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out of the land of the living” in the earth, approach the cross, that we morning of life. Who now shall give may behold the Lamb of God, that an account of his race ? “ Who shall taketh away the sin of the world ? declare his generation ?” What name Shall we not draw near to Him, that or memorial hath he left in Israel ? we may be sprinkled with his blood, Is there not one to mourn for him ?- that speaketh better things than the not one to bear his name to future blood of Abel's (sacrifice) ? and that ages ? Yes, says the Spirit, it is even we, too, may ask, like His penitent now, when his soul is made an offering fellow-sufferer, to be remembered for sin, that “ he shall see his seed,” | when He cometh into his kingdom. that he “ shall prolong his days,” and
R. R. that “ the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.” “ He shall see
LETTERS FROM EUROPE. of the travail of his soul, and be satis
NO. XXI. fied.” He shall rejoice in a numerous posterity that God shall give him | MY DEAR CLARINDA — There are the children of faith and love -- the yet many matters of interest to you children of the resurrection of light and my readers in England, which I and life. For, “ I will divide him a have not as yet noted. Before I pass portion with the great, and he shall over the Tweed, I will, therefore, divide the spoil with the strong, be- note a few of the most interesting. cause he hath poured out his soul I informed you of my visit to Manunto death, and was numbered with chester, and of our labors in that transgressors, and bare the sin of busiest of human hives ; but of the many, and made intercession for the magnitude and population of that metransgressors."
tropolis of manufactures I said noThrough this offering God can be thing. Situated some 200 miles from just injustifying the ungodly. Through | London, and some 30 from Liverpool, his death, God has brought to light on the banks of the Irwell, having incorruptibility and life ; and the Salford on the other side, standing in greatest crime ever committed by man, the same relation to it as Southwark has been made to us the richest bles- to London-two great boroughs—this sing. 'Twas Satan's doing to instigate very old town is a theatre of great men to slay him. 'Twas the Lord's importance to the world. It is ihe doing to destroy, through his death, best development and illustration of him that had the power of death, and the varied power of manufactures in to deliver human souls from bondage. creating wealth, and in changing the Let the earth rejoice and break forth conditions of society in almost every into singing, for the grave shall not point of view, that stands upon the devour for ever, nor continue to rob map of the world. us of our joys. Death itself is made This town, said by some writers to to bring forth life, and the tomb be- be centuries older than the Christian comes the chrysalis of immortality ! era, occupied but little space in the
And shall not we, then, who have history of England itself, and as little known the love of God, approach conspicuity in the annals of Europe, with reverence to this subline mys- until the era of manufactures by scitery-to these emblems of death ; of entific power dawned upon its hitherthat death which gives life — the to humble condition. In 1801 Mandeath of Jesus ? Shall we, like the chester, in its thirteen townships, trembling attendants, stand afar off contained only 81,290 souls. Salford, from Calvary ? Shall we not rather, on the other side of the river, in its through the mocking crowd, or through four townships, 18,525 ; and Chorlthe thick darkness that shrouds the ton, in its sixteen townships, 18,6 10.
In 1841 they contained in all 351,142 | alone and its environs, in 1838, souls.
seven years after, there was a In the year 1775 the entered report capital employed of £62,961,082, or of cotton from America to Liverpool | 304,611,636 dollars and 88 cents. was 5 bags, and in twelve years there- The influence of so much capital so after it only grew into 108 bags in employed may be illustrated in many one year. In 1840 it amounted to ways. Take an example in a single 528,000,000 of pounds, or one million case: Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart. in the three hundred and forty thousand year 1890-1, sold for £28, or 135 dolbales !
| lars per year, a certain lot of land near To manufacture this enormous the Infirmary, containing 2400 superamount of cotton in one year a corres- ficial yards. Transient buildings ponding increase of power looms and were occasionally put upon it, but all other apparatus is naturally to be when last sold they had all been cleared expected. From the statistics that away. In twenty years it was again have fallen under my eye, from the sold for £5000, more than 25,000 invention of the power loom in 1775 dollars. In a few years afterwards it till now, there has been a constant sold for 11,000 guineas. In 1841 it annual increase in the English empire was sold for £25,500, or 125,000 of the number of looms employed. dollars. The buildings on the premises In 1813 there were only 2400 ; in being all removed by the last purchaser 1835, 115,801 ; now, more than shows that the price paid was for the 150,000 power looms in the empire. land itself, or for the site ; and thus
Mills also have increased in corres- | in fifty years it has increased about ponding ratios. In the district of sixty fold ! which Manchester is the centre, there But what is the financial, moral, are 1164 mills; of these there are those and religious condition of the manuthat work 69 hours per week, 887 ; facturing population ? This is a less than 69, there are 139; not at question of profound interest to even work in 1843, there were 138. The the political economist-much more horse power in steam is equal to to the philanthropist and the Christian. 35,901, and in water to 3994. Em-We, indeed, saw little of it-talked ployed and unemployed in steam and little about it ; but were so curious on in water, there is more than 48,000 the subject as to gather up the best horse power devoted to cotton, and this printed statistice of their condition we gives actual employment to more than could find on the spot. Into these 200,000 persons, and supports almost you would not expect me to enter with 1,500,000 of human beings, including any great interest or at great length. the various trades connected with these | A few facts and a few hints must, establishments, and all the old and then, suffice for the present. infirm persons and children depending Within a radius of twelve miles upon the actual operants !
| around Manchester it is said there are To form an adequate idea of this one million of human beings, of which great manufacturing capital, it must the much greater proportion is enbe noted that in 1831, in twelve gaged, directly or indirectly, in manuAmerican States: Maine, New Hamp- factures. First, then, as respects shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode their wages or means of subsistence. Island, Connecticut, New York, New So late as June, 1842, from staJersey, Delaware, Maryland, and tistical reports of high authority we Virginia—there were in all 801 mills, | learned that in the cotton spinning 33,432 looms, and 77,457,316 lbs. of mills, employing some 4500 or 5000 cotton consumed, employing in capital hands, the wages for boys and girls, 49,612,984 dollars. In Manchester | young men and young women, range
according to the kind of employment. come into my hands, I must infer, at
“The agent of the statistical society, in 1834,
4417) cember, 1841, 11s. 3d. In another
Of this number, 27,381 were found to be mill, working 357 persons, the weekly comfortable, and 10.443 uncomfortable. The earnings of each person at the same average weekly rent paid for these 37,724 time were 9s. 6d. These were com | dwellings was 2s. lld. per week, making an paratively good times.
annual rental of two hundred and eighty-six Butoften manufacturers are obliged
thousand and seventy-three dollars.
More than one third were uncomfortable ! to work their mills every day at a That is, somewhat above 60,000 persons were certain loss. For example, there are living in miserable abodes--most likely similar some mills standing idle at an ex- to those just described. In the cellars enupense of £7000 a year. There is | merated, upwards of 18,000 people were
crammed! To depict the misery of their one in Manchester which emyloys a
abodes, would excite no emotions but those of thousand hands, and were it to stand pain. idle for a year, its wear and tear, in- There exist also in Manchester, many low terest on capital, and expenses to su lodging houses, which are graphically described pervise it, would amount to over
in a pamphlet recently published. The author
says— 7000 pounds sterling per annum. Of
'Let the reader imagine himself introduced course, then, it is better to work it all into a damp cellar, or dark and dirty garret, the year at a loss of £6500 than to where he sees as many beds as it will hold, let it stand idle at a loss of £7000. (from six to fourteen in number) ranged side by Such occurrences oblige a reduction
side, and closely adjoining one another ; that of wages, and greatly afflict the
in each of these beds he discovers from two to
four persons. of either sex, and of all ages and operatives.
characters, who are, however, hidden from his The usual hours of employment for view by the mass of clothes taken from those clerks and operatives in most of the in bed, and now hanging on lines in various factories and business houses, vary
directions about the apartment, and he will
form some conception of the scene which a from twelve to sixteen hours a day. |
quay lodging house at first view presents. Let him The ordinary cotton factory hands imagine that the temperature is at a fever heat, are now reduced to sixty-nine hours owing to the total absence of all means of per week, or eleven and a half hours
ventilation, and in consequence of so many per diem.
persons breathing and being crowded together
in so small a space; let him imagine himself It is confidently asserted that the
assailed by a disgusting, faint, and sickening morality of the manufacturing popu- effluvia, to which the pure breath of heaven is lation of Manchester is at par with a paradise, and he may then conceive the that of the same number of persons
effects produced, on entering these crowded
dormitories, by the vapor and steam floating living in the small towns and villages
| about them. Let him remember that the bed- nay, even in the country itself. Of linen is rarely changed-once in six monthsthis matter, of course, I can say and that in these beds, meanwhile, have been nothing from my own observation. located an ever changeful race of diseased and But from the statistics and published But from the statistics and published
sick, as well as convalescent persons; and let
him imagine these beds to be likewise infested reports of the circumstances of the
Istances of the with all manner of vermin, and he will form a manufacturing population that have conception, far short, however, of the reality of
the horrible spectacle presented, not by one, hundred weight of coal or slack, sixty times a but by many hundred lodging-houses in Man- day, sixty yards, and the empty barrow back, chester.
without once straightening their backs, unless “ The reduction in the rate of wages of the they choose to stand under the shaft, and risk operative, is strikingly exhibited in the follow- | having their head broken by a falling ing extract. The Chairman of the Anti-Corn coal,” p. 67. Law Conference, held in 1841, puts the follow In these pits there are frequent visits of the ing question to an operative named Moore : “ choke damp,” “ wild fire,” “ sulphur and 'Can you tell the difference between the rate water,” that often occasion instant death to of wages now, and in 1815 ? This is the re their unhappy inmates. Pits are worked in ply. Moore— It is impossible for me to men Shropshire only twenty inches deep. Children tion all the different fabrics of works, but I will are frequently put to work here at 5 and 6 years take one the hundred reed. In 1775, the old, in some form. Eight and nine years is hundred reed was paid ls. and 8d. In 1800, the common time of commencement. The it was ls. and 4d.; in 1812, it was 10d.; and wages paid are, in our currency, from 2 dol. in 1815, it was 9d. What was it in the year 50 cent. per month to 7 dol. 50 cent. according 1816? It was fourpence halfpenny. The corn to age and ability. laws were put on then. Very well, what is it In the calico printing establishment children now? Twopence farthing, or less. I was out are employed from the age of five years, and of employ for three months this summer; and so ne are kept at work 12 to 14 hours per day. I have got a warp of the same sort as I was (This is put an end to by the Ten Hours' Bill.) speaking of-fifty yards for ten shillings. It From Lord Brougham's speech, July 11th, will take a fortnight to do it; I cannot do it | 1842, we quote one passage declarative of much under; there is threepence to go out of every that we learned from various sources. His shilling, which leaves me 3s. Od. a week. I Lordship says, “There have been found such have not got, on an average, for these four occurrences as 7, 8, and 10 persons in one years, 3s. 60. a week, one week with another. cottage, I cannot say for one day, but for whole But still I live; and there are people far worse days, without a morsel of food. They have situated than I am. Suppose I had a wife and remained in their beds of straw for two successive three or four children, how were they to he days, under the impression that in a recumbent kept out of that? Hundreds there are who are
posture the pangs of hunger are less felt.” so situated. How they live, I cannot tell.
As to education and morals, we They do not live--they only exist on water gruel and dry potatoes. It is starvation and
| are in possession of still more melannothing else.
choly facts ; many of which are so The Rev. Mr. Watson asked, Does it take frightful and appalling as to forbid as much time to weave a piece now as it did at their inscription upon these pages. the period referred to !' Moore: 'I find the
At a public examination to ascertain twist to be worse now than in the year 1815; it was very good in 1815; it is now very bad; the intellectual and moral attainments consequently it is more difficult to weave a of some of these miners and manupiece now than it was then. I have been a facturers, the following answers were weaver fifty-three years. I began weaving I riven Robert Churchillow aged 16. cotton when it was in its infancy, and I can
“I do not know any thing of Moses." trace the price from that time until now.'"
But that you may not think that “I never heard of France.” “I do these are extreme cases, or that not know what America is.” “Never Manchester is, in these respects, worse heard of Scotland or Ireland.” “ Cant than many other places in Great tell how many weeks make a year.” Britain, I will state a few facts “There are twelve pence in a shilling, gathered on my travels in other places. I and twenty shillings in a pound," and
From a “Report on Mining Operations,” “ eight pints in a gallon of ale." published about the same time, I will give a few Ann Eggley. “I walk about and short extracts. lst. Colleries. “I wish to
get fresh air on Sundays.” “I never call the attention of the Board to the pits about
go to church or chapel.” The seams are so thin that some Brampton.
“I never of them have but two feet headway to all the heard of Christ at all.” working. They are worked altogether by boys | From answers given by others I from 8 to 12 years of age, on all fours, with a extracted, I will quote only two or dog-belt and chain. The passages are neither three :-“The Lord sent Adam and ironed nor wooded, and often an inch or two
Eve on earth to save sinners.” In Mr. Barne's pit these thick with mud.
“I poor boys have to drag the barrows with a I dont know who made the world;" “I never heard about God.” “I ten. The latter is the usual time of proceeding dont know Jesus Christ-I never saw to business, although, in cases of persons married
| by licence eight o'clock is the hour. him ; but I have seen Foster who
“When all was ready and the church doors prays for him.”
opened, the clergyman and clerk betook them Enough ! and more than enough, selves to the vestry; and the people who were you will say. And yet these are about to be married, and their friends, seated among the people who declaim against
themselves in the body of the church, opposite
the communion table, on benches which were “ American Slavery ;” who tell us of
placed there for the purpose. Not less than “ the half-fed, over-wrought, and un fifty people were assembled, among whom I educated three millions of African took my seat quietly, without being noticed. A slaves owned by American Repub
party who had arrived in a narrow vis-a-vis fly,
most exclusively paraded in the mean time up licans ?” I apologize for neither
and down (as if unwilling to identify themselves American nor English slavery, starva with the humbler candidates of matrimony) in tion, oppression, nor ignorance. They another part of the church. The people at are all beyond the pale of my com- first took their seats in solemn silence, each munion ; but certainly there is occa
one inquisitively surveying his neighbor; but
as the c!ergyman and clerk were some time in sion, good and relevant, for reminding
preparation, the men first began to whisper one our trans-atlantic brethren of an old to another, and the women to titter, till by proverb, which, it would seem, is degrees they all threw off their reserve, and made either not in their Bible, or not read
audible remarks on the new comers. There
was little mauvais honte among the women; by them—" Physician, heal thyself." |
but of the men, poor fellows! some were seriously I will not tell you of Temperance
abashed; while among the hymeneal throng Societies in Manchester, or of churches there seemed to prevail a sentiment that obtains and church-going people. Of these pretty generally among their betters-namely, I learned but little ; but that Temper
the inclination to put shy people out of conceit
with themselves. Thus, at the advance of a ance Societies are much wanting, we
shcepish-looking bridegroom, he was imhad many proofs. Intemperance in mediately assailed on all sides with, “Come in ale-drinking and in strong drink is a man ; what art afraid of? Nobody'l hurt thee.' tremendous curse almost e er, where | And then a general laugh went round in a apparent in England and Scotland.
cand subdue the new comer.
repressed tone, but quite sufficient to confound All that enter into the bands of “Presently a sudden buzz broke out — 'The matrimony are obliged, at least once clergyman's coming,’and all was perfectly silent. in their lives, to go to church. It About twelve couples were to be married, --the would appear from some of our read- | rest were friends and attendants. The former
were called npon to arrange themselves all toings that very many of those who
gether round the altar. The clerk was an adept attend church on these occasions are in his business, and performed the duties of his decidedly not a church-going people. office in a mode admirably calculated to set the An extract from a “ Home Tour | people at their ease and direct the proceedings. through the Manufacturing Districts, woh the Monufonturino Distrito | In appointing them to their proper places, he
We addressed each in an intonation of voice parin the summer of 1835, by Sir George ticularly soft and soothing, and which carried Head,” will intimate something of with it more of encouragement, as he made this sort :
use of no appellative but the Christian name
of the person spoken to. Thus he proceeded:"I attended the Old Church at Manchester Daniel and Phoebe; this way, Daniel; take off one Monday morning, in order to witness the your gloves, Daniel. William and Anne: no, solemnization of several marriages I had reason | Anne: here, Anne: t'other side. William. John to suppose were then and there to take place. and Mary; here, John; oh! John.' And then I had heard on the preceding Sunday the banns addressing them altogether,-'Now, all of you, proclaimed as follows:-'For the first time of | give your hats to some person to hold. Alasking, sixty-five; for the second time, seventy- I though the marriage service appeared to me to two ; for the third time, sixty. Total, one be generally addressed to the whole party, the hundred and ninety-seven.
clergyman was scrupulously exact in obtain“Having been informed that it would be ing the accurate responses from each individual.” expedient to be on the spot at eight in the Amongst the benevolent institutions of morning, I repaired thither at that hour- Manchester, we notice of great importanceOperations, however, did not commence before ' “ The Society for promoting National Edu