to tained in their various parts. It is one of the adoption of the Ten Commandments of those changes in human affairs where the Moses, including the one denouncing image extraordinary consequences resulting from worship. They have stretched out their unexpected causes and circumstances con- hand to foreigners, the possessors of the strain the recognition, in all parties, of the Scriptures, inviting their aid and their en. hand of Providence in the acknowledgment lightenment. Whatever may happen, it is al. of his purposes—an event, therefore, which most next to impossible that that empire can ought to be brought before us, and pressed again fall under the incubus of superstition upon our attention again and again by those and idolatry; and it is almost impossible who have the means of giving us full inform- that it can be ever shut again from our enation upon the subject. For how many ages lightened works of art as it has been hereto. has that immense empire been walled out fore. We fondly hope that this will lead to from the rest of mankind! Its inhabitants the imbuing them with the love of the pure seem almost as distinct from the rest of their Word of God. It is a singular conjunction, race as if they had belonged to another pla- that while the way has thus been opening net; ample in its resources, consolidated in for the further and extensive circulation of its government, and perfectly unique in its the Scriptures, especially in that immense language, it thought itself the world; it empire, preparation has been making for the wamed itself, by way of eminence, “ the Ce- publication of them at a comparatively trilestial Empire," but there the Prince of fling expense. But it must not be forgotten Darkness-as it regards the religion that that this has been owing to the vast amount was to give light to the world--sat en- of expenditure, both of money and of means, throned, holding his hundreds of millions in by the London Missionary Society, in a new unsuspected captivity by their superstition, and better translation ; in furnishing printwill worship, and idolatry. We know the ing presses and type and all facilities for the attempts that were made from time to time work, until the New Testament in the Chito penetrate it with the light of Scripture nese language can be purchased for a very truth, and how partial was their success. few pence of our money. The Missionary Those attempts were chiefly made through Society laboured, and the Bible Society the corrupted medium of Papal instrumen. enters into its labours, and the approbation tality; but at length the London Missionary of Heaven rests upon them both. And now Society laid the foundation for the extension that the Scriptures are about to be much of th at light, by the translation of the Scrip. more extensively circulated in that great emtures into the strange vernacular of that pire, the London Missionary Society, with its Empire, and now, by a movement among characteristic spirit of enterprise, resolves on themselves, on their own parts, they have increasing the supply of the teachers of that thrown off the obstruction to its progress and blessed book. Well it knows that the written opened the way for the extension of its light; Scriptures will lie neglected and unheeded aud such an event, with the causes which till attention be called to them by the voice have led to it, and the consequences that of the living teacher. The reading of the may probably follow, lead us to say, “Surely Scriptures is not to supersede the necessity of
preaching, but rather to help it, and to be helped by it to secure its correctness and to identify it with the communications of inspired men. Those who have contributed to the additional supply of the Scriptures for China, must, if they would complete their work, contribute to the additional supply of the teachers of that blessed Word. I cannot doubt that when the Christian world has its duty fully set before it, it will promptly respond to the call. Some will give liberally out of their princely fortunes ; but I am desirous that the contributions should be general or universal-that every one may have a hand in sending forth a Missionary to some part of that vast empire, and thus share in the honour of its evangelization. I remember the time when Ame. rica was young; when the islands of the South Seas were scarcely discovered; when California and Australia were unknown; when India and China were thought at so great a distance as to be out of sight. But There are we now! We rise and stand on a higher point; we see the whole world coming forward to our notice, and a better order and a brighter state of things. It might be compared with the chaos when the creation was proceeding. The light that dawned on Eden extended itself, and feasting on the sight of such a morning, the stars sang together, and the sons of God shouted for joy. And so we rejoice at the unveiling of the new creation of the world in righteousness and true holiness. There is yet, however, wanting a desideratum for which the conversion of the world waits, and which is not to be expected till it comes to pass. I mean the harmonious agreement and co-operation of all the true disciples of Revelation of every name--the expulsion of a bitter pole. mical spirit and of denominational tendency, heart meeting heart, and hand joining in band to prosecute the great work of the Lord. I fear we may not be brought to this till, by the approach of some common danger, the whole of the Protestant Christian world shall be banded together for the diffusion and maintenance of Christian truth, and then the united Church shall look fresh as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners,
The Rev. W. W. CHAMPNEYS, Rector of
Whitechapel, and one of the Canons of St. Pauls : It is with the most sincere pleasure, and the utmost readiness and frankness, tha I acceded to that request, by which I con. ceived a very great honour was put on myself, in taking a part in the meeting of this day. It has been remarked, that whoever watches Providence will never want a Providence to watch. It is quaintly put, but those who study Providence know that it is truly put. It has struck my own mind that, among all the subjects of providential dealing in mo. dern times, the workings of God, in past times and the present, with regard to China, are the most remarkable, and afford to the student of Divine Providence a subject for holy and profitable meditation, and for great and strong encouragement to hope for the future. When we look at that remarkable empire, hermetically sealed from the rest of the world for so many hundreds, almost thousands of years--when we consider how that nation made some of the most remarkable discoveries which have been made by man—when we remember that gunpowder -(you will say, not a harbinger of peace; certainly not, but I believe that, in proportion to the increase of destructiveness in wars, has been their rareness and their sel. dom recurrence)—when we remember that that was discovered in China, that the use of the compass was known long before it was known in Europe, though they applied it, as Dr. Medburst tells us, rather to travel. ling by land to the coast from north to south than to ships, and called the chariots which had compasses “south-pointing chariots," reversing the needle---when we remiember that bridges were known and constructed in China long before the Greeks or Romans had thought of such a thing-and, above all, when we mark that God permitted the discovery of printing to take place in China, and that he has constituted that vast nation a reading population, we see in all these things proof that the Chinese mind is not deficient in power, if that were only once turned in a right direction. When we also remember, that the dialects of China are so different, that a man on one side of a stream, not thirty yards broad, will scarcely understand what another on the opposite side speaks, and yet remember that the language, so very