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TITUS-SUBMISSION TO RULERS ENFORCED-CHAP. XII.
Vulgar Æra, Titus is directed, in Opposition to the Judaizing Christians, to impress upon the Minds of his Converts the Duty of Submission to their civil Governors, of whatsoever Nation or Religion; and from the Consideration of the great Love and Mercy of Christ towards themselves, Titus is desired to inculcate the Duty of brotherly Love and Kindness to all.
1 Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work.
2 To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men.
3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.
4 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,
5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;
6 Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;
7 That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
8 This is a faithful saying; and these things I will that thou affirm constantly; that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.
§ 7. TITUS iii. 9.
St. Paul commands the Teachers of Christianity to avoid
9 But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and
St. Paul directs Titus in what manner he is to proceed
10 A man that is an heretic, after the first and second
11 Knowing that he that is such, is subverted, and
by its directions. If, however, as we are sometimes told, the cir-
riod, 4766. Vulgar Æra, 53.
§ 9. TITUS iii. 12—14.
Titus is directed to proceed to Nicopolis, on the Arrival of
12 When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychi-
13 Bring Zenas the lawyer, and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them.
14 And let our's also learn to maintain good works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful.
TITUS iii. 15.
St. Paul's Salutations and Conclusion.
15 All that are with me salute thee.
Greet them that
love us in the faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.
St. Paul proceeds to Cenchrea.
ACTS Xviii. part of ver. 18.
18 -And sailed thence into Syria, and with him Pris- Cenchrea. riod, 4767. cilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: for Vulgar Era, he had a vow
45 See Ephes. vi. 21. Coloss. iv. 7.
46 It is uncertain whether St. Luke here refers to St. Paul or Aquila. Witsius supposes the vow to relate to Aquila, as being more zealous of the Jewish rites and ceremonies than St. Paul, who refused to consider the Mosaic law as any longer binding. Others, however, would rather interpret it of St. Paul; and impute to him the observance of a vow from prudential motives, that the Jews might not consider him as the enemy of the law of Moses. Witsius observes, that it is absurd to suppose the apostle would bind himself by that yoke, which he was so anxious to break away from the neck of others; but that he made certain compliances with the legal ritual, to avoid giving offence to the more ignorant or prejudiced among his countrymen. See Acts xxi. 26. This also was the opinion of Calvin.
Many commentators understand this vow to be that of the Nazarite. To the objection that the Nazarite was compelled to shave his hair at the door of the tabernacle, when the Israelites were in the wilderness, and in the temple when they had taken possession of Canaan, (Numb. vi. 18.) Grotius replies, that these laws, as well as many others respecting sacrifices, were not binding upon the Jews out of Canaan. The testimony of Maimonides is quoted to prove this point. Yet the difficulty in question seemed so great to Salmasius, that he endeavoured to shew the vow could not have been that of the Nazarite; but that either St. Paul or Aquila had made a vow that they would not shave the head till they had arrived at Cenchrea. This, however, is very improbable; it was useless in itself, and not required by existing circumstances.
A very curious interpretation of the passage is given by the learned Petit. He would refer the words, "for he had a vow," not to the previous cutting off of the hair, but to a previous vow which the apostle had before made, which was now the cause of bis proceeding to Jerusalem. He supposes that St. Paul, while
Julian Period, 4767.
END OF ST. PAUL'S SECOND JOURNEY-CHAP. XII.
Valgar Era, From Cenchrea to Ephesus-where he disputed with the
ACTS Xviii. 19.
19 And he came to Ephesus, and left them there: but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews.
From Ephesus St. Paul proceeds to Cesarea; and having
20 When they desired him to tarry longer time with Cesarea, them he consented not; Jerusalem, Antioch in
21 But bad them farewell, saying, I must by all means Syria.
22 And when he had landed at Cesarea, and gone up,
he resided among the Corinthians, let his hair grow: long hair
The vow, by others, is supposed to have been the same as that
(a) Witsius Meletem. Leidens. de vit Pauli. chap. vii. sect. 15, &c. (b) See the whole subject discussed in Kuinoel and Witsius.
47 It does not seem necessary to make many observations on the condition of the Christian Church at this period. The very fact of St. Paul's journeying from Church to Church, and province to province, to superintend the converts, implies the only truth which it is at all necessary to prove; that the ministers or elders of the Churches were ordained, and the Churches themselves directed and ruled by a power which was superior to that of the stationary teachers. If the rulers of the Church of Christ had been as auxious and as clamorous for truth, during the last three centuries, as they have been for liberty, liberality, toleration, or any other popular cry, the worshippers of Christ would have been more united against the ancient superstition which preceded, and the unscriptural innovations which followed, the Reformation. Toleration and candour are the second class of Christian blessings. Truth and union are the first. That Church and nation alone are happy, in which they flourish together.
Julian Period, 4768.
Third Apostolical Journey of St. Paul.
St. Paul again leaves Antioch, to visit the Churches of
ACTS Xviii. 23.
23 AND after he had spent some time there, he departed, and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.
History of Apollos, who was now preaching to the Church
ACTS Xviii. 24, to the end.
24 And a certain Jew named Apollos', born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures, came to Ephesus.
25 This man was instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in the spirit, he spake and taught diligently the things of the Lord, knowing only the baptism of John.
26 And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue: whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly.
27 And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him: who, when he was come, helped them much which had believed through grace:
28 For he mightily convinced the Jews, and that publicly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus was Christ.
In one of the early numbers of the Quarterly Review, is a very curious article; in which an attempt is made to prove the identity of the Apollos of the Acts, with Apollonius of Tyanea.
The publicity with which the apostles preached the new religion, is justly considered a decisive proof of their conviction of its truth. They uniformly appealed to those audiences who were most capable of examining the evidences of Christianity, and were at the same time prejudiced against its doctrines.
Even after the crucifixion of our Lord, the apostles and believers went to the temple, the most public place, and in the most public manner taught and worked miracles. Jerusalem, the seat of the doctors, the judges of religion, was the first place in which, by the command of their Lord, the disciples preached Christ crucified. They were therefore not afraid to have their cause tried by the most rigid test of Scripture, and in the very spot too where that Scripture was best understood.
When the same apostles carried this Gospel to Heathen countries, did they go to the villages among the less informed, or
ST. PAUL GOES TO EPHESUS-CHAP. XIII.
riod, 4768. St. Paul proceeds from Phrygia to Ephesus, and disputes
there with the Jews.
ACTS xix. 1-10.
1 And it came to pass, that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts, came to Ephesus; and finding certain disciples,
2 He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost'.
3 And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism.
4 Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, That they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.
5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
6 And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied.
7 And all the men were about twelve.
8 And he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing, and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God.
9 But when divers were hardened, and believed not,
comparatively ignorant Greeks, in order to form a party, and
They preached Christ crucified, where it was the most so-
They had not heard of the miraculous descent of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost.
* Lightfoot was of opinion, that the school in which St. Paul