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not have been a man as much as tants are said to be in it at this day, Elijah, who is called an angel ? I Susan ? have thought that the spirits of good! Susan. In the Appendix to the men are sometimes made ministering Family Testament it is said that there spirits ; and why not, then, Gabriel are some 2 or 3000 inhabitants, and one of these?
the place is often visited by pilgrims, Olympas. He is distinguished as and is memorable for having been the one of the heavenly host; and es- residence of our Saviour for some pecially he says of himself that he thirty years. stands in the presence of God. It is Olympas. Why did Gabriel visit a pleasure for us to know that angels Nazareth, Susan ? have assumed the appearance of men, Susan. There was a virgin named and like men have their personal Mary there, who was betrothed to names.
one Joseph, a carpenter, and the Reuben. But their names end all angel went there to intimate to her in El. Their names, you say, are all that she should be the mother of our personal : how comes it, that they end Lord and Saviour. all in el?
Olympas. State the names and Olympas. That is a new idea, in- offices which this wonderful child was deed. Well, I will change my opinion, to assume. and say that El is their family name, William. His personal name was and that all before that is their per- to be Jesus. He is also called “the sonal name. But how many celestial Son of the Highest.” He was to names have we on earth, Thomas ? inherit the throne of his father David,
Thomas. With the help of the to reign over the house of Jacob for poets we have some four in common ever, and to have an everlasting use. In the scriptures we have kingdom. Gabriel and Michael, and they have | Olympas. You will observe, then, added Raphael and Uriel.
that “ the throne of David” and “ the James. What does El mean? house of Jacob" comprehend more
Susan. God, you know, is called than the literal throne of David and El.
the fleshly offspring of Jacob : for Olympas. Then the family name these are no more the peculiar people is God; and Gabriel denotes « God of God. But I will reserve this for is my excellency,” and Michael de- | a future lesson. I only wish at this notes “ One who has all,” and so they time to mark the fact that Jesus are all functionaries of God.
inherits the sceptre of David, and is Reuben. Then, as in earth, so in to govern the house of Jacob for heaven, names are significant of re ever. To whose personal influence lations and offices.
is the creation of the body of Jesus Olympas. To what town was Ga- assigned ? briel sent, James ?
Thomas. The Holy Spirit, the James. To Nazareth of Galilee. Power of the Highest, or God him
Olympas. Show me that place on self. your map.
Olympas. The body of Jesus is a James. There is no map in my creation of God, but the material is Testament.
human flesh. God made but one Olympas. You have not got the human being out of the earth—our Family Testament, then.
father Adam. The Holy Spirit came Susan. I have. See here is Naza- upon him, and the power of the reth, a town in Galilee, about 50 Highest overshadowed him. He fell miles north of Jerusalem.
into a deep sleep, and from a rib Olympas. And how many inhabi- ' taken out of his side God created a
woman. And now we have the third and glory of God in the affairs of his display of the same power on the body providence. Hence he was employed of Mary. The Holy Spirit descends, to reveal to Daniel the scheme of and by a similar omnipotence fashions providence in reference to the glory out of the body of Mary the body of of God in the great work of man's Jesus. Adam was made out of the redemption. So it come to pass that dust, therefore he is called human; he is always employed in affairs conEve is made out of a rib, therefore nected with providence and redempshe called woman; and Jesus is made tion; and with the former only in out of the flesh of Mary, therefore reference to the latter. Michael deis he called EMANUEL, GOD WITH US, notes God's President-one who has the SON OF GOD, and the Son of all entrusted to him as a steward or MAN. Therefore, said the angel, shall president of affairs. He was the he be called the Son of God. He president angel of the Abrahamic never had this name before, unless race. There is not, said Gabriel, prospectively. He was called by any that counsels with me in these other names, amongst which was THE affairs, but Michael your prince. GaWORD. THE WORD became in- briel calls him the chief or the head carnate. Reuben, relate what ensued of the princes. He is also called the after this visit of Gabriel to the Archangel. Concerning the person Virgin Mary.
called Michael we bare something Reuben. She burst forth into a more to say at another time. But to rapturous eulogy on the mysterious the history :- What are the circumand benignant promises of the Lord, stances of the birth of the son of especially his faithfulness in keeping Zacharias ? his engagement with his people. Her William. On the eight day he was words are, “ My soul magnifies the circumcised and named. His relaLord, and my spirit rejoices in Godtions would have him called after my Saviour ; because he has not dis- his father, but his mother would have dained the low condition of his hand- him called John. maid; for, henceforth all posterity | Thomas. There must have been will pronounce me happy. For the something in this name, as it seems Almighty, whose name is venerable, there was some controversy about it. has done wonders for me. His mercy | I should like to understand what myson them who fear him, extends to tery was in it. generations of generations. He dis- / Olympas. It simply means the plays the strength of his arm, and favor, or the favor of God. This is dispels the vain imaginations of the not the first time the name is found : proud. He pulls down potentates it is the first of the New Testament from their thrones, and exalts the occurrences of the word. Observe lowly. The needy he loads with how ancient the custom of giving benefits ; but the rich he spoils of names at circumcision. every thing. He supports Israel his Thomas. Is this the reason why servant, (as he promised to our names are given at baptism ? fathers,) ever inclined to mercy to- Olympas. It is the reason. Hence wards Abraham and his race.” the personal name of an individual
Eliza. I do not understand how is commonly called his Christian the names Gabriel and Michael de- | name. Thus, you may remember in note offices. Gabriel imports God is the Catholic and Episcopalian Catemy excellency, and Michael One who chism, after the question, “ What is has all.
your name ?" comes ~ Who gave you Olympas. The office of Gabriel that name ?" This question is usually was, then, to represent the excellency answered, “ My godfather at my baptism?” Baptism, then, like cir- with another child six months younger cumcision, was the time of naming than his son John, seem, like waters persons. The personal name was long dammed up, to burst forth in a solemnly imposed when the names of mighty torrent. His ecstacy is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were beautifully expressed in the textemployed in the ritual of baptism. “Blessed be the Lord the God of The cause of this I presume to be Israel, because he has visited and was the fact that the person with redeemed his people ; and (as anwhom the covenant of circumcision ciently he promised by his holy Prowas made had his name changed phets) bas raised a Prince for our from Abram to Abraham ; and as a deliverance in the house of Darid new name was given to him at the his servant ; for our deliverance from time of circumcision, the Jews, and our enemies, and from the hands of after them the Greek Christians, the all who bate us ; in kindness to our Romanists, and some Protestants, re- fathers, and remembrance of his holy served the imposition of a name on appointment ; the oath which he the child till the day of circumcision. sware to our father Abraham, to Hence both John and Jesus received grant to us, that, being rescued out of their names on the eighth day, at the hands of our enemies, we might their circumcision. Why, Susan, did serve him boldly, in piety and upZacharias ask for a writing table to rightness, all the days of our life. write the name of his son ?
And you, child, shall be called a Susan. Because he was dumb, Prophet of the Most High ; for you not being able to speak since the shall go before the Lord, to prepare angel Gabriel reproved him for his bis way, by giving the knowledge of doubting his word.
salvation to his people, in the remisOlympas. Was he also deaf as well sion of their sins, through the tender as dumb, William ?
compassion of our God, who has William. We are not told that he caused a day-spring from on high to was deaf.
visit us, to enlighten those who abide Reuben. But we may infer it. in darkness and in the shades of death,
Olympas. From what circum- to direct our feet in the way of peace.” stances ?
The Holy Spirit speaks through Reuben. Because they made signs Zacharias as through any of the Proto him to know he would have him phets. Hence the conclusion of his called. Now if he could have heard speech is prophetic of John and of them, why not have asked him ? Jesus. Is there not some peculiar
Olympas. This is, indeed, a strong views of salvation expressed in this presumptive evidence that he was speech of Zacharias, William ? deaf as well as dumb. It is an ex- William. “Salvation by the reample of a fact that occasionally mission of sins" is the peculiar salvahappens—viz. that inferential reason- tion to be preached by John and ings are sometimes as conculsive as Jesus-not from the Roman yokeexpress declarations. What remarks not from their political enemies. I have you to make on the opening am, indeed, at a loss to know whether speech of Zacharias, Thomas ? the phrase “ the day-spring from on
Thomas. You call it the opening high' refers to John or Jesus. speech, because the first speech after Olympas. John I understand to be a dumbness of nine months, and the a day-spring, not the day-spring from commencement of a new era in the on high : so reads the original, as you life of this distinguished priest. His see in the new version. Jesus is not thoughts and musings on this great “a day-spring,” but the “ Sun of event in his life, and its connections | Righteousness" himself. John was
“ a burning and a shining light" to 5847. You will therefore in all your the Gentiles and to Israel. He did, readings of Anno Domini remember indeed, enlighten the world and pre- that it commences four years after pare a people for the Lord. The the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. Of salvation which he preached was this, however, we may have occasion from sin—from the guilt, power, and to speak more particularly hereafter. punishment of sin. Therefore his
A. CAMPBELL. preaching had to do with confessing sin, repenting of sin, and the remission of sin-of which, in its proper COMPARING SPIRITUAL place. But now we must attend to THINGS WITH SPIRITUAL. the time and circumstances of the
NO. IV. birth of our Lord. Read, William the first fourteen verses of the next
ADAM AND JESUS. chapter, and then state to us the ' I HAVE not overlooked J. B.'s republic fact that dates his nativity. I mark : but, to the argument. We
William. The decree of Cesar have now to see how Adam, in the Augustus for the taxing, or, as you particulars already laid down, is a have taught us, the enrolment of the “ figure of him that was to come ;" land of Judea, it seems occasioned chiefly, as before observed, in a way our Lord's birth at Bethlehem. But of contrast. In every point already for the decree, it would appear, he gone over, there is a correspondence had not been born in that royal city. / or parallel between the two men who
Olympas. True. In what year are the subject of this passage, Rom. was this decree, Thomas ?
v. 12-21— the first, Adam ; the seThomas. I cannot so reconcile the cond, Jesus Christ. The substance various accounts of it I have read as of this is contained in the 18th and to make it quite certain to my mind. and 19th verses of the chapter, which
Olympas. Our Lord was born four verses follow upon verse 12, and comyears before the present Anno Domini plete the sense. The particulars of -certainly in the fourth year before ; the same truth are entered into, and and therefore his birth ought to be further opened in the parenthesis set down in the year of the world (13-17); but in the 18th and 19th we 4000. This would be the 26th year read of the offence or disobedience of of the empire of Augustus, counting one man, to which is opposed the from the battle of Actium. The righteousness or obedience of one most accurate looking calculation I (that is, one man, as verse 15); also have met with of the precise date of of the consequence of each— the the nativity of the Messiah, places it judgment by the one ; the free gift about the close of the fourth year by the other : being made sinner by before the present Anno Domini, the one, being made righteous by the which is the year of the world 4004. other : and this leading on the one Cyrenius, or Quirinius, had been hand to eternal destruction—on the deputy governor of Syria before the other hand to eternal life. reignof Archelaus, as well as governor First, then, it was necessary that a of that province after his reign. This second man, another Adam should fact reconciles all difficulties, and fixes come into the world to destroy the our Lord's birth in the year of the evil brought upon it by the first. The world 4000, after the founding of Rome last Adam was as truly man as the 749 years. That would make the first, yet in some things unlike the world at present 5846 years old, and first : unlike in this, that he was that brings the end of Daniel's days from everlasting, being the Son of next year, or the year of the world. God who is over all, God blessed for
ever, Rom. ix. 5. He came into the sons, men and women, came not by world by his own act and will, though | Eve's transgression, but by Adam's— in obedience to the will of the Father, so Mary's sinfulness entailed no sin as we read Ps. xl. 6-7, quoted Heb. upon that holy thing which she conX. 5-7 ; “Then said he (before he ceived by the Holy Ghost. This came) lo I come to do thy will, o contrast between the last Adam and God.” Not so the first man : he was the first is self-evident after Adam not till God formed him out of the sinned ; but it might appear at first dust of the ground and breathed into sight that Adam, when he was crehis nostrils the breath of life ; and ated, was not inferior to Jesus in this man became a living soul. Then he very particular, namely, in having no began to be and to live in this world sin. The flesh of Adam was, like without any act or will of his own in every thing else that God had made, so doing.
“ very good ;" but this absence of 2nd. Jesus, though born of woman, evil is not to be confounded with the was without sin. It is asked, Job spotlessness of the holy one of God. xxv. 4, “How can he be clean that It was the goodness of a creature, is born of woman ?" None, indeed, I and no more ; and the absence of sin can who is born as every other person in any creature does not make it im(except the son of Mary) has been possiple that he should sin, as the from the beginning of the world, and event has fully shown, both in heaven will be to the end of it. But the and earth. The Son of God could body of Christ was a holy thing, not sin, his holiness being like that of Luke i. 35, not being begotten by the Father himself. When we say man, but prepared of God for his own he could not sin, it does not mean by Son, Heb. x. 5, and therefore not sin- a kind of necessity which excludes the ful flesh, which comes by natural idea of choice or obedience, for God descent from Adam. It is remark- has rewarded him according to his able that the corruption of the nature righteousness-according to the cleanof man is never ascribed to the sin of ness of his hands in God's sight, (Ps. the woman, though the woman sinned | xviii. 20.) Yet there was no peradno less than the man, and was even venture or contingency in Christ's the first in the transgression, Tim. ii. obedience : it was infallibly certain, 14. Yet her sin is never spoken of as when he came into the world to do bringing any consequences after it the will of God, that he would do it upon the human race. It is by “one in every point, as it is infallibly cerman” that sin entered into the world tain that God, even the Father him
-by“ one man's” offence death self, will do nothing but what is right. reigned — by “ one man's” disobedi- If Adam had not sinned up to the ence many were made sinners. This present day, this would have been no is worthy of remark, because it may security that he might not to-morrow; help us to understand how one might and so it must always be with creabe clean, although born of a woman, tures, unless they are secured by the and one only was so. It need hardly promise of God that they never shall be added, that women are by nature -as, no doubt, the holy angels areas corrupt as men, though Mary is the expression, elect angels, containfalsely and ignorantly called by Pa- ing this in it ; and so it will be with pists “ the immaculate virgin.” It is the elect among men, when raised true, she was a holy woman, and one and glorified with the Lord. who found favor with God; yet in 3rd. God gave Jesus, the second the flesh of Mary, the mother of man, a command to fulfil, even as he Christ, dwelt no good thing. But as did to Adam, the first man, though of her sin, and the sin of all other per-| quite a different kind. As far as we