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fend their own fire-side from the rude i policy, for he was chosen by the Veintrusion of an alien. In the early | netian Senate as their counsellor-as ages of the Roman Republic, the citi- the person to be consulted on all zens were always ready volunteers affairs of commerce, war, or legisfor external war ; but when the cry | lation. was raised, “ for your altars and your His reasoning was correct, for the hearths,” (pro aris et focis) the Reformed pastors, as soon as they whole nation rose as one man-none had followed the example of Luther, stayed behind but those in helpless and entered into the married state, childhood and extreme old age. Home immediately recognized the Sovereign is such a holy place, that the very in each Protestant nation as the head country which contains it is hallowed of the church in that nation. Many in our eyes; and it will ever be so. persons ridicule the Reformers for this Many of the “philanthropists” of the proceeding : they ought rather to pity present age sneer at patriotism ; but them. They should remember, that their sickly philanthropy is a very however far a man sees beyond his bad substitute for it, if we are to own age, he never can free himself judge by its results. Patriotism is from the prejudices and half-knowthe union and extension of the finest ledge resulting from false education. feelings of our nature ; and it has The Reformers had been accustomed only one superior — Christian love. to consider the church as under the And now the advantages the Pontiff de- dominion of an earthly head, and rived from clerical celibacy may be fully could not destroy the idea. They shown. The priest who had no home did not even fully comprehend the had no associations to bind him to breadth or results of their own prinhis country: to him all lands were ciples ; in fact, they only contended alike. Filled with ambition, he would for two justification by faith, and never hesitate to bring calamities on liberty of opinion. They had groped his native land — he would offer no their way step by step in the midst resistance to the man who encroached of thick darkness and many obstrucon its spiritual liberty-he would be tions : it is no wonder they did not willing to smite the country with an advance any farther. They tried, ininterdict, and fill every house with deed, to take a third step-unity of dismay. The only power to which belief--and failed, solely on account of he felt responsible was a foreign one, their early education and method of and he studied its interests alone. thinking. The church from which He could not be a patriot, for all the they had seceded bound the belief feelings from which patriotism arises and conscience of its members close were either asleep or extinct. Friar together by a canonical decree ; the Sarpi, in his History of the Triden- Reformers, accustomed to the decrees, tine Council, says, concerning the endeavour to secure unity of belief by discussion on celibacy which took a creed, which is only a canonical deplace there :-“It is plain that mar- cree under another name ; and, as a ried priests will turn their affection to natural consequence, failed to advance their wives and children, and by con- a third step. They may be pitiedsequence to their home and country, they cannot be blamed, for no man's so that the strict dependence of the responsibility extends beyond his clergy on the Apostolic See should knowledge. The Roman bishop, as cease. Thus the granting of marriage we have shown, had rendered his serto priests would destroy the ecclesi- vants ambitious, cruel, energetic, inastical hierarchy, and leave the Pope tellectual, and consequently unscruBishop of Rome only !” The Friar pulous : they were without humán was a good authority on matters of sympathies. Then conscience was “ seared with a hot iron”-its vitality Brethren J. Ainsley, J. Dron, and was destroyed.

myself, made an excursion to the Such were the causes, develop- residence of Thomas Dick, D.D. ment, and results of celibacy, another Author of the “ Christian Philosocombination in the Mystery of In- pher,” &c. He resides about four iquity : a few stones only were wanting miles from Dundee, on a very beauto make its foundation complete; and tiful elevation, just opposite to the man's folly and man's iniquity soon University of St. Andrews, some four supplied them.

miles east, and with his observatory J. G. LEE. looking towards the University. Were (To be continued.)

it not for the village, which rather crowds too much upon his premises,

the residence is just such a one as LETTERS FROM EUROPE.

would comport with the idea of a NO. XXVII.

Christian philosopher.

On calling at the residence of Dr. MY DEAR CLARINDA—At the close Dick, we found only his good lady, of my last we arrived at Dundee. the Doctor having gone to Glasgow We were, indeed, in all places received to see his printer. We were shown with all kindness and hospitality by into his library and observatory, neiour brethren in Scotland, and in a ther of which is of very large dimenvery special manner in Dundee. The sions, and had the pleasure of taking church there is quite respectable in a peep through his telescope. Being numbers and standing, and with them rather a dark afternoon, we had no many of the Scotch Baptist church object to gaze at save the University united in giving us a cordial welcome of St. Andrews, and for that a very to the city.

small instrument would have served On Tuesday evening, the 20th of quite as well. Still, in gazing on the September, we addressed the breth- spot where Patrick Hamilton, the ren assembled in a spacious hall; and protomartyr of Protestantism in Scoton Saturday evening the brethren of land, who was burned at the stake both churches united in holding a only some ten years after Luther first soirée in the same place. We had a opened his mouth in Germany — and very pleasant meeting. Questions where James Wishart also, the last of were propounded and discussed ; ad the Scotch martyrs, was burned, dresses were made by different breth- March 1, 1546—I could not but beren, intermingled with free conversa- come at once absorbed in the scenes tion, social prayer, and praise ; and a that were transacted on that spot rich repast of all good things. Elders under the blood-thirsty primacy of James Ainsley, John Easson, Wm. the two Roman Archbishops of ScotAnderson, of the place, and many land, James Beaton, the uncle, and highly influential brethren from a Cardinal David Beaton, the nephew distance round, together with many — personifications of treachery, inexcellent sisters, gave great interest trigue, and murder - alias persecuto the meeting. Persons of enlarged tion. The recollection of such scenes views, of elevated and noble senti- is, indeed, always unpleasant; yet ments, with hearts full of Christian sometimes, nay, often profitable. The affection, contributed much to the chapter of Scotch history to which I pleasures of the evening ; so that few | refer is very much modernized and pleasanter meetings, or more joyful handsomely condensed in the late festive scenes of Christian commu work of the Rev. Thos. M‘Crie, from nion are enjoyed on earth.

which we will refresh the memory of During the afternoon of Saturday, some of our readers..

“The first person who was honored to carry the corruptions of the church. His clear arguthe tidings of the reformation to Scotland, and ments, aided by his fervent piety, mild manners, to seal them with his blood, was Patrick and exalted rank, could not fail to produce a Hamilton.* This amiable and accomplished powerful sensation ; and the clergy took the young gentleman was of noble extraction, and alarm. James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Annearly allied to the royal family, being nephew drews, was at that time Primate of the church to the Earl of Arran and of the Duke of Albany. and Chancellor of the kingdom--a cruel and He was destined for the church; but while crafty man, who scrupled at no means, however pursuing his studies he acquired some know- flagitious, for effecting his purposes. Afraid ledge of the reformed doctrine, and with the to proceed openly against Hamilton, he advised view of obtaining better information, he went that he should be decoyed to St. Andrews, on abroad and paid a visit to Luther and other the pretext of a friendly conference with him reformers in Germany. The result was, a deeper about his doctrine. The open-hearted young persuasion of the truth, accompanied with a man eagerly embraced the proposal, and fell strong and unconquerable desire to impart to into the snare. It is needless to dwell on the his benighted countrymen the beams of that revolting consequences. He was easily induced, saving knowledge by whick his own soul had by some insidious priests, to declare his sentibeen enlightened. His friends, aware of the ments. At the dead hour of night he was danger to which he would expose himself by dragged from his bed, taken to the castle, and so doing, used every argument to dissuade him after confessing his faith before the Archbishop, from making the atteinpt. But the motion was | was condemned to be burned at the stake as an from God, and could not be resisted. On ar- obstinate heretic. On the afternoon of Friday, riving in Scotland about the commencement of February 21, 1528, this gentle and gracious the year 1528, his spirit, like that of Paul, was youth was led to the place of execution, where stirred within him, when he beheld the ignorance a stake was fastened, with wood, coals, powder, and superstition which prevailed; and wherever and other inflammable materials piled around he came, he denounced, in the plainest terms, it. When he came to the place, he stripped

· himself of his gown, coat, and bonnet, and * Patrick Hamilton, though not the first giving them to a favorite servant, “ These,” he who introduced or suffered for the reformed said, “ will not profit in the fire; they will opinions in Scotland, may be considered the profit thee. After this, of me thou canst reprotomartyr of the reformation, inasmuch as heceive no commodity, except the ensample of was the first who suffered in that glorious cause, my death, which I pray thee to bear in mind; after the standard of the reforination had been for albeit it be bitter to the flesh, yet is it the unfurled by Luther. Before his time, two entrance into eternal life, which none shall individuals, at least, had suffered martyrdom for possess that deny Christ before this wicked their religious opinions -- James Resby, an generation.” When bound to the stake he Englishman, and scholar of Wickliffe, who was exhibited no symptom of fear, but commencel burned in 1422; and Paul Craw, a Bohemian, his soul to God, and kept his eyes steadfastly and a follower of Huss, who underwent the same directed towards heaven. The executioner set cruel fate at St. Andrews about two years fire to the train of powder, which, however, did afterwards. In 1494, thirty persons chiefly not kindle the pile, but severely scorched the gentlemen and ladies of distinction, were ac- side of the martyr. In this situation he recused of heretical sentiments, but conducted mained unmoved, till a new supply of powder their defence with such boldness that they were was brought from the castle. Meanwhile, the dismissed with an admonition. In 1525 there Friars who stood around him, cruelly molested was an act of Parliament passed, prohibiting him, crying out, “Convert, heretic; call upon the importation of Luther's books in Scotland, our Lady ; say, Salve regina.“Depart and which, they said, had always “ been clean of alí trouble me not,” he said, “ye messengers of sie filth and vice.” If we may judge from the Satan.” One of them in particular, called character of the Scots, who have been accused | Friar Campbell, rendered himself conspicuous of being usually "wise behind the hand,” it is for his rudeness in disturbing the last moments | highly probable that such books had already of the martyr. “Thou wicked man,” said been introduced into this country. Life of Hamilton, addressing him, “thou knowest that Knox, ü. 28. “The more the subject is in. I am not a heretic, and that it is the truth of vestigated,” says Dr. M'Crie, “the more clearly God for which I now suffer-so much didst am I persuaded it will appear that the opinions thou confess unto me in private--and thereupon of Wickliffe had the most powerful and extensive I appeal thee to answer before the judgment influence upon the reformation. We can trace seat of Christ.” At length the fire was kindled; the existence of the Lollards, in Ayrshire, from and, amidst the noise and fury of the flames, the time of Wickliffe to the days of George he was distinctly heard pronouncing these last Wishart; and in Fife, thcy were so numerous, words, “ How long, O Lord, shall darkness as to have formed the design of rescuing Patrick cover this realm? How long wilt thou suffer Hamilton by force on the day of his execution.” this tyranny of men ? Lord Jesus, receive my Life of Melville, i. 8.

spirit.'

“ The martyrdom of this engaging and ac within a few days, lie in the same as complished youth, produced a sensation very lignoniniously as now he is seen proudly different from what his murderers anticipated. They expected by this bold stroke, aimed at a to rest himself." He was then strangled person of such high rank, to intimidate all and consumed to ashes. Strange to others, and suppress the rising reformation. tell, this prediction or guess, or what The effect was precisely the reverse. It roused

any one pleases to call it, was literally the minds of men from the dead sleep into

verified within ninety days ; for, which they had fallen -- led them to inquire into the causes of his death-created discussion, early on the morning of the 29th of and ultimately, what Hamilton had failed to do May, 1546, he was assassinated by a by his living voice, was accomplished by his small band on his own couch — excruel death. “ Knox informs us, that many even in the

claiming to the fierce band of twelve University of St. Andrews, began to call in persons who did it, “Tam a priestdoubt what they had before held for a certain | fy-fy--all is gone." His body was verity, and to espy the vanity of the received exposed on the same tower from superstition. And he relates, in his own which he saw Wishart expire, and homely way, an anecdote which shows how

| heard the annunciation of his own matters stood. 'Short after this,' he says, 'new consultation was taken that some should / catastrophe. Beaton died unlamentbe burnt. A merry gentleman named John ed, though the manner of his death Lindesay, familiar (servant) to Bishop James was much regretted : as sung Sir Beaton, standing by when consultation was had,

David Lyndsay“ said-My lord, gif ye burn any man, except ye follow my counsell, ye will utterly destroy As for the Cardinal, I grant yourselves : gif ye will burn them, let them be He was the man we weel could want, burned in how (nollow, deep) cellars, for the And we'll forget him soon; reek of Mr. Patrick Hamilton has infected as And yet I think the sooth to say, many as did blow upon? (Knox, page 15.) The Although the loon is weel away, impression made by Hamilton's death on the The deed was foully done.” popular mind, was greatly aided by the fearful death of Friar Campbell, who had insulted him After surveying the residence of at the stake. This wretched man soon after the much-esteemed and revered Dr. went distracted, and died in the utmost terror Thomas Dick-disappointed, indeed, of mind, with the last appeal of the martyr in not seeing him-leaving our comringing in his ears."

pliments with his lady, we returned Wishart was one of the first men of to Dundee. the age for learning, talents, and piety. The Doctor, however, returning, Of only one real error did they accuse came to our meeting on the next evenhim at the stake--"of holding that the ing, being Lord's day, and calling at soul slept from death till the resurrec- my room, I enjoyed his company for tion." All other matters alleged some time before meeting. When against him by his most intelligent we approached the hall, we both cotemporaries, were admitted, and found ourselves excluded by a large are still admitted, to be orthodox. crowd filling up the street before the With regard to that which all parties door. We did not expect this. In regarded as an “heresy” – soul- the morning, indeed, we had a very sleeping-Wishart at the stake, with crowded house, and a most interested the fire and faggot before his eyes, audience. The Doctor and myself was at pains to disclaim as an error. keeping together, pushed our way up When the powder fastened to his to the door with much effort, but body exploded, the martyr said, “The could not then have got in had we flame has scorched my body, yet hath not been recognized as the preacher. it not daunted my spirit.” “ But After a great struggle through the he,” pointing to the couch on which aisle, the Doctor still holding to my sat the Cardinal witnessing the scene, coat, we succeeded in making to the “ who from yonder high palace be- stand, on which we both merely holdeth us with such pride, shall, found room.

After the meeting, which continued, most interesting village of Auchterwith some queries and responses, muchty. I could have wished that publicly propounded, almost three some more poetic genius had given it hours, the Doctor returned to my room a more musical name. Still, words and continued with me till about 10 are but signs ; and under many an o'clock, when we were constrained to antiquated and uncouth combination take the parting hand. He is a Chris- of vowels and consonants, we sometian philosopher on every subject on times find that which is more acwhich we conversed, and I presume ceptable and interesting than that we might have touched in religion, as which is represented by a more allurwell as in science, upon a thousand ing and prepossessing name. points on which we would have as fully! At “ Bethany Cottage," the resicoalesced, as we did, in all that we dence of the Brethren Drons, we heard from one another.

were received with all the welcome It was while in Dundee we were and affection of primitive times. The constrained to address a letter to the family of the Drons, consisting of the Editor of the Edinburgh Journal Brothers George and John, and the touching the persecutions of Mr. | widow of a deceased brother and her Robertson and the Anti-slavery So- daughter Euphemia, is most favoraciety, who had, meantime, as I learned, bly known amongst all the brethren at a special meeting passed some re- / in Scotland, and many of those in solutions approbatory of his course. England. Brother John Dron spent This measure of self-defence, I need some time in the United States, and not again say, was the basis on which is favorably known to a good many prosecution was added to prosecution. brethren in the Western Country,

On the Lord's day there were some He was much esteemed and beloved two or three young converts added by us at Bethany for his Christian to the church, and during our whole excellencies, though they were not meeting there was expressed a strong known to us as fully as they are now desire on the part of brethren of the to me, and to very many brethren in Scotch Baptists and of brethren on Great Britain. Sister Paton, mother the part of the Disciples, to unite, and of my kind host in Glasgow, and of the two communities to form one Sister Gilmore, of Belfast, (Ireland) church. I left the brethren under a mother of an excellent family, with strong hope that such would be the several of whom I became acquainted, happy result of their kind interviews. | and one of whom, with her cousin It has not yet, however, occurred ; at Margaret Paton, we had the pleasure least at my last advices. Some twenty of being somewhat instrumental in only of the Baptists have united with inducting to the honor of citizens in the brethren.

the kingdom of heaven, while in From Dundee, after a most affec Glasgow, are sisters of the brothers tionate parting, in company with Dron. With these five persons, the Elder Ainslie, we proceeded to Fife- two brothers, the two sisters, and their shire, and first addressed the church widowed sister-in-law, I enjoyed as and citizens of Cupar. We had a much Christian fellowship as with any pleasant interview with Elder Dowie, other persons in Scotland. I do not of that church, and with a few of the wonder, as I once did, that the Aposbrethren, and spent the night with tles, and especially Paul, should often brother Mitchell and his interesting with admiration refer to certain housefamily, at their rural residence some holds and connections in blood; for four miles on the way to our next it appears to me that like the kindred meeting place.

of grandmother Lois, of Stephanus, of Thence our next station was at the 'Lazarus of Bethany, Zebedee, Cleopas,

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