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is a retrograde step. The freedom of expres- the illustrations, with the exceptions of a sion allowed to the public press in the few beautiful examples of textiles, are exdiscussion of public affairs and the criti- clusively confined to illustrations from five cism of administrative measures, enabling Jaina MSS. There are very surprising and it thus to act as a salutary substitute for interesting informations for the study of the control of the superior Government is Jaina iconography, but the drawings a condition precedent to the success of any reproduced, even as considered as mere decentralization scheme. It is because this book-illustrations, hardly show any merit condition has been practically non-existent equal to the Buddhist illuminated MSS., and in Sind, that the Commissioner in Sind as are likely to leave the average reader unconwell as the District Collectors can, when vinced of the merits of Jaina art. Some of occasion arises, while vominally supported the illustrations undoubtedly show vitality by the effusive flattery of certain so-called and strength in draughtsmanship, the best leaders of the people, flout the real public examples being illustrations a, b, 11, 15, opinion in the province with impunity. 22 and 52. The drawings of elephants and So long as the Press and the public are bulls in some of the compositions (d & 17) given little liberty of expression and the are particularly interesting. The physical present sensibility and touchiness of offici- type of the figures, ( in these illustrations ). als to unpalatable because true criticism with their hooked nose and large eyes, are continues unabated, all plans whereby the very peculiar. They are almost identically local Government is given final authority similar to the old Orissan drawings which will be fraught with mischief, for in the Dr. Coomaraswamy does not mention ; absence of both Imperial and popular and he is led to suggest in the mannerism control, the local officials will be prone to of these delineations a relationship to autocratic methods of administration. Persian art which is not convincing. On

J. the other hand they bear a closer affinity The Journal of Indian Art and Industry.

to the types of figures which we meet with,

in Javanese art. (Vide plate I fig. 4, plates The Journal of Indian Art seems to have 6,7 & 13 Catalogus 'SRijk Ethnographisch entered into a new life with its current Museum, Bali en Lombok 1912). On the number (July 1914 ).. The quarterly has whole the July number of the Journal is a been a sort of semi-official publication very interesting one and offers many new issued since 1883, under the patronage suggestions for the study of Indian art of the Government. Its chief contributions and therefore should be read by all serious have hitherto come from the so-called students interested in the subject. official authorities on Indian Art who have

0. C. G. failed to find any merit in the fine arts of India as distinguished from its industrial Castes and subcastes of Ga rhwal. and applied arts. The investigations recent

BY TARADUTTA GAIROLA. ly made in the field of Indian painting and

(Concluded) sculpture have revolutionised one's ideas on the excellence of Indian aesthetic culture There is no doubt that just as Sarolas and have widened the basis of the criticism were the priests and ministers of the and the understanding of Indian fine Art. Chandpur Rajas, some of the Gangarie BrahIt is refreshing to find, therefore, a healthy mans held similar positions in the courts change in the policy of the conductors of of other chieftains who ruled in Garhwal. this Journal which for 31 years has professed For instance, the Dumaga

the Dumaga Brahmans, to record the materials for the study and Purohits, Kimothis, and Maikoties of appreciation of Indian Art. Unfortunately Nagpur were the Sarolas of the Nagpur Dr. Coomaraswamy's contribution to the Raja, the ancestors of the present Thoke. number, with his Notes on Jaina art, do dar Keshar Singh Barthwal. But when not happily inaugurate the new note of all those chieftains were subdued, one change in the policy of the Journal. It is after the other, by the Chandpur Raja. hardly an exhaustive article but the title they, as well as their priests, began to seems to raise hopes which are not realised recede into the background. Some of the by the contents and the scope of the article. pure Gangaric Brahnians came from the "Notes on Jain book-illustrations" would plains during the period when the Behri have been a happier title, as the notes and Raja's ancestors lived at Srinagar. Buga

a

nas, Uniyals and a few other families claim I now come to the sub-castes of Rajputs, to be among such emigrants, The Buga- that important section of the Garhwali nas were famous astrologers and Pundits community who form its back-bone as it in the court of the Srinagar Raja, and were. I have given above the various Uniyals or Ojhas, as they call themselves, classifications of the Rajputs and their were priests of Raj Rajeswari Devi, the sub-castes. I may

also mention here family goddess of the Srinagar Rajas at

another classification given by Mr. E. K. Dewalgarh near Srinagar. Both these Pauw, the late Deputy Commissioner and families were held in great respect during

Settlement Officer in Garhwal, who is conthe Srinagar period of the Tehri Rajas. sidered a great authority on Garhwal

a The above statement would show that customs. He divides Rajputs into Chatthe pretensions of the several sub-castes tries or high caste Rajputs and Khasias to social positions are mainly due to or low caste Rajputs. His Chattries corpolitical causes, There does not appear

respond to first class Rajputs of Captain to be anything intrinsic in sub- Browne's classification. caste to single it out from the rest. As I will now very briefly discuss the oriregards certain customs which have be- gin of these Chattries or high class Rajcome stereotyped in certain groups or sub- puts, so far as can be gathered from castes, I ascribe them entirely to physical previous writers and the known fatcs causes. In those early days of difficult

about them. I have stated above that communication certain families who re- formerly the whole District was split up mained in one neighbourhood intermarried into several petty Kingdoms under their and interdined in their own circle. Origi- own feudal Chief or Thakur. He and his nally they may have come from the plains, clansmen occupied some glen or valley may be from different parts of the country. now called Patti. Several Patties of But gradually they became cut off from Garhwal are still called after these subtheir Biradari in the plains and created a castes of Chattrias. Kafolsyun, after the new Biradari for themselves in their new Kafola Bists; Kandarsyun after Kandarie home of adoption. And when all memories Gosains, and so on. These petty Chiefs of their origin were lost in oblivion their were Chattriyas or high class Rajputs, connection with the plains ceased altoge- whose descendants are the present Thother, and they became separate Pahari- kedar families and some other sub-castes Brahmin sub-castes. The same rule applies, of Rajputs. mutatis mutandis, to the different sub

Some families of Rajputs migrated from castes or groups of Rajputs occupying the plains during the rule of the Chandpur different parts of the District. The total and Srinagar Rajas and were taken in the number of superior Gangarie-Brahmin pro- Military service. In lieu of pay villages were

. prietors at Mr. Pauw's Settlement of 1894 assigned to them, and military titles were was 5267.

also conferred on them which they and Khas-Brahmans. I now come to the their descendants have borne since. For last group of Brahmans known as Khas- instance Gusain, a sub-caste of Garhwal Brahmans. They are the new cases of Rajputs, means a master ; Rawat, a family accretion now in progress, in the words of

title borne by four or five Rajput sub-castes Mr. Blunt, the Census Superintendent. meaus a hero; Negi meaning a master, Only within living memory these sub-castes has been adopted by several Rajput familes. were Khasias or Rajputs to all intents and Captain Browne has taken great pains in purposes. They intermarried and inter- tracing the history of the several high class

dined with Khasias. But being connected Rajput sub-castes of Garhwal in his excelE as priests with certain Saiva temples they

lent table of Garhwal castes. According gradually began to marry Brahmin girls to him most of these families of Rajputs and assume Brahmin sur-names. They are immigrants from the plains. But so have also reformed their mode of life and far as the present writer is aware there is are now veritable Brahmins. Some of no written authority for this fact. But them have even gone to the extreme of not

as I will show later on, when dealing with eating rice cooked by Sarolas. The total Khasias, I do not think we can draw any number of Khas Brahmin proprietors at sha line of distinction, so far as the origin the last settlement was 3685 and inferior is concerned, between the

the various subGangaries 397.

castes of Rajputs. Political importance

no

has mainly been the determining factor in Aryras even ; whereas the Khasias, as the social gradation of the Rajput sub- every one knows, are of more or less castes, as stated above.

uncouth appearance. I venture to give a I have already mentioned the social theory of my own with regard to the incidents of the various Rajput subcastes. origin of these Khasias. My view is, that the It now remains for me to briefly consider Khasia is a corrupt form of Kshattriya. the second and by no means un-important Ksh is easily changed into Kh; as from sub-division of the Rajputs, the Khasias. Lakshman, Lakhan ; Kshem, Khem and I have read with great interest the So on. Tri can also, by process of repetemasterly discussion of this question in tion and transformation, be changed to Mr. Atkinson's Himalayan Districts Vol. Si. Thus from Kshattriya we easily get II., pp. 274 onwards. The conclusion to Khasia. It is also a well known fact that be drawn from that discussion, so far as some words originally meaning good I can see, is that Khasias and Paehavas, gradually begin to connote quite the whom I make bold to identify with the

reverse. This is due to degradation in the Pabilas of Chandpur and Rath Pattis, subject itself. We have several instances are degraded Aryans, who having of this in the English language. Now access to the Vedas or the Brahmans, formerly a Kshatriya in commei parlance becaine out of touch with the Brah- was called a Khasia. It connoted all those manical influence. I can find no better warlike qualities which characterize a true authority than this in

than this in support of my Kshatriya. In the ancient folk-lore of own theory, that Khasias, including Garhwal we hear of several warriors and Pabilas, are Rajputs. I may also mention heroes being nicknamed Khasia. In fact some other theories in this connection. Khasia meant a warrior in ancient folklore. Some writers think that Khasias are a But gradually as the race of Khasias degenon-Aryan Indo-Scythian race, who in- nerated and lost all their manly virtues, vaded India and gradually receded into that word began to assume a bad meanthe frontier regions. But, so far as I have ing and now connotes all that is cowardly. seen, this is a mere surmise. Others, in- The word Pahari has also shared the same cluding Mr. Atkinson, identify Khasias fate. Formerly the word Pahari with the Yakshas mentioned in the all that was noble, virtuous and honest. Puranas. But those Yakshas, Kinnaras, But now, that word is contemptuously Gandharbas of the Puranas were demi-gods, used by the lowlanders. The above obser. higher than men. They could not be the

vations will lend support to the view, half-civilized and apparently non-Hindu that Khasias are Kshatriyas degraded. race of the Khasias, who wear no sacred having been out of touch with Arran thread and observe few Brahmanical injunc- influence and living in remote, out of the tions. Moreover, Khasias of the Puranas way, recesses of the Himalayas.

very fair race, fairer than the

were

a

REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS

ENGLISH

169 pp.

Vaisnavism, Saivism, and Minor Religious Systems, by Sir R. G. Bhandarkar, being Vol. III. pt. 6 of the Encyclopedia of Indo-Aryan Research. (Trubner, Strassburg, 1913), 8s. net.

Dr. Bhandarkar speaks with a master's authority of voice and wealth of accurate detail where he traces the living popular religions of India to their sources in ancient Sanskrit literature. His accounts of the

rise of a new Theistic system as the result of thic mental fermentation of the pre-Buddhistic age, the sources of the religion of the Bhagarad Gita, the growth of the Rama and Krishna cults, and the historic traces of the Bhagavata School of Vaishnavas, and his analysis of the origins of the Narayan cas in the Mahabharat, cannot possibly be bettered.

But as soon as Sanskrit literature fails him, he loses his mastery of detail and sureness of touch. la the case of sects whose sacred literatures are not is Sanskrit or Marathi, he has to depend entirely on tiks

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few English and fewer Sanskrit works that have been Aryan gods, -Indra Mitra, &c.-on the Mitanni written on them. This is specially noticeable in his inscriptions of the 15th century B. C. is mentioned, accounts of the saints of the Hindi and Bengali- and another equally recent discovery is utilised on speaking races. (He has, however, consulted some p. 157 where the Besnagar Garuda-column inscripHindi works, though not with freedom or appreciable tion of the Hellenistic ambassador, “Hellodorus, gain.)

the son of Dion and a Bhagavata,' is given in If the chapters on Kavir and Chaitanya, Ramaranda facsimile. and Tulsidas, do not satisfy us, it is because they An instance of Prof. Rapson's lucidity occurs on fall short of the high standard of workmanship that page 71, where he tells us that the Mahabharat is ne himself has reached in his accounts of the historic

30 times as long as Paradise Lost in number of growth of the Vishnu and Shiva cults and his notices syllables, and that only one-fifth of the whole epic of the Maratha saints. But it is no fault in Dr. deals with the main theme. Very wise and convincing Bhandarkar that he has not attained to uniform remarks are made on “local governments in India saccess in a work which could have been adequately in all periods of history" (p. 97), the aloofness of the written only by a syndicate of scholars. As the book nation as a whole from warfare, and “the remarkastands, we cannot think of any other scholar who ble continuity of policy on the part of the rulers of could have singly produced such a masterly survey of whatever nationality who have” ruled an empire the philosophy and growth of Indian creeds and their in India (p. 111). Rapson's translation of Asoka's intellectual origins and affinities.

dhamma by 'duty' is a distinct improvement on After every deduction has been made this volume Buhler's 'sacred law' and Smith's 'law of piety,' for will remain for many a decade to come as the fullest dharma is used in the sense of duty' in the Rajput ind most accurate dictionary of the chief Indian chronicles (e.g., Swami-dharma, the duty of a subject reeds, and record of Indian god-knowledge, as written to his king, loyalty.) from the cold and passionless stand-point of a scholar We rise from the perusal of this book with an and not from that of a bhakta. The author is con- aggravated form of Oliver Twist's feelings when he Perned more with philosophy than with faith,—with said, “Please, Sir, I want a little more. But the scriptures rather than with saints. The influence of forthcoming first volume of the Cambridge Indian these saints on life has been either ignored or slurred History under Prof. Rapson's editorship will over in this book; it is a dictionary of religion,- satisfy our cravings. One and only one complaint possibly a manual of philosophy, but not a history. we have to make : the extra-Indian world looms too

P. 83. Nityanand was not the brother of Chai- largely in this small volume. After all Bactria and canya, but a stranger altogether.

Parthia touched only the fringe of India; they never

influenced Indian life, and therefore should not have Ancient India, by E. J. Rapson. Pp. viii+200 almost elbowed out Magadha and Videha. with 6 illus, and maps. (Cambridge University Press, 1914.) 3s, net.

The Struggle between the Mahrattas and the EWe have here a clear outline of the history of the

Moghuls, by M. N. Burway, B. A. (Indore, 1914),

Pp. x + 140, Rs. 2. nations of India from the date of the Rig-veda to the establishment of the Kushan empire under Kanishka, In the short space of 85 small pages the author (1200 B.C. to 78 A D.), supplemented by sketches of attempts a rapid survey of Maratha history in conche salient features of the chief religious and social nection with the general history of India from the systems which flourished during the period.

rise of Shivaji to the death of the Peshwa Madhav When an expert, in the fulness of his knowledge, Rao Narayan in 1795. The style is uncritical, with vrites even a small book on the subject on which a partiality for rhetoric and brag. The author is a ie is an acknowledged authority, it brings the general Maratha scholar, and yet he relies almost entirely on reader's knowledge more

abreast of the latest English works. His references to the original Maraesearch. For this reason Prof. Rapson's Ancient thi documents collected by Rajwade and Parasnis India is of unsurpassed value. As we go through are extremely few and always too vague for verificache 147 pages of the text our interest never flags ; tion. The volume adds nothing to our knowledge, every now and then we meet with fresh light from but gives a digest of the familiar narrative with a irchæology, newly discovered facts or a new presenta- running commentary which never rises above the ion of known facts, or some illuminating comment commonplace. The English needs revision. .vhich makes us realise India's past as by a flash.

We are astonished to see the author more than inApart from its accurate and up-to-date scholarship,

sinuating that the third battle of Panipat was really che chief merit of the book is that it is no dry chronicle a reverse to the Afghans, and that "the Abdali chief of events. Facts are here subordinated to illustrate returned home repenting for his last and ill-fated broad movements in religion, society or thought. We visit to Hindustan” (p. 129). The fact of the Abdali carn niore of “tendencies" than of kings.

Amir having sent an agent to the Peshwa with some On p. 55 we learn how the Aryans in India did presents (pp. 133-135) in Feb. 1763, is interpreted 10t all profess the Brahmanic religion at first, and by our author as a proof of something on which hat the belated admissions to the fold of this faith, "he leaves it to his readers to form their own decision” -though pure Aryans by race,—had to do special - but which evidently means that the Marathas were jacrifices to expiate for their former-shall we call the real victors at Panipat ! On the solitary evidence t Mlechchhaism ? The roots of Buddhism in the of a letter from Tukoji Holkar he denies the suicide of jatapatha Brahmana are another interesting dis- the young Peshwa (p. 83). The author's boast that overy (p. 57). On p. 68 we have a good explana- "the Maratha power rose to eradicate the oppression ion of the absence of temples in pre-Buddhist India : of the Mughal rule and to deliver the Hindu race · Brahmanism is not congregational. Its observances from the evil of Mughal tyranny" (p. 85), is not con consist partly of caste-duties performed by the in- sonant with the facts so far as India outside the Konlividual and partly of ceremonies performed for his kan and Desh are concerned. The Maratha officers special benefit by priests.” Hence no temples were did not kidnap the wives and daughters of their subneeded. On p. so the new reading of the names of jects as many Mughal underlings did, but the inflated

Maratha armies throughout the 18th century Deshadesha ni Rasmaya Vato, by Harilal Maneck contained unprincipled mercenaries of all creeds and lal Desai, B. A., and Kallianrai Nathubhai Joshi, B. 4., races and did as much outrage to women as the printed at the Vidya Vilas Press, Baroda. Cloth Mughal army in its laxest days. Again, the Marathas bound. Pp. 64. Price Re. 0-6-0(1914). merely superimposed the extortion of roving brigands on the reinnant of the Mughal administration in the Small stories relating to various countries. This various Su hs they penetrated. They never, in

little book is meant for children, who will find much Northern India at least, undertook the full adminis- to instruct them here. tration and defence of the provinces they black-mailed. The Mughals ruled, defeniled and kept order where

Snehankur, by Chandra Shanker Narmada Shanker they conquered; the “Red Dholes of the Deccan”

Pandya, B. A., LL. B., printed at the Shrikrishna swept over a desolated land withont recognising

Press, Bombay. Paper Cover. Pp. 30. Price Re, 0-2-0.

(1914). any moral obligation to protect where they had robbed. The history of Rajputana and Bundelkhand in In Mr. Pandya's opinion the whole creation tends the 18th century shows that the Maratha power threw to Love, and these little poems contained in this little the Hindu race there into a worse evil than Mughal booklet-offered as a New Year's Gift to his friendstyranny; the new robbers were as rapacious but all revolve round some manifestation or other of far more irresistible than the old, and they fleeced

Love. They are certainly very readable poems, and Hindus and Muslims with impartial rigour. We mirror forth the sentimental and poetic side of the note a few corrections below. Aurangzib formally composer's nature. ascended the throne on 21 July 1458, and not on

Shrikrishna ni Raskrira nun 26 May 1657 (p. 8). Mirza Rajah Jai Singh has

Adhyatmic Swarup:

by Maganlal Maneklal Jhaveri, Printed at been confounded with Sawai Jai Singh, who flourish

the ed two generations later (pp. 9 & 10). Jaswant was

Dharma Vijaya Printing Press, Ahmedabad. Paper only faujdar of Jamrud and subahdar of Afghanistan

Cover Pp. 45, Price Re. 0-4-0. (1914). (p. 10). Shivaji had audience of Aurangzib at Agra This is another translation from Marathi from the and not at Delhi, and our author's assertion that extremely restless and prolific pen of the translator, “the hero of the Marathas made the astounding It tries to make out that the Raskrira of Krishda demand of the viceroyalty of the Deccan" is a myth with the Gopis is to be taken in an allegorical sense. (p. 38). When Khafikhan records the year of Shivaji's We don't think that this version of the famous event death in the sentence, “The infidel went to hell," he in the life of Krishna is offered for the first time. It merely continues the tradition of Christian monk has become old enough and still fails to carry convieof Spain who chronicled Almanzor's death as “In tion with it. An explanation of the event, based on the year-Almanzor died and was buried in hell." the niethods of testing the truth of history and chro(p. 41). The “acts worthy of a mad man' mentioned nicles, is what is required to free the good name of on p. 47 are only a survival of the system imposed Krishna from this blot in the eye of the public. This by the Arabs on their conquered dominions, notably book does not furnish such an explanation and is Sindh. The poet Bhushan

stranger to therefore not of much use. Shivaji, (p. 62), with whom he had lived for some

K. M.J. time as the introduction to his works, Nagri Pracharini Sabha edition, will show.

URDU
J. Sarkar. Afsane Bangal by B. Tirath Ram Saheb Feerosex971.

Printed at the Arya Steam Press, Lahore and published is
GUJARATI.

was

no

Lall Brothers, Publishers and Booksellers, 7, Parsons les

Naulakha, Lahore, and to e had of them. Demy Sze. (1) Jagvikhyat Purusho, Part II, published by the Society for the Encouragement of Cheap Litera

96. Price-As. 12. ture, printed at the Diamond Jubilee Printing Press, This collection of stories translated froin the Galpas Ahmedabad. Cloth bound. Pp. 298. Price Re. 0-10-0

of certain Bengali writers will be found to be a highis ( 1914 ).

interesting reading and will

more than repay its (2) The Shantiparva, published by the

price. In many respects the educational value of these Society and printed at the same Press. Pp. 836. short stories exceeds that of novels. However, we Cloth bound. Price Rs 2-8-0 (1914).

find Urdu writers treading on this field very rarels. The first work contains the lives of Carlyle, Dr. The stories in the book are of different types, being Johnson and Charles Bradlaugh. They are transla- from the pen of five different authors, and they may tions from Marathi. The second is part of an enter- be said to be representative typical selections of the prising scheme, to supply the whole of the Maha- very higliest order. The book contains eight stories bharat in Gujarati at Rs. 10, a price at which it has and they are all well-finished and exceptional never been offered before. Looking to the success pleasant to read. The language of the book is highls which has till now met the efforts of the Society to idiomatic and the merit of the translation consists in cheapen literature, we think this effort is bound to the fact that it does not appear to be translation as result favorably.

all.

M.S.

same

Printed and published by Abinash Chandra Sarkar, at the B. M. Press.

211 !11wallis Street, Calcutta.

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