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Julian Pe- acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness;
Tim. i. 1-3. with Titus i. 4, 5; 1 Tim. i. 4. with Tit. i. 14; 1 Tim.
During St. Paul's stay at Corinth for a year and a half, the first
The Acts are, indeed, equally silent on St. Paul's visit to Nicopolis; and many have supposed that both events took place after the close of that history; but the time between his first and second imprisonment at Rome scarcely admits of it.
It is certain that St. Paul made many voyages before the close of the history of the Acts, when Luke was not with him, and which he has not recorded, as 2 Cor. xi. 25. an epistle written soon after his departure from Ephesus, (Acts xx. 1.) It is probable that this Epistle to Titus was written before that second Epistle to the Corinthians.
St. Paul spent a year and a half at Corinth, (Acts xviií. 11.) and three years at Ephesus. If we are hence to suppose, that four years and a half were devoted to those two cities alone, the assertion (2 Cor. xi. 25.) is irreconcileable with St. Luke's narrative. But, that the apostle did make an excursion during this interval, and returned to Corinth, appears from 2 Cor. xii. 14. xiii. 1. where he terms the third time, what we usually call his second visit. If, then, St. Paul's voyage to Crete was from Corinth, the Nicopolis, where he passed the winter, and expected Titus, was certainly that in Epirus. It is true, that in returning from Crete Epirus lay out of his way, but he might have been driven there by a storm; and perhaps suffered one of the three shipwrecks he has mentioned. In this case he would have passed the winter in that city, and "preached the Gospel," as he says, (Rom. xv. 19.) "round about unto Illyricum," previous to his coming to Corinth the second time, when he wrote the Epistle to the Romans.
That Apollos took part in the conversion of the Cretans agrees
Julian Period, 4766. Vulgar Æra,
ST. PAUL'S SALUTATION TO TITUS-CHAP. XII.
3 But hath in due times manifested his word through Nicopolis. preaching, which is committed unto me, according to the commandment of God our Saviour;
with this hypothesis, for Apollos appears to have come from
This opinion of Michaelis, says Dr. Hales, is much more pro-
Hence there is no date so controverted as that of this Epis-
Lardner dates this Epistle A.D. 56; Barrington, A.D. 57;
Lardner, as usual, states his opinion with diffidence-" It
"If we may be allowed to suppose that St. Paul, after his liberation at Rome, sailed into Asia, taking Crete in his way, and that from Asia and from Ephesus, the capital of that country, he proceeded into Macedonia, and crossing this peninsula, in his progress, came into the neighbourhood of Nicopolis, we have a route which falls in with every thing. It exccutes the intention expressed by the apostle of visiting Colosse (Philemon,
4 To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Nicopolis. riod, 4766. Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Vulgar Æra, Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour.
ver. 22.) and Philippi (Phil. ii. 24.) as soon as he should be set at
It is really a pity, says Dr. Hales, that so simple and consis-
The second Epistle to Timothy (which Paley acknowledges was written during Paul's second imprisonment), in the last chapter, completely overturns his hypothesis.
1. There is no notice taken there of any voyage by sea to Asia; but not to rest on this negative argument, let us trace the actual route through Corinth, Troas, and Miletus, and probably through Colosse and Philippi.
2. Titus could not, then, be left in Crete, for he was actually in Dalmatia, near Illyricum. (ver. 10.)
3. Timothy was not left at Ephesus, because the apostle did not visit Ephesus; he sailed by it on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts xx. 16.) though he stopped at Miletus, in its neighbour. hood, and there told the Presbyters of Ephesus, whom he sent for, that they should see his face no more, which afflicted them with great grief. (Acts xx. 17-36). Paley supposes that the apostle said this rather despondingly, than by the Spirit (p. 326). But we can see no good reason for the contrary, for what inducement could he have to re-visit a city where he had been already so ill treated and persecuted, only to provoke fresh persecution. When he was forced to quit Ephesus, in the uproar raised by the shrine-makers of Diana, (Acts xix. 25-40.) he seems to have taken a last farewell of them there (άorαoáμevoc), Acts xx. 1.
Paul, it is true, left Trophimus sick at Miletus, the last time, (ver. 20.) But why should he communicate this intelligence, if Timothy was now at Ephesus, in that neighbourhood, especially as Trophimus was an Ephesian, (Acts xxi. 29.) and must have had intercourse with his friends there. But Timothy was not at Ephesus, he was rather in the northern part of Asia, in Pontus, perhaps with Aquila and Priscilla, (ver. 19.) who were of that country, (Acts xviii. 21.) And from Pontus, Timothy's route to Corinth, where Paul left Erastus, (2 Tim. iv. 20.) lay directly through Troas, whence he was commissioned to bring with him the letter-case, or trunk, the books, and especially the parchments, which the apostle had left behind him there, (2 Tim. v. 13.)
4. Nicopolis, near Actium, was quite out of the route to Rome from Corinth, therefore the Apostle did not visit it, and certainly had not time to winter there on his last journey.
5. The resemblance between the Epistles to Titus and Timothy, which Paley indeed has ingeniously and skilfully traced, does not require that they should be written about the same time. It may naturally be ascribed to the sameness of their situations and circumstances in the discharge of their respective episcopal functions.
(a) See Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. part ii. p. 1118.Elsley, vol. iii. p. 297.-Michaelis, vol. iv. p. 32.-Paley's Hora Paulinæ, p. 366, 367, &c. &c.
Julian Period, 4766.
TITUS-CHARACTER OF THE CRETANS-CHAP. XII.
$2. TITUS i. 5-9.
Vulgar Era, St. Paul enumerates the necessary Qualifications required of those whom Titus was appointed to ordain-more especially as the Teachers were called upon to oppose, and confute the Judaizing Christians, who were endeavouring to influence the Gentile Converts.
5 For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee:
6 If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children, not accused of riot, or unruly.
7 For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre;
8 But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate;
9 Holding fast the faithful word, as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.
TITUS i. 10-16.
St. Paul draws the Character of the Cretans, particularly
10 For there are many unruly and vain talkers and
11 Whose mouths must be stopped; who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake.
12 One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.
13 This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply; that they may be sound in the faith,
14 Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men that turn from the truth.
15 Unto the pure all things are pure; but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.
16 They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.
§ 4. TITUS. 1-8.
St. Paul directs Titus to enforce Christian Virtues, in op-
1 But speak thou the things which become sound doc-
Julian Pe- 2 That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound Nicopolis. riod, 4766. in faith, in charity, in patience.
Vulgar Era, 53.
3 The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;
4 That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children,
5 To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obe-
6 Young men likewise exhort to be sober-minded:
8 Sound speech that cannot be condemned; that he
TITUS ii. 9. to the end.
9 Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own mas-
10 Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that' they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
11 For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
12 Teaching us, that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
13 Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
15 These things speak, and exhort; and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee ".
In this Epistle to Titus a complete and perfect rule for the formation and government of Christian Churches is laid down. A Christian teacher goes into a country with which he has no natural alliance, and by authority delegated to him by an inspired apostle, he is appointed to ordain a class of men for the public service of the Church. "The less is blessed of the greater." As Titus set apart the elders of the Cretan Churches, we infer that elders are to be set apart for the service of God in other Churches, and by a similar authority. If Scripture is given to us for use and instruction, we are required to be guided