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Moft fure, the goddess On whom these airs attend!"-Vouchfafe, my prayer May know, if you remain upon this island; And that you will fome good instruction give, How I may bear me here: My prime request, Which I do laft pronounce, If you be made, or no?


But, certainly a maid. 2


O you


No wonder, fir;

9 Moft fure, &c.) It seems, that Shakspeare, in The Tempest, hath been fufpected of tranflating fome expreffions of Virgil; witness the 0 Dea certe. I prefume we are here directed to the paffage, where Ferdinand says of Miranda, after hearing the fongs of Ariel:

Moft fure, the goddess

On whom thefe airs attend!

And fo very Small Latin is fufficient for this formidable translation, that, if it be thought any honour to our poet, I am loth to deprive him of it; but his honour is not built on fuch a fandy foundation. Let us turn to a real tranflator, and examine whether the idea might not be fully comprehended by an English reader, fuppofing it neceffarily borrowed from Virgil. Hexameters in our language are almost forgotten; we will quote therefore this time from Stany hurft: “O'to thee, fayre virgin, what terme may rightly be fitted? Thy tongue, thy vifage no mortal frayltie resembleth. -No doubt, a goddeffe!" Edit. 1583. FARMER.

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2-certainly a maid.) Nothing could be more prettily imagined, to illuftrate the fingularity of her chara&er, than this pleasant mistake. She had been bred up in the rough and plain-dealing documents of moral philofophy, which teaches us the knowledge of ourfelves; and was an utter ftranger to the flattery invented by vicious and defigning men to corrupt the other fex. So that it could not enter into her imagination, that complaifance, and a defire of appearing amiable, qualities of humanity which she had been inftructed, in her moral leffons, to cultivate, could ever degenerate into fuch excefs, as that any one should be wishing to have his fellow-creature believe that he thought her a goddess, or an immortal. WARBURton.

Dr. Warburton has here found a beauty, which I think the author never intended. Ferdinand afks her not whether he was a created being, a queftion, which if he meant it, he has ill expreffed, but whether he was unmarried; for after the dialogue which


My language! heavens!.

I am the best of them that fpeak this fpeech,
Were I but where 'tis fpoken.

Profpero's interruption produces, he goes on purfuing his former queftion:

O, if a virgin,

I'll make you queen of Naples." JOHNSON.

A paffage in Lylly's Galathea feems to countenance the prefent text: "The question among men is common, are you a maide?" -yet I cannot but think, that Dr. Warburton reads very rightly: "If you be made, or no." When we meet with a harth expreffion in Shakspeare, we are ufually to look for a play upon words. Fletcher clofely imitates The Tempeft in his Sea Voyage: and he introduces Albert in the fame manner to the ladies of his Defert Iland:

"Be not offended, goddeffes, that I fall

Thus proftrate," &c.

Shakspeare himself had certainly read, and had probably now in his mind, a paffage in the third book of The Fairy Queen, between Timias and Belphabe:

Angel or goddess! do I call thee right?

"There-at the blufhing, faid, ah! gentle fquire,

" Nor goddess I, nor angel, but the maid

And daughter of a woody nymph," &c. FARMER.

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Milton's imitation explains Shakspeare. Maid is certainly a created being, a Woman in oppofition to Goddess. Miranda immediately deftroys this first sense by a quibble. In the mean time, I have no objedion to read made, i. e. created. The force of the fentiment is the fame. Comus is univerfally allowed to have taken fome of its tints from The Tempeft. T. WARTON.

The first copy reads-if you be maid, or no. Made was not fuggefted by Dr. Warburton, being an emendation introduced by the editor of the fourth folio. It was, I am perfuaded, the author's word: There being no article prefixed adds ftrength to this fuppofition. Nothing is more common in his plays than a word being ufed in reply, in a fenfe different from that in which it was employed by the firft fpeaker, Ferdinand had the moment before called Miranda a goddefs; and the words immediately fubjoined,

Vouchsafe, my prayer"-show, that he looked up to her as a perfon of a fuperior order, and fought her prote&ion, and


How! the beft? What wert thou, if the king of Naples heard thee?

FER. A fingle thing, as I am now, that wonders To hear thee speak of Naples: He does hear me; And, that he does, I weep: myself am Naples; Who with mine eyes, ne'er fince at ebb, beheld The king my father wreck'd.


Alack, for mercy!

FER. Yes, faith, and all his lords; the duke of


And his brave fon, being twain. 3



The duke of Milan,

inftru&tion for his conduct, not her love. At this period, therefore he muft have felt too much awe to have flattered himself with the hope of poffeffing a being that appeared to him celeftial; though afterwards, emboldened by what Miranda fays, he exclaims, « 0, if a virgin," &c. words that appear inconsisten with the supposition that he had already afked her whether he was one or not. She had indeed told him, fhe was; but in his aftonishment at hearing her speak his own language, he may well be fupposed to have forgotten what the faid; which, if he had himf. If made the inquiry, would not be very reasonable to fuppofe.

It appears from the alteration of this play by Dryden and Sir W. D'Avenant, that they confidered the prefent paffage in this light: -Fair excellence,

"If, as your form declares, you are divine,

"Be pleas'd to inftru&t me, how you will be worship'd; So bright a beauty cannot fure belong

"To human kind."

In a fubfequent scene we have again the fame inquiry:

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Our author might have remembered Lodge's description of Fawe nia, the Perdita of his Winter's Tale: "Yet he scarce knew her, for she had attired herself in rich apparel, which so increased her beauty, that she resembled rather an angel than a creature, » and Fawnia, 1592. MALONE.


3 And his brave fon, being twain.) This is a flight forgetfulness. Nobody was loft in the wreck, yet we find no such chara&er as the fon of the duke of Milan. THEOBALD.

And his more braver daughter, could control thee,
If now 'twere fit to do't:-At the first fight

They have chang'd eyes;-Delicate Ariel,
I'll fet thee free for this!-A word, good fir;
I fear, you have done yourself fome wrong:


MIRA. Why speaks my father fo ungently? This Is the third man that e'ver I faw; the first That e'er I figh'd for; pity move my father To be inclin'd my way!


O, if a virgin, And your affection not gone forth, I'll make you The queen of Naples.

PRO. Soft, fir; one word more. They are both in either's powers: but this fwift bufinefs

I muft uneafy make, left too light winning (Afide. Make the prize light:-One word more; I charge


That thou attend me: thou doft here ufurp The name thou ow'ft not: and haft put thyfelf Upon this ifland, as a fpy, to win it

From me, the lord on't.


No, as I am a man.

MIRA. There's nothing ill can dwell in such a temple:

If the ill fpirit have fo fair an houfe,

Good things will ftrive to dwell with't.

4-control thee,)' Confute thee, unanswerably contradi& thee, JOHNSON.

I fear you have done yourself fome wrong:) i. e. I fear that, in afferting yourself to be king of Naples, you have uttered a falfhood, which is below your character, and confequently injurious to your honour. So, in The Merry Wives of Windfor-This is not well, mafter Ford, this wrongs you." STEEVENS.

PRO. Follow me.


Speak not you for him; he's a traitor.-Come.
I'll manacle thy neck and feet together:
Sea-water fhalt thou drink, thy food fhall be
The frefh-brook mufcles, wither'd roots, and husks
Wherein the acorn cradled: Follow.

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Make not too rafh a trial of him, for
He's gentle, and not fearful.


What, I fay,

My foot my tutor!'-Put thy fword up, traitor;
Who mak'ft a fhew, but dar'ft not ftrike, thy

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Is fo poffefs'd with guilt: come from thy ward; s
For I can here difarm thee with this flick.
And make thy weapon drop.

6 He's gentle, and not fearful.) Fearful fignifies both terrible and timorous. In this place it may mean timorous. She tells her father, that as he is gentle, rough ufage is unneceffary; and as he is brave, it may be dangerous.

Fearful, however, may fignify formidable, as in K. Henry, IV:
"A mighty and a fearful head they are."

and then the meaning of the paffage is obvious. STEEVENS.
"Do not rafhly determine to treat him with feverity, he is
mild and harmless, and not in the leaft terrible or dangerous.”


7 My foot my tutor!) So, in The Mirrour for Magiftrates, 1587. p. 163:

"What honeft heart would not conceive disdayne, "To fee the foote furmount above the head." HENDERSON. Again, in K. Lear, A&t IV. fc. ii. one of the quartos reads


My foot ufurps my head." STEEVENS.

- come from thy ward;) Desist from any hope of awing me by that posture of defence. JOHNSON.



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