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Julian Period, 4771. Vulgar Era, 58.

16 And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a Cesarea. conscience void of offence toward God and toward men. 17 Now after many years, I came to bring alms to my nation, and offerings.

18 Whereupon certain Jews from Asia found me purified in the temple, neither with multitude, nor with tumult : -19 Who ought to have been here before thee, and object, if they had ought against me.

20 Or else let these same here say, if they have found any evil doing in me, while I stood before the council.

21 Except it be for this one voice, that I cried standing among them, touching the resurrection of the dead, I am called in question by you this day.


After many Conferences with Felix, St. Paul is continued
in Prison till the Arrival of Porcius Festus.

ACTS XXIV. 22, to the end.

22 And when Felix heard these things, having more perfect knowledge of that way, he deferred them, and said, When Lysias the chief captain shall come down, I will know the uttermost of your matter 38,

23 And he commanded a centurion to keep Paul, and let him have liberty, and that he should forbid none of his acquaintance to minister or come unto him.

24 And after certain days, when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, which was a Jewess, he sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ.

25 And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.

26 He hoped also that money should have been given him of Paul, that he might loose him: wherefore he sent for him the oftener, and commuend with him.

38 There are two modes of arranging the construction of this verse. Either, when Felix heard these things, he deferred them, and said, "that after he had acquired a more perfect knowledge of that way, and Lysias being come, he would take full cognizance of the business;" or, "when he heard these things, having," &c. as in our translation. Beza and Grotius state, that Felix had two points, the one of law, the other of fact, to determine. The first was, whether the new sect of the Nazarenes was against the law of Moses; the other, whether Paul was raising a tumult. On the first the learned were to be consulted; on the other, Lysias was the most conclusive witness. Hence delay was entirely proper. Whitby cannot allow that the text will bear this construction, and holds with the English version, that Felix had already gained a knowledge of the Christian way by his residence at Cesarea, where Cornelius was converted, and Philip, the deacon, and many disciples resided. -Chap. xxi. 8. 16. Elsley, vol. iii. p. 330.

Julian Pe

riod, 4771. Vulgar Era, 58.


27 But after two years Porcius Festus came into Felix's Cesarea. room and Felix, willing to shew the Jews a pleasure, 'left Paul bound 39.


Julian Period, 4773. Vulgar Era,


Trial of St. Paul before Festus-He appeals to the Emperor.
ACTS XXV. 1-12.

1 Now when Festus was come into the province, after
three days he ascended from Cesarea to Jerusalem.

2 Then the high priest and the chief of the Jews informed him against Paul, and besought him,

3 And desired favour against him, that he would send for him to Jerusalem, laying wait in the way to kill him. 4 But Festus answered, that Paul should be kept at Cesarea, and that he himself would depart shortly thither.

5 Let them therefore, said he, which among you are able, go down with me, and accuse this man, if there be any wickedness in him.

6 And when he had tarried among them more than ten days, he went down unto Cesarea; and the next day sitting on the judgment seat, commanded Paul to be brought.

7 And when he was come, the Jews which came down from Jerusalem stood round about, and laid many and grievous complaints against Paul, which they could not prove.

8 While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Cesar, have I offended any thing at all.

9 But Festus, willing to do the Jews a pleasure, answered Paul, and said, Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these things before me.

10 Then said Paul, I stand at Cesar's judgment-seat, where I ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very well knowest.

11 For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whercof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Cesar".

39 For the probable date of Felix's recal to Rome, see the remarks on Section II. Chap. 15.

40 A freeman of Rome, who had been tried for a crime, and sentence passed on him, had a right to appeal to the emperor, if he conceived the sentence to be unjust; but, even before the sentence was pronounced, he had the privilege of au appeal in criminal cases, if he conceived that the judge was doing any thing contrary to the laws. Ante sententiam appellari potest in criminali negotio, si judex contra leges hoc faciat.

An appeal to the emperor was highly respected. The Julian law condemned those magistrates, and others, having authority, as violators of the public peace, who had put to death, tortured,




Julian Pe

12 Then Festus, when he had conferred with the coun- Cesarea. riod, 4773. cil, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Cesar? unto Cesar VulgarÆra, shalt thou go.



Curious Account given to Agrippa by Festus, of the Accu-
sation against St. Paul.

ACTS XXV. 13–22.

13 And after certain days, king Agrippa and Bernice came unto Cesarea, to salute Festus.

14 And when they had been there many days, Festus declared Paul's cause unto the king, saying, There is a certain man left in bonds by Felix :

15 About whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders of the Jews informed me, desiring to have judgment against him.

16 To whom I answered, It is not the manner of the Romans to deliver any man to die, before that he which is accused have the accusers face to face, and have licence to answer for himself concerning the crime laid against him.

17 Therefore, when they were come hither, without any delay, on the morrow I sat on the judgment-seat, and commanded the man to be brought forth.

18 Against whom, when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation of such things as I supposed:

19 But had certain questions against him of their own superstition, and of one Jesus, which was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive.

20 And because I doubted of such manner of questions, I asked him whether he would go to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these matters.

21 But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Cesar.

22 Then Agrippa said unto Festus, I would also hear the man myself. To-morrow, said he, thou shalt hear him.

Scourged, imprisoned, or condemned any Roman citizen who
had appealed to Cesar. Lege Juliâ de vi publica damnatur, qui
aliqua potestate præditus, Civem Romanum ad Imperatorem
appellantem necarit, necarive jusserit, torserit, verberaverit,
condemnaverit, in publica vincula duci jusserit.

This law was so very sacred and imperative, that, in the per-
secution under Trajan, Pliny would not attempt to put to death
Roman citizens who were proved to have turned Christians;
hence, in his letter to Trajan, lib. x. Ep. 97. he says, "Fuerunt
alii similis amentiæ, quos quia cives Romani erant, annotavi in
urbem remmittendos." "There were others guilty of similar folly,
whom, finding them to be Roman citizens, I have determined
to send to the city." Very likely these had appealed to Cesar.
-See Grotius ap. Dr. Clarke, and Bishop Pearce.

Julian Pe

riod, 4773.



Valgar Era, St. Paul defends his Cause before Festus and Agrippa—
Their Conduct on that Occasion.


ACTS XXV. 23, to the end, and chap. xxvi.

23 And on the morrow, when Agrippa was come, and Bernice, with great pomp, and was entered into the place of hearing, with the chief captains, and principal men of the city, at Festus' commandment Paul was brought forth.

24 And Festus said, King Agrippa, and all men which are here present with us, ye see this man, about whom all the multitude of the Jews have dealt with me, both at Jerusalem, and also here, crying that he ought not to live any longer.

25 But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and that he himself hath appealed to Augustus, I have determined to send him.

26 Of whom I have no certain thing to write unto my lord. Wherefore I have brought him forth before you, and specially before thee, O king Agrippa, that, after examination had, I might have had somewhat to write.

27 For it seemeth to me unreasonable, to send a prisoner, and not withal to signify the crimes laid against him.

1 Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Thou art permitted to speak for thyself. Then Paul stretched forth the hand, and answered for himself:

2 I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee, touching all the things whereof I am accused of the Jews:

3 Especially, because I know thee to be expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews: wherefore I beseech thee to hear me patiently.

4 My manner of life from my youth, which was at the first among mine own nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews;

5 Which knew me from the beginning, if they would testify, that after the most straitest sect of our religion, I lived a Pharisee.

6 And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers:

7 Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews.

8 Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead?

9 I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth,


10 Which thing I also did in Jerusalem: and many the saints did I shut up in prison, having received autho



Julian Pe- rity from the chief priests: and when they were put to Cesarea. riod, 4773. death, I gave my voice against them.

Vulgar Æra, 60.

11 And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange


12 Whereupon as I went to Damascus, with authority and commission from the chief-priests,

13 At mid-day, O king, I saw in the way a light from heaven, above the brightness of the sun, shining round me and them which journied with me.

14 And when we were all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying in the Hebrew tongue, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks.

15 And I said, Who art thou, Lord? And he said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest.

16 But rise, and stand upon thy feet: for I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of these things which thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto thee;

17 Delivering thee from the people, and from the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee.

18 To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified, by faith that is in me.

19 Whereupon, O king Ágrippa, I was not disobedient unto the heavenly vision:

20 But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance.

21 For these causes the Jews caught me in the temple, and went about to kill me.

22 Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue to this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come:

23 That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles.

24 And as he thus spake for himself, Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, thou art beside thyself; much learning doth make thee mad.

25 But he said, I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak forth the words of truth and soberness.

26 For the king knoweth of these things, before whom also I speak freely: for I am persuaded that none of these

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