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would feed and clothe their children, for the purpose of teaching a number of children, ten times as great, to read and write ; children who otherwise must remain deprived of that important instruction ? If their parents are not able to feed and clothe them, an obligation is imposed upon the parish to do so. Why exempt the parish, at the expense of withholding the means of instruction in the arts of reading and writing from a number of children many times greater than those whom your funds will enable

you to clothe and feed ? True it is, that there are a few children, whose destitute situation is the result of peculiar circumstances, whom the humane would wish to exempt from the degradation of the parish. But we ask, Are these the favourites who are in general selected for the advantages of the charityschool ? We desire that our readers will ponder upon this question, and make their reflections. Are there not sufficient causes to prevent the most proper objects for this species of charity, if such a charity exists, from being almost ever selected for it?

Mrs. Cappe not only dwells upon these important circumstances, but actually represents the mode of existence in a charity-school, as being radically incapable of serving as a good preparation for the business of life. This is a point of great importance. And Mrs. Cappe has been struck with it, like a person of intelligence and reflection.

One habit a charity-school, she observes, can never breed ; and that is, a habit of looking forward, and of making provision for the future. Whoever contemplates human life with an eye of any intelligence, and observes of how much importance a habit of this kind is for happiness in every condition of fortune, and above all in the least favoured conditions, will be forcibly struck with the pertinence of our author's remarks. In a charity-school, the supply is regular, like the return of night and day; without anticipation and care on the part of the scholars, or, as far as they see, on the part of any body. How different is the case in the houses of their parents! What experience in them do they gather of the necessity of care and foresight, to avoid the greatest evils ! and how deeply must the impression of that necessity be struck upon their minds! The experience which they have of the necessity under which their parents are laid, of thinking and acting for the benefit of the future, does not always succeed in making them provident and careful ; but they are in circumstances much more likely to make them so, in a private family, than in a charity-school.

In the monotonous circumstances of a charity-school, no knowledge is acquired of the ways of the world; of its accidents, its trials, its snares, and temptations; and young persons issue from those receptacles unprepared for almost every thing with which they are to meet; ill qualified to struggle either with difficulties or temptations. It is evident that these iinportant reflections apply with equal force to the case of children brought up in workhouses, even when they are brought up, which is "hardly possible, without any particular taint.

We shall mention one other improvement, which Mrs. Cappe urges with much importunity. It relates to the various species of hospitals for the sick. She observes, with great justice, that they fail of answering, as completely as they ought to do, the important purposes which they are destined to serve, chiefly from one circumstance; a very defective system of inspection. She does not enter upon the task of describing the organization which, in the great general view of the subject, would be adapted most perfectly to the end. But she points out what would be a remedy to at least one class of evils with which the hospitals abound, and that is, many of the miseries to which the female patients, as females, are exposed. These, she says, are more in number, as well as heavier in degree, than, without experience, it is easy to imagine. With a view to this department, she thinks, and thinks with justice, that a committee of lady visitors would be attended with the most beneficial results. In catholic countries, she observes, there are classes of nuns, who devote themselves to the philanthropic purpose of visiting the sick in hospitals and elsewhere ; and she appeals to the experience of those countries, for the proofs of the benefit which she represents as likely to flow from the female inspection which she recommends. For our own parts, we can have no doubts whatsoever concerning the beneficial tendency of such a visitation; and we conceive that it is impossible for any one to think upon the circumstances of the case, and not to be struck with it. Mrs. Cappe then appeals to the virtue of her countrywomen,

and surely the good which the power of superstition could extract from their sex in other countries, the power of benevolence will extract from them in this.

says, that

27

To the EDITOR of The PuILANTHROPIST.

It has been sometimes attempted through the channel of the Press to draw the commiseration of mankind upon the sufferings of the numerous living beings subject to their perpetual control, or casually taken as prey; either for food, or wanton destruction. Alas!. the attempt has hitherto failed of any great degree of reforination.

Yet there is no doubt but that many a feeling mind has revolted with horror from the common practices of cruelty, which it has not dared to arraign at the tribunal of reason, from a dread of the overpowering influence of ridicule; to which weapon the unfeeling part of our species continually resort in support of their unholy cause. It is also probable that despair of doing good operates as a reason with many for withholding any endeavour more powerful or general than that of their own example and private conversation.

Few, indeed, are the hepes of any general amelioration of the condition of animals, since it has not been in the power of the humane exertions of Lord Erskinie, and those who were willing to aid the cause of benevolence with him, to sanction with the voice of the Legislature a regard to the feelings of those beasts, rendered important to men by their particular usefulness, which, therefore, might well be supposed to have the greatest claim

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Still there undoubtedly are many of the human race who continually regret, and are grieved at the daily sight and reflection of the dreadful pains inflicted by their brethren on a variety of creatures, presumptuously said to be only made for our use ; though it may most reasonably be supposed that every living thing has its own ends and interests. We will not dispute the right, or rather, that the wants and convenience of man make it necessary for him to consider the Lives of other animals to be at his disposal. Let it he so considered. But let us appeal to the conscience of those who REALLY THINK, whether something ought not to be done to lessen the pangs of expiring life in every creature consigned by us to death.; and, where a protracted existence for our service is allotted, to make that existence tolerably easy?

It is wished in this little essay to avoid particular descriptions of sufferings but too well known. But it is also wished, that at

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tention should be employed upon the possibility of less horrid ways than those at present used to kill those beings who possess in a very unfortunate degree a tenacity of life. Here surely the Electric Fluid and deleterious Gases might become the means of mercy, perhaps, to millions of creatures. If the enlightened philosopher wou!I take up such a cause as the extinction, or even the lessening of torture, his before praiseworthy painstakings in the discovery of the laws of nature might avert evils from, if not procure blessings for, many tribes of beings, and be rewarded by the good opinion of such of his own species as desire to mitigate the agonies of all that live.

We have seen, that when a few have had courage to withstand the prevailing opinion of the necessity of some kinds of oppression, and constancy in repelling the unjust attacks of that prevailing opinion, whether it assailed them by calumny or contempt; that such courage and constancy, at length strengthened by the general philanthropy it had awakened, performed good service to humanity. Let us then hope that something can be done for those, that the common people, when inclined to pity them, expressively call poor Dumb Creatures ; which appellation certainly conveys the idea of an unjust advantage : taken of their want of those faculties, which might, if possessed, have somewhat guarded them, or excited more sympathy for them. Some

young minds possess great feeling for the creatures around us : Some are naturally callous in this respect. To confirin the first in their good disposition, and to prevent any acts of cruelty the latter may be likely to commit, is the evident worthy intention of some lately published Children's Books. But it is necessary that Parents and Teachers join their living aid as occasions arise, to those precepts to be found in books, I am afraid that in Boys' Schools, any thing of this sort is little thought of: To say no worse.

Ministers of Religion surely have it often in their power to do general good in this way. Many of them are probably well inclined to do so. A life of devotion and study should soften the mind even if originally obdurate. And how is it that their congregations, of whatever religious persuasion, should, when solemnly assembled to implore of God mercy and blessings for themselves, not remember the evil of their own habits to the innumerable objects to which it is in their power to extend mercy ? Repugnance to hurt any creature ought to follow, Where this is not the effect of such contemplation; how much

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more consistent with his Life are the Petitions of an innocent Bramin praying to receive from Heaven the mercy he bestows on Earth!

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In a former number we brought down our account of the History of Sierra Leone as far as the 16th of December 1792. That day happened to be Sunday. The Governor, as was then said,

being about to leave the colony, availed himself of it as the last isolemn opportunity he should have of addressing the settlers on

the subject of their conduct and of their future welfare. Accordingly he preached to them on that day. He began by showing them that the fear of God was the only foundation of virtue and true knowledge. He descanted upon this as it was applicable to themselves. He then pointed out to them their faults in a friendly manner. These were principally, hastiness of temper, discontent, and suspicion. He exhorted them to amendment, and concluded by a prayer for the peace, safety, and moral improvement of the colony. Several appeared to be much affected by the discourse.

On the 17th distant thunder was heard, accompanied with slight rain. The day proved fine. The thermometer at S2 degrees. On the 18th the morning was cloudy, with a strong northerly wind and a high tide, it being also full moon. The thermometer stood at 77 degrees. The afternoon became calm. On this day a man was brought home in confinement, who had unhappily killed the mate of the Lapwing, in the river Cara

mancas.

On the 19th, 20th, and 21st, the land-breezes continued pretty strong the whole day. On the last of these days the Governor visited Bence Island to take his leave of the

persons in authority there, who had always (though he himself had been in direct opposition to the views of their Factory) treated him with great respect. On this day there was a mutiny on board the Company's ship York. This was the second which had broken out in that ship. The ringleaders were brought on shore. It is difficult to conceive the trouble, as well as the uneasiness of

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