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and as if all the sons of men, even every one of them, were of such a character, and none of them did good ; no, not one? Is it not strange, that the righteous should not be thought worthy to be called sons of men, and ranked with that noble race of beings, who are born into the world wholly right and innocent! It is a good, easy, and natural reason, why he chooseth to call the wicked, sons of men, as a proper name for them, that by being of the sons of men, or of the corrupt, ruined race of mankind, they come by their depravity. And the Psalmist himself leads us to this very reason, Psal. Iviii, at the beginning. “Do ye judge uprightly, Oye sons of men ? Yea, in heart ye work wickedness, ye weigh out the violence of your hands. The wicked are estranged from the womb,** &c. of which I shall speak more by and by.

Agreeable to these places is Prov. xxi. 8. “The way of man is froward and strange ; but as for the pure, his work is right.” He that is perverse in his walk, is here called by the name of man, as distinguished from the pure : Which I think is absolutely unaccountable, if all mankind by nature are pure, and perfectly innocent, and all such as are froward and strange in their ways, therein depart from the native purity of all mankind. The words naturally lead us to suppose the contrary; that depravity and perverseness properly belong to mankind as they are naturally, and that a being made pure, is by an afterwork, by which some are delivered from native pollution, and distinguished from mankind in general; which is perfectly agreeable to the representation in Rev. xiv. 4, where we have an account of a number that were not defiled, but were pure, and followed the Lamb ; of whom it is said, These were redeemed from among men.

To these things agree Jer. xvii. 5, 9. In ver. 5, it is said, « Cursed is he that trusteth in man." And in ver. 9, this reason is given, “The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked; who can know it ?” What heart is this so wicked and deceitful ? Why, evidently the heart of him, whom, it was said before, we must not trust; and that is man. It alters not the case, as to the present argument, whether the deceitfulness of the heart here spoken of, be its deceitfulness

to the man himsclf, or to others. So Eccl. ix. 3. « Madness is in the heart of the sons of men, while they live.” And those words of Christ to Peter, Matth. xvi. 23. “ Get thee behind me, Satan, for thou savórest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men.” Signifying plainly, that to be carnal and vain, and opposite to what is spiritual and divine, is what properly belongs to men in their present state. The same thing is supposed in that of the apostle, 1 Cor. iii. 3. “ For ye are yet carnal. For whereas there is among you envying and strife, are ye not carnal, and walk as men ?And that in Hos. vi. 7. “ But they like men, have transgressed the covenant.” To these places may be added Matth. vii. 11. € If ye, being evil, know how to give good gifts.” Jam. iv. 5. • Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us, lusteth to envy ?" 1 Pet. iv. 2. " That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the lusts of men, but to the will of God.” Yet above all, that in Job xv. 16. “ How much more abominable and filthy is man, who drinketh iniquity like water? Of which more presently.

Now what account can be given of these things, on Dr. Taylor's scheme? How strange is it, that we should have such descriptions, all over the Bible, of man, and the sons of men! Why should man be so continually spoken of as evil, carnal, perverse, deceitful, and desperately wicked, if all men are by nature as perfectly innocent, and free from any propensity to evil, as Adam was the first moment of his creation, all made right, as our author would have us understand, Eccl. vii. 29 ? Why, on the contrary, is it not said, at least as often, and with equal reason, that the heart of man is right and pure ; that the way of man is innocent and holy ; and that he who eavors true virtue and qvisdom, savors the things that be of men? Yea, and why might it not as well have been said, The Lord looked down from heaven on the sons of men, to see if there were any that did undesstand, and did seck afler God; and they were all right, altogether pure, there was none inclined to do wickedness, no, not one?

Of the like import with the texts mentioned are those which represent wickedness as what properly belongs to the

world; and that they who are otherwise, are saved from the world, and called out of it. As John vii. 7. “ The world cannot hate you ; but me it hateth ; because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil.” Chap. viii, 23, “ Ye are of this world: I am not of this world." Chap. xiv. 17. “ The spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive ; because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him : But ye know him." Chap. xv. 18, 19. « If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love its own : But because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you." Rev. xiv. 3, 4. “ These are they which were redeem. ed from the earth....redeemed from among men.” John xvii. 9. “ I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me." Ver. 14. “ I have given them thy word ; and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world." I John iii, 13. Marvel not, my brethren, if the world hate you." Chap. iv. 5. " They are of the world, therefore speak they of the world, and the world heareth them." Chap. v. 19. “ We are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness.” It is evident, that in these places, by the world is' meant the world of mankind ; not the habitation, but the inhabitants : For it is the world spoken of as loving, hating, doing evil works, speaking, hear. ing, &c.

It shews the same thing, that wickedness is often spoken of as being man's own, in contradistinction from virtue and holiness. So men's lusts are often called their own heart's lusts, and their practising wickedness is called walking in their own ways, walking in their own counsels, in the imagination of their own heart, and in the sight of their own eyes, according to their own devices, &c. These things denote wickedness to be a quality belonging properly to the character and nature of mankind in their present state : As, when Christ would represent that lying is remarkably the character and the very nature of the devil in his present state, he expresses it thus, John viii. 44. “ When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his arun : For he is a liar, and the father of it."


And that wickedness belongs to the nature of mankind in their present state, may be argued from those places which speak of mankind as being wicked in their childhood, or from their childhood. So, that in Prov. xxii. 15. “ Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child ; but the rod of correction shall drive it far from him.” Nothing is more manifest, than that the wise man in this book continually uses the word folly, or foolishness, for wickedness : And that this is what he means in this place, the words themselves do shew: For the rod of correction is proper to drive away no other foolishness, than that which is of a moral nature. The word rendered bound, significs, as is observed in Pools Synopsis, a close and firm urion. The same word is used in chap. vi. 21. Bind them continually upon thy heart." And chap. vii. 3. “ Bind them upon thy fingers, write them upon the table of thine heart." To the like purpose is chap. i. 3, and Deut, xi. 18, where this word is used. The same verb is used, 1 Sam. xviii. 1. “ The soul of Jonathan was knit (or bound) to the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.” But how comes wickedness to be so firmly bound, and strongly fixed, in the hearts of children, if it be not there naturally? They having had no time firmly to fix habits of sin, by long custom in actual wickedness, as those that have lived many years in the world.

The same thing is signified in that noted place, Gen. vii. 21. “ For the imagination of man's heart is evil, from his youth." It alters not the case, whether it be translated for or though the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth, as Dr. Taylor would have it ; sui}l the words suppose it to be so as is said. The word translated youth, signifies the whole of the former part of the age of man, which commences from the beginning of life. The word, in its derivalion, has reference to the birth or beginning of existence. It . comes from Nagnar, which signifies to shake off, as a tree shakes off its ripe fruit, or a plant its seed: The birth of children being commonly represented by a tree's yielding fruit, or a plant's yielding seed. So that the word here translated youth, comprehends not only what we in English most commonly call the time of youth, but also childhood and infancy, and is very often used to signify these latter. A word of the same root is used to signify a young child, or a little child, in the following places; 1 Sam. i. 24, 25, 27 ; 1 Kings dü. 7, and xi. 17; 2 Kings ii. 23 ; Job xxxiii. 25 ; Prov. xxii. 6, xxiii. 13, and xxix. 21; Isai. x. 19, xi. 6, and lxv. 20; Hos. xi. 1. The same word is used to signify an infant, in Exod. ii. 6, and x. 9; Judg. xiii. 5, 7, 8, 24 ; 1 Sam. i. 22, and iy. 21; 2 Kings v. 14 ; Isai. vii. 16, and visi. 4.

Dr. Taylor says, p. 124, Note, that he conceives, from the youth, is a phrase signifying the greatness, or long dura. tion of a thing.” But if by long duration he means any thing else than what is literally expressed, viz from the beginning of life, he has no reason to conceive so; neither has what he offers, so much as the shadow of a reason for his conception. There is no appearance in the words of the two or three texts he mentions, of their meaning any thing else than what is most literally signified. And it is certain, that what he suggests is not the ordinary import of such a phrase among the Hebrews : But that thereby is meant from the beginning, or early time of life, or existence ; as may be seen in the places following, where the same word in the Hebrew is used, as in this place in the 8th of Genesis. i Sam. xii. 2. “ I am old, and gray headed...and I have walked before



childhood unto this day ;" where the original word is the same. Psal. Ixxi. 5, 6. “ Thou art my trust from my youth : By thee have I been holden up from the womb. Thou art he that took me out of my mother's bowels.” Ver. 17, 18. “ O God, thou hast taught me from my youth ; and hitherto have I de. clared thy wondrous works : Now also, when I am old and gray headed, forsake me not." Psal. cxxix. 1, 2. “ Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth, may Israel now say : Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth ; yet have they not prevailed against me.” Isai. xlvii. 12. “ Stand now with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast labored, from thy youth.So ver. 15, and 2 Sam. xix, 7. “ That will be worse unto thee, than all the evil that befel thee, from thy youth until now.” Jer, iii, 24, 25, “ Shame

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