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availeth much,” he refers to the the first place, we have shown prayers of Elias," who prayed above, that St. James had in view earnestly that it might not rain, and the recovery of the sick person, and it rained not on the earth by the that the early writers of the church space of three years and six months; of Rome so understood his words; and he prayed again, and the hea- but now, according to the direcven gave rain, and the earth tion of the Council of Trent, the brought forth her fruit.” (Ver. 17, priest never anoints a man until he 18.) Saving the sick and raising is considered as past recovery, and, him up, cannot be understood spi- so far from intending thereby to ritually as signifying the pardon of raise him up, it is well understood sin and reconciliation with God, be- among them, that when once the cause they are opposed to sickness, sick man sets his foot upon the which must be understood plainly ground the anointing goes for noof infirmity of body, and also be- thing. The lower classes in Irecause forgiveness of sins is mention- land do not wish to give the sick ed afterwards as something different nian any thing after he has been anfrom saving and raising up; and in ointed; and in general they do the 17th verse, healing is again not think it lucky for a man to rementioned as the effect of prayer. cover after he has received extreme It was considered by the church, unction. Thus, as Cardinal Cawhen it was first practised, as a jetan confesses, when writing upon service for the sick and infirm, and the passage in St. James, the origithe words used in the prayers nal object of the ceremony is quite proved it. By Pope Gregory's ri- changed; and by the authority of tual, the oil is consecrated to cure the Council of Trent, which first all pains, infirmities, and sicknesses confirmed it in its present form, it of the body; and when the sick is received, though totally different man is anointed, the prayer asks from St. James's anointing, as well of God to cure him of his infirmi- ' as from the usage of the church, ties and to remit his sins, to re- and from the ancient liturgies. store him to health, that he may be
be Another difference between St. recovered and healed: this prayer James and the church of Rome is, also refers to the case of Heze- that he says priests,
.” but with kiah's recovery, and to the cures them one priest only is required: performed by the Apostles. This this difference is important. The is the idea which runs through the word translated priests here, ocwhole of the ancient service, and curs many times in the New Testain the ancient missals; the recoveryment, and in almost all of them it of the sick persons is usually the is rendered ancients in the Doway object of the service, while the re- Testament. The same expression, mission of sins and other spiritual which in St. James is rendered blessings were considered as be- “ priests of the church," is found longing to it, as they did to every in Acts, xx. 17, and it is there, other service which was performed “ ancients of the church.” Now, in faith; and even in the form that had the church of Rome made is used at present, the first prayer the expression in St. James, “anrefers to recovery from sickness. cients (or elders) of the church," as
It makes little matter whether should have been done; then it the church of Rome calls extreme would have appeared at once, that unction a sacrament or not; the there was no resemblance between Protestants say, that whatever it his ceremony and theirs. Further, be called, the ceremony performed in their anointings, but one priest by the priest when a person is dy- appears—in his, he directs the ing, is altogether different from priests to be called. If the Apostle what St. James recommends. In had considered this as a sacrament, one priest would have been suffi- gift of healing is not now possessed cient to administer it; but enjoin- by any one, and confess that thøy ing it as a religious service, he di- do not expect a man to recover rects that the elders should be after he is anointed, then they must called, having perhaps in his recol- allow, that the anointing they use lection our Lord's promise," Again is not what St. James directed, but I say unto you, that if two of you one of their own invention. shall agree on earth touching any The Protestant church consider thing that they shall ask, it shall be this practice as confined to the pedone for them of my Father which riod of miraculous gifts. It is eviis in heaven; for where two or three dent, from the silence of all the are gathered together in my name, Christian writers for four centuries there am I in the midst of them." after Christ, that this practice was
The practice of the Popish church not continued when these gifts ever since the Council of Trent, ceased; and the Romanists can which established extreme unction show no mention of this cereas a sacrament for the dying, dif- mony until the time of Pope Innofers from the ancient practice of cent, in the fifth century. After that church as much as it does from this, when superstition increased the directions of St. James; for we among the people, the priests befind that the ritual of Pope Grego- gan to anoint the sick and infirm ry.orders, that after anointing, the when they visited them, using, at priest is to administer the commu- the same time, prayers for their renion of the body and blood of covery. This practice was freChrist-yet this is never done now. quently objected to; and it was the
But when we speak of the early Council of Florence which first orchurch, we do not mean the church dered that “ this sacrament should that existed directly after the days not be given to a sick person unof the Apostles. For, since the less his death be feared.” anointing in the apostolic days was The present custom is to anoint accompanied with a miraculous the organs of the five senses, the power of healing the sick, as we priest repeating these words,
By have proved before; so this prac- this holy unction, and through his tice was discontinued when miracles most bountiful mercy, may God ceased in the church: and though forgive thee whatever thou hast sinoil was much used in religious ser- ned by seeing, hearing, smelling, vices, as in anointing catechumens tasting, and touching. He then before baptism, anointing the dead gives the final pardon for spiritual before burial, and anointing dea- comfort in the last agony. If this cons and priests before they were institution be warranted by Scripordained; yet we do not find that ture, it is a great matter of comfort; the sick were anointed until about but if it be not warranted, it is inthe fifth century after Christ. This deed very great presumption. When plainly shows that St. James's such high pretensions are set forth words were understood as relating by the priests, it is no wonder that to a miraculous power, and not to a the ignorant and superstitious should service which was to continue in the feel anxious about this ceremony. church, and to be esteemed a sacra- When a Protestant is dying, the ment. As, therefore, the Christian clergyman visits him and prays church, for four hundred years, with him; there is, however, no considered the anointing ordered by mystery or secrecy in the business; St. James, to have a reference to the family and friends of the sick healing, the priests now ought to man are invited to be present, and possess the power of doing so, the service is designed for their inif they profess to follow him. But struction also. But when a Rosince they allow that a miraculous manist is dying, the priest comes with great ceremony-a candle is who came to call sinners to repentlighted much secrecy and myste- ance; his faith purifies his heart ry is observed; and while Latin (Acts, xv.), leads him to abhor prayers are recited, and yarious that which is evil, and cleave to ceremonies are gone through, there that which is good (Rom. xii. 9). is an impression made upon the It makes a man love God, and minds of the ignorant, that some- loving God he keeps his commandthing is doing for the dying person ments. Such a person feels that which is, they know not how, to sickness or death are sent from his benefit his soul, and to help him heavenly Father, and he is not forward towards heaven. Yet so only submissive but resigned, for great is their ignorance, and so he knows that all things shall work strange are the inconsistencies of together for good to them that love the priests' doctrines, that though in the Lord; he can join humbly in extreme unction they give a final the prayers which are offered to pardon, and are paid for it, yet God for his recovery when he is this pardon will not free the soul sick; and can unite in those supplifrom purgatory; it must go thither cations by which his departing soul notwithstanding, and remain there is commended to God. Let comuntil more money is paid for prayers mon sense therefore judge between and masses to bring it out. the two cases: one man dies happy,
The great evil of this, and in-' because he has been anointed and deed of all the Popish errors, is, received the rites of his church that the minds of the people are another dies happy, because he turned away from the true grounds knows and feels the grace of the of hope toward God, and they are Lord Jesus, who when “ he was led to think, that money paid for rich, for our sakes became poor, certain ceremonies will ensure them that we through his poverty might whatever they can require. It is be rich.” (2 Cor. viii. 9.) Of in vain to say that money has no- the one we must say, “ he feedeth thing to do with the efficacy of the upon ashes, a deceived heart hath rite, for it is well known that the turned him aside, that he cannot poorest wretch would part with his deliver his soul, nor say, Is there last shilling to ensure his anoint- not a lie in my right hand ?” (Isa. ing, and would be terrified and xliv. 20.) of the other the Scrip alarmed, were a charitable priest ture saith, “ Blessed are the dead to refuse taking the money from which die in the Lord: even him. The Bible gives no encou- so saith the Spirit, for they rest ragement to any man who lives in from their labours.” (Rev. xiv. 13.) sin and ignorance, to hope that he Let no man, Protestant or Romanwill be saved in that state: “ all ist, therefore, comfort himself by men are called upon every where to thinking that something may be repent;" “ God hath sent his Son done for him on his death-bed, to be the Saviour of sinners;" "he which will make up for his present has finished transgression, made ignorance and sin. The present an end of sin, made reconciliation time is all we can call our own, for iniquity, and brought in ever- « now is the day of salvation," lasting righteousness” (Dan. ix. 24); “ acquaint now thyself with God;" and « whosoever calleth upon the “ the kingdom of heaven is at pame of the Lord shall be saved;" hand; repent, and believe the Gogbecause “ he that believeth on the pel.” Such are the declarations of Son of God hath everlasting life, the Bible, and everlasting corniand shall not come into condemna- demnation will be the portion of all tion.” The real Christian, conse- who neglect and despise them. quently, is a person who believes
P.R. what God has told us of his Son,
REVIEW OF BOOKS. The Attributes of Deity, the Attri- tertain exalted ideas of their own
butes of Jesus Christ. By the reasoning powers, but which can Rev. Thomas Grinfield, M. A. never be embraced by a humble
Hatchards. 1822. Pp. xvi. and serious inquirer; which can and 174.
never stand before solid argument Five Lectures on the Gospel of St. and careful investigation, and which
John. By C. J. Blomfield, D.D. has furnished very few individuals Rector of St. Botolph's, Bishops- of distinguished attainments in the gate, and Archdeacon of Col- literary world. We have never, chester. Mawman. 1823. Pp. indeed, been able to meet in the iv. and 90.
whole Socinian school, with a CONSIDERABLE apprehensions single instance of clear, solid statehave in various quarters been ex- ments, and accurate, well-maincited by the increase of Socipian- tained arguments, at all worthy of ism, and some have been induced comparison with either of the pubto fear a still more extended suc- lications at the head of this article.
We are aware, that great The object of Mr. G.'s publicaefforts have been recently made; tion is stated to be the confirming that the Socinians have succeeded his own and his reader's mind in in obtaining the removal of some Scriptural sentiments on the great legal restraints, which impeded the subject proposed. He divides the propagation of their '' sentiments; dissertation into four parts. In the that in consequence they have been first the subject is introduced, and encouraged to erect chapels, to the apostolic declaration, Col. ii. 9, establish a Socinian Tract Society, " In him dwelleth all the fulness of to send out missionaries among the the Godhead bodily,” is assumed lower orders, to assume a loftier as the basis of the argument: after tone, if possible, in their maga- a suitable explanation and illustrazines, &c. and to triumph in the se- tion of this passage, Mr. G. procession of one or two novices from ceeds, in the second part, to dethe ministry of the Establishment. monstrate the attributes of Deity as But with a perfect knowledge of all the attributes of Jesus Christ; and this, we do not ourselves feel any proves, that eternity, omnipresence, very serious apprehension on the omniscience, omnipotence, immutasubject. We are, indeed, pained bility, and supremacy, are aseribed at every instance of success on to the Lord Jesus Christ' equally their part, because we must main- with the Father; and that he is tain, that every Socinian actually also represented as possessed of denies the Lord who bought him; the moral attributes of the Deity in and without at all presuming to in- an infinite degree, and able to trude on the judgment-seat, or communicate moral perfections and pronounce on any individual case, spiritual blessings according to the we are still compelled to regard the power of his own will. The third whole body as placed in a most pe- part contains an answer to objecrilous situation. But we see no tions founded on particular pasreason to apprehend, that Soci- sages of Scripture, and on the connianism will ever become a domi- sideration of the divine unity: and nant persuasion. It has been well the fourth part points out the imcalled the frozen zone of Chris- portance of the subject in its relatianity. It is a kind of resting- tion to doctrinal, practical, and place on the road to Infidelity; a experimental religion, to the conresort for the half-learned; a sys- solations of a Christian, and to the tem well adapted for those who en- religion and worship of heaven.
Did our limits allow, we should the argument of one nature, and common be disposed to quote somewhat attributes, ascribed to the Lord God, and
to the Lord Christ. extensively from this valuable dis
“ 'The Beginning," sertation. We have seldom met is evidently to be understood in the most
as a title frequently applied to Jesus Christ, with a small publication better cal- comprehensive and magnificent import; culated to fortify the mind against “the beginning of the creation of God”. the assaults of false doctrine, or
(Rev. iii. 14); the first cause, the original one in which the importance of the principle, of the created universe, whether
material or spiritual; “ the Alpha, the Divinity of Christ is in a narrow
First;" and, thus understood, this unimcompass more clearly established; partible title evidently involves the eternal and we earnestly hope that the fol- self-existence of its dirine possessor. (Comlowing extracts may induce many pare Col. i. 18; Rev. xxi. 6; xxii. 13.
) It to procure and circulate the work was a term established among the Greek from which they are taken.
philosophers to denote the efficient pria
ciple of things. Perhaps the most numerous and the most In this connexion may be mentioned the powerful class of evidence for the Deity of Appearances of Jesus Christ under the paChrist, is to be found in passages of the triarchal and legal dispensations ; accompaNew Testament, which either repeat or re- nied as, in many instances, those appearfer to others in the Old: of which class ances were, by names expressive of selfevery evidence acquires a reduplicated force, existence and Deity. That the Son of God and possesses, besides, the immense ad- was the person sometimes called the Prevantage of an application and comment, sence, sometimes' the Angel of Jehovali, not precarious and doubtful, but made hy sometimes God, sometimes Jehovah himan interpreter who could not err. The self; of whom, under these interchangeApostles, addressing principally Jews, ap- able titles, glorious appearances to "holy propriately asserted the Deity of Christ in men of old” were not infrequent, has been the prescriptive language of the Prophets, the opinion of the ancient Jewish church, and thus delicately engrafted this amazing of the primitive Christian fathers, and of mystery on the faith already received; at many among the most eminent modern dithe same time exbibiting the indissoluble vines. Remarkable examples of the Word connexion between the two dispensations. thus anticipating his incarnate manifestaNo part of Holy Writ presents more mag- tion, may be found by the inquiring stunificent descriptions of Jehovah than those dent in these among other passages; Gen. chapters of Isaiah, in which Jehovah is at xvi. 10, 13-xviii. 2, 22-xix.-1-xxxii. once the speaker and the subject. No 24, 28, 80---xlviii. 15, 16: Exod. iii. 2, standard of Deity can be more exact and 4-xiii. 21 ---xiv. 19-xxiji. 20, 21—xxxiii. severe, by which to prove the pretensions 2, 14: Judg, vi. 12, 14—xiii
, 18, 22 ; of Jesus Christ. In three passages of those Isa. Ixiii. 9 : Hos. xii. 3, 4. On this princhapters, Jehovah proclaims, in the tone of ciple of interpretation, we are assured, by unapproachable majesty, “ I am the First, an inspired expositor, that the Israelites I am the Last.” In three corresponding tempted Christ in the wilderness (1 Cor. x. passages of the Apocalypse, Jesus Christ 9); that the Spirit of Christ testified in the assumes, with additional emphasis, the Prophets (1 Pet. i. 11); and that it was the same title; “I am the Alpha and the glory of Christ which Isaiah bebeld, when Omega, the Beginning and the End, the be beheld (as he declares) the Lord on his First and the Last." A description of throne, adored as Jehovah by the Seraphim. eternal existence, at once more simple and (Isaiah, vi. 1, &c. compared with John, more complete, it is not easy to conceive. xii. 41.) Such passages, attentively consiNone can be prior to “ the First,” as none dered, must be allowed to afford confirmacan be posterior to “ the Last.” It has tion to the doctrine, not merely of the prebeen disputed whether one of the ascrip- existence, but of the self-existence and tions in the opening chapter (ver. 8) belongs eternity of Him, who from the beginning to the Father, or to Jesus Christ: and per- presented bimself to human sense, under haps the question is not either easy or im- such sacred and incommunicable names, portant to be determined. Suppose, how- It is a great argument for the identity of ever, that ascription to belong to the Fa- Jesus Christ with the Jehovah of the Old ther ; yet that the same or equivalent titles Testament, that Jehovah there repeatedly should be repeated, on subsequent occa- promised his return in the latter days. He sions, in a connexion which demonstrates who was to establish the new covenant, that they belong to Jesus Christ, is itself was the founder of the old. In this mediaa volume of evidence for his Deity; and torial character, Jesus Christ is “ the same in effect rather strengthens than impairs yesterday" under the ancient dispensation,