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Julian Period, 4762. Vulgar Æra.




23 But he who was of the bond-woman was born after Thessalothe flesh; but he of the free-woman was by promise. nica. 24 Which things are an allegory 28: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar.

25 For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

27 For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not; for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.

28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.

29 But as then he that was born after the flesh, persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.

30 Nevertheless, what saith the Scripture? Cast out the bond-woman and her son; for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the free-woman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.

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St. Paul asserts that all those who depend upon the Jewish
Law for Salvation, deprive themselves of the Blessings of
the Christian Dispensation, and become Debtors to the
whole Law-He exhorts them to practise the Graces and

26 Many, says Bishop Marsh, have endeavoured to prove, that
the Mosaic history is mere allegory, by appealing to this pas
sage. Since an allegory is a picture of the imagination, or a
fictitious narrative, they conclude that St. Paul himself has war.
ranted, by his own declaration, that mode of allegorical inter-
pretation, which they themselves apply to the subversion of
Scripture history.

If the pretext, which infidelity thus derives from the words of our authorized version, had been afforded also by the words of the original, we might have found it difficult to reply. But as soon as we have recourse to the words of the original, the fallacy of the appeal is visible at once. If St. Paul himself had been quoted, instead of the translators of St. Paul, it would have instantly appeared that the apostle did not apply, as is supposed by English readers, the title of allegory to any portion of the Mosaic history. The word 'Anyopia, has never been used by St. Paul, in any one instance, throughout all his epistles, nor indeed does it occur any where in the Greek Testament, nor even in the Greek version of the Old Testament. At the place in question, St. Paul did not pronounce the history itself an allegory, he declared only that it was allegorized. His own words are, Arivá eσtiv aðλnyopovμέva, which have a very different meaning from the interpretation of them in our authorized version. On the subject of this passage see Schoetgen, Hor. Hebr. vol. i. p. 1205. Vitringa, Obser. Sacræ, vòl. i. lib. 1. cap. 6. p. 215.

Julian Period, 4762.

Vulgar Æra,


Virtues required by the Spiritual Religion of the Gospel, Thessalo
taking care to avoid those Moral Offences which the Lan nica.
of Moses condemned, and suppressing that Spirit of Vain
Glory and Desire of Distinction, which is the cause of so
much Provocation and Envying among Christians.

1 Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ
hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the
yoke of bondage.

2 Behold, I Paul say unto you, That if cised, Christ shall profit you nothing.


be circum

3 For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.

4 Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law: ye are fallen from grace.

5 For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.

6 For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.

7 Ye did run well; who did hinder you, that ye should
not obey the truth?

8 This persuasion cometh not of him that calleth you.
9 A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

10 I have confidence in you through the Lord, that ye
will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you
shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be.

11 And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.

12 I would they were even cut off which trouble you. 13 For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.

14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.

16 This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

18 But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law.

19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest: which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, 20 Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,

Julian Period, 4762. Vulgar Era,




21 Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and Thessalosuch like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also nica. told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.

22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,

23 Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

24 And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.

25 If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit. 26 Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another.

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St. Paul exhorts them to Christian Charity, from a Consi-
deration of their own Weaknesses-from the Necessity of
examining their Actions, for which all shall be accountable

and from the Duty of contributing to the Support of the
Ministry, and to the Necessities of all Mankind, particu-
larly to our fellow Christians.

1 Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted.

2 Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ.

3 For if a man think himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.

4 But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another:

5 For every man shall bear his own burden.

6 Let him that is taught in the word communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things.

7 Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.

8 For he that soweth to his flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption: but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.

9 And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.

10 As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.

§ 13. GAL. vi. 11. to the end.

St. Paul concludes, by reminding the Galatians, that the
Zealots for Judaism did not keep the Law, and desired
only to have their Proselytes circumcised, that they
themselves might escape Persecution; but St. Paul, on

Julian Pe riod, 4762. Vulgar Æra,



the contrary, declares that he cannot be actuated by such Thessalo
selfish Motives, for he bears in his Body the Marks of his
Sufferings for the Lord Jesus; and testifies, that Holiness
alone availeth with God. He prays for a Blessing on the

11 Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you
with mine own hand.

12 As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised, only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.

13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh.

14 But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.

15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.

16 And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.

17 From henceforth let no man trouble me; for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus.

18 Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.

[End of the Epistle to the Galatians.]


From Thessalonica to Berea-The Causes for which the
Bereans are favourably disposed to receive the Gospel.
ACTS Xvii. 10-14.

10 And the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Beres.
Silas by night unto Berea: who coming thither, went into
the synagogue of the Jews.

11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, whether those things

were so.

12 Therefore many of them believed: also of honourable women which were Greeks, and of men, not a few.

13 But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of God was preached of Paul at Berea, they came thither also, and stirred up the people.

14 And then immediately the brethren sent away Paul, to go as it were to the sea: but Silas and Timotheus abode there still.


From Berea, having left there Silas and Timothy, St. Paul
proceeds to Athens, where he preaches to the Philoso-
phers and Students.

Julian Pe

riod, 4762. Vulgar Era, 51.


ACTS Xvii. 15-34.

15 And they that conducted Paul brought him unto Athens. Athens and receiving a commandment unto Silas and Timotheus, for to come to him with all speed, they departed.

16 Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was stirred in him, when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry.

17 Therefore disputed he in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the devout persons, and in the market daily with them that met with him 29.

29 The wisdom of St. Paul's conduct, in varying his manner of address, according to the persons to whom he spoke, and the circumstances in which he was placed, renders him the model by which every minister of God, and particularly every one who assumes the arduous office of a missionary, should form his own plans of action. When he spoke to the Jews he reasoned with them from their own Scriptures, referring them to the law and the prophets: when he pleaded before Agrippa, he availed himself of the king's inward convictions, (which St. Paul, as a discerner of spirits, discovered,) as well as his known acquirements in the Jewish law.

But the wisdom of the apostle's conduct will be further conspicuous by a review of the circumstances in which he found himself at Athens.

In ver. 16. we read-" His spirit was stirred within him." The original may mean rather, He was vehemently agitated, on beholding the idolatry of the Athenians." He did not, however, proceed rashly and unadvisedly. He made use only of all the opportunities which lawfully presented themselves. He began (ver. 17.) by endeavouring to attract the attention of the Athenians in the most gradual manner, first, by his usual custom of appealing to the Jews; then, by conversing with those devout persons, or proselytes of righteousness, who frequented the synagogue, and worshipped Jehovah, yet would not comply with the whole Mosaic ritual. And having thus in some measure made himself known, he proceeded to the public places of resort; where he was well assured he should meet with many persons, who, on seeing that he was a stranger, would question him on various subjects, according to their usual custom.

"The market-place" (ver. 17.) is an expression which ought rather to have been rendered "the Forum, or Agora." Of these there were many at Athens, but the two most celebrated were the old Forum in the Ceramicus, which extended both within and without the town on one side, and the new Forum, which was out of the Ceramicus, in the place which was called Eretria. It is probable that the Evangelist refers here to the latter. There was no forum, except these, which was called "the Forum," as some epithet was always given to the others, to distinguish them from each other. We learn from Strabo that in the time of Augustus, that forum which was called "the Forum," was removed from the Ceramicus to Eretria, and it was there that the greatest assemblage of persons was always collected. We read, too, in the next verse, that while St. Paul was thus conversing in the forum, certain of the Stoics and Epicureans encountered him. The forum Eretria was opposite the porch in which the Stoics held their disputations.

The conversations of St. Paul having now attracted attention, some of the more distinguished philosophers of the Stoics and




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