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truths, the position, that “all the damned, even the demons, may be restored and become bappy.” Among the Reformers, Zuingle has been charged with Universalism, by the Catholics. It is certain that it sprung up among and was professed by many of the German Baptists. The obnoxious doctrine appears to have spread, for we find it noticed and condemned in the forty-two articles of religion, drawn up by Cranmer, A.D. 1552, and published under the authority of Edward VI. From the time of the Reformation, the doctrine of the proper eternity of hell torments, has been gradually fading away before the progress of civilization and Biblical and theological science, until at length, among the continental Protestants of all denominations, it may be accounted an almost universally exploded dogma. Dwight, in his travels in Germany, declares, that he had seen but one person in that country who believed it, and but one other whose mind was wavering on the subject. In returning to England, we find Richard Coppin among the earliest confessors of the doctrine, for the profession and maintenance of which, he had to undergo a legal persecution, and severe would have been bis punishment, bad he not found in his judge, a protector against the fury of priests inciting the jury to declare him guilty, in the very teeth of the judge's assertion, that "the prisoner was guilty of nothing." About the same time, 1650, an anonymous work appeared, bearing the following title:“Of the torments of hell; the foundations and pillars thereof, discovered, searched, and shaken, and removed, with infallible proofs that there is not to be a punishment after this life, for any to endure, that shall never end." Among the chaplains of Oliver Cromwell, was Jeremy White, to whom we are indebted for one of the earliest publications in favour of the restoration of all things. The name of Archbishop Tillotson, is one which would do bonour to any cause, and he is fairly to be reckoned among the body of Universalists. He admitted, that endless punishment is threatened against transgressors, but thought that the execution of the threat, might, and would be remitted. Bishop Newton, of the same Church, asserted positively the doctrine of Universalism, in a dissertation published after his death, on final state and condition of mankind.

Dr. Watts, towards the close of his life, and Dr. Macknight, though they could not find warrant in Scripture for the certain expectation of this event, looked forward to the final restoration of all, as a possible, as well as an infinitely desirable consummation. William Whiston, who rejected utterly the doctrine of endless misery, assures us, that Sir Isaac Newton and Dr. Samuel Clark, agreed with him on this subject. The Chevalier Ramsay, author of the travels of Cyrus, and the Philosophical principles of natural and revealed religion, is chiefly remarkable as being a Catholic Universalist. Our attention is next arrested by that amiable enthusiast, William Law, to whom we are indebted for one of the best and most popular devotional books in the language—The Serious Call. He was a Trinitarian Universalist, deducing his hope and belief on the subject, for the most part, from the fervid and exalted conceptions which he entertained of the Divine love.

The writer who has probably done most to fix and define the tenets of modern Restorationists, is the well known David Hartley, a physician, who died at Bath, in 1757. He was one of the purest and best men that ever lived, and greatly admired as a mental philosopher. A belief in the doctrine, is avowed and implied in his great work on man, holding as he did, that the final issue of the arrangements of Divine Providence, would be in universal good, not as a contingency, dependent on the freedom of the will, but as the consequence of fixed and immutable laws.

The American Universalist of highest consideration, either for learning or talents, is Dr. Chauncy, formerly minister of the First rch in Boston. His conviction of the final and certain happiness of all mankind, was the result of a careful and thorough examination of the Scriptures. Seven years of the best part of his life, were given to this study, which he began without any suspicion that it would terminate as it did. His work on the Salvation of all men, he sent to London, where it was publisbed anonymously, in 1784.

John Henderson, whose early attainments were so extraordinary, that, when eight years old, he taught Latin in Kingswood School, and Greek at twelve, in Lady Huntingdon's College, at Trevecca, in Wales; and who, though he died at the early age of thirty-one, is said to have been able to converse with ease and Auency, in ten different languagesavowed, and ably defended the doctrine of Universal Restoration. Robert Robinson--the liberal and the eloquent—was a Universalist, and acquainted with another, who has done, to say the least, as much for the doctrine, as any other man in this country, we mean Elhanan Winchester. Of the circumstances of Robinson's introduction to Mr. Winchester, his biographer has preserved the following jeu d'esprit: “What," said be, are you

the man who thinks that God Almighty will burn the old tobacco-pipes till they become white again!” To which, there is a tradition that he added, “Well, this is better than to break them.” Among the most eminent of modern Universalists, stands the name of Mrs. Barbauld, who declares, that it is impossible for any one to entertain the common notions of sin and punishment, and have them often in his thoughts, and yet be cheerful. “ The age,” she declares, we trust in a spirit, as truly prophetic as it is lofty," which has demolished dungeons, rejected torture, and given so fair a prospect of abolishing the iniquity of the slave trade, cannot long retain among its articles of belief, the gloomy perplexities of Calvinism, and the heart-withering perspective of cruel and neverending punishments."

The sect of Universalists, as constituted at present, is composed of three distinct classes. First,—the Rellyan Universalists. These take their name from James Relly, who was originally a minister among the Calvinistic Methodists, but became a believer in the salvation of all men, by carrying a little farther than his brethren, the doctrines of atonement and imputed righteousness. He believed, that Christ was united to mankind-be, the head—they, the members; so that our actions are his, and his actions, sufferings, and exaltation, ours. Being convinced of this doctrine, he began to proclaim it, and soon collected a society in London. He succeeded, about 1770, in converting to his views, John Murray, formerly like himself, a Calvinistic Methodist, and well known in Boston, as having been there the founder of the Universalist sect. To Relly, succeeded in London, other preachers of his principles-by name, Ruet, Rooke, and Jeffries, but the society is, we believe, now dispersed. Congregations of Rellyan Universalists, existed a few years since, in Plymouth, Portsmouth, and Salisbury, but they are now broken up, and many of the members merged in the Unitarian body. As in England, so in America, the Rellyan Universalists have, as a distinct sect, entirely disappeared.


the followers of Elhanan Winchester. When Mr. Murray settled in America, in 1774, Mr. Winchester, then about nineteen, had just commenced preaching as a Free-will Baptist. He avowed his conversion to Univer-salism, at Philadelphia, in 1780, having derived his convictions, not from Mr. Murray, who was a strict Rellyan, but from Leigvolk and Stonehouse. His faith, like that of Relly, involved a belief in the Trinity and Atonement, but it differed from that writer's, in not building any thing on a supposed union with Christ. According to his theory, sinners are to be punished after death, but all punisbment will be remedial, and issue in the restitution of all things. This opinion is one which prevails extensively, not to say universally among the Unitarians of this country; and twenty years since, it almost every where predominated in the sect of Universalists of America, but its advocates are now supposed to be rapidly falling into the minority

Thirdly,--those Universalists who deny that we bave any evidence of punishment after death. This party has the ascendancy in the United States, and owe it, for the most part, to the great influence, and unwearied exertions of Mr. Ballou, of Boston. Their chief position is, that sin will not exist in the future world, and, by consequence, there can be no punishment. The Universalists, as a sect, are rapidly spreading in every part of the United States. In New England alone, there are two hundred and fifty societies, and above one hundred preachers. In the single State of New York, the number of regularly organized societies, is computed at one hundred and fifty; but the number of preachers does not probably exceed forty-five. The majority of them believe that there will be no punishment in the next world, and they are almost unanimous in the rejection of the Trinity. We have already intimated, that most Unitarians in this country, believe in the final restoration of all men to boliness and bappiness; though we know of none who deny the certainty of future punishment. Among the American Unitarians, some, especially those who adopt the Arian hypothesis, hold the doctrine, that the wicked will be annibilated. Many consider that the Scriptures have thrown an awful mystery over the future doom of the wicked, which they do not attempt to clear up. Others hope for a universal restoration to holiness, as a bare contingency. Those amongst them,

whose thoughts on this subject, appear to be most distinct and consistent, suppose, that the sinner, after death, as well as before, will be a moral being, and capable, of course, of moral changes. They suppose be will still be free, and therefore, that he may become better or worse; but that his ultimate restoration to holiness, is, at best, but a contingency. The future state is also sometimes represented by American Unitarians, as nothing but continuation of our moral progress, which it is the effect of sin to retard irretrievably. Every one will start in a future state, from that precise point in moral and religious progress, wbich he reaches in this life. Of course, as the sinner will be behind at starting, he may be expected to continue behind for ever, even though all are supposed to be advancing. But the Calvinistic doctrine of hell torments, the American Unitarians look upon, as, beyond all question, the most horrible dogma ever conceived or uttered by man; while there are individuals among them, highly respected for their genius and piety, who, on the principles of Hartley, are open and decided Restitutionists.

G. C.S.

The Recollections of Jotham Anderson.

[This is the title of a very interesting and beautiful little publi

cation, by the Rev. Henry Ware of Cambridge, Massachusetts, with whom many of our readers are happily personally acquainted. We have determined to insert these “ Recollections” in our pages. If our friends derive only half the pleasure and instruction we have experienced in their perusal, we are persuaded we shall have their thanks, for thus placing in their possession, a work highly conducive to the love of God and man, the feelings of piety, and the practice of virtue.--Edit.]

I have lived long enough in the world to exhaust all its pleasures, and to be more than wearied with its cares, Like other old men, I look back upon a life of mingled joy and sorrow, light and darkness, and take an equally melancholy satisfaction in the remembrance of each. There is one light, as I look back, which I see shining every where-- brighter than the sun of my prosperity, and casting the rainbow of peace on every cloud of my adversity and that is the light of God's love. I cannot remember the hour when I have seen it bidden. O that I had always honoured and loved it, as became his child. And

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