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mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two Rome. shall be one flesh.

32 This is a great mystery " but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

33 Nevertheless, let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.

§ 14. EPH. vi. 1-9.

Children are commanded to obey their Parents, who have a
right to their Gratitude and Love, in Obedience to that
Commandment which God gave to Moses, and to which,
as a further Encouragement, he has annexed the Promise
of temporal Blessings-Fathers are to take care that by
an excess of Severity they do not provoke their Children
to disobedience and feelings of Anger, but correct them,
and educate them from their earliest Infancy in the Sub-
jection, Precepts, and Doctrines of the Gospel-Ser-
vants, of every Rank, are commanded to be obedient to
their Masters, in all secular Things; and to be cautious
of giving offence, from a principle of Duty to Christ
-Servants are not to be satisfied with doing their Duty
only, when they are subjected to the Eye of their Mas-
ter, as if their Desire was to gain the Favour of Man
but to do it from the Motive of Obedience to the Will of
God, cheerfully fulfilling the Duties of their Station as
the Servants of Christ, and not as the Servants of
Men only, knowing that from the Lord they will receive
their Reward-He intreats Masters to act towards their
Servants in the same conscientious and faithful manner,
upon the same Religious Principles, avoiding Punish-
ment, knowing that they are accountable to their Master
in Heaven, who in judging his Creatures will shew no

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14 Adam is expressly called in Scripture the figure of him that was to come; and the circumstances which attended the formation of Eve, were equally a figure of the creation of the Church, of whom Eve was the common mother. As God took from Adam while insensible in a deep sleep, part of himself for the formation of Eve, that she might receive a spiritual life; so did God revivify the human body of our Saviour from the deep sleep of death, for the purpose of conferring spiritual life on mankind. And as Adam gave his flesh for the woman, so did Christ his flesh for the Church. And as the wife is made one flesh with the husband, so must the Church be spiritually united to Christ, and be made one with Him through the Spirit, for which purpose he has incorporated the human with the divine nature, that both may be united by the same holy Spirit. Woman was created and brought to life from the side of Adam, and the Church was created or regenerated by the piercing of the body of Christ.

Julian Period, 4774. Vulgar Æra, 61.


respect of Persons, whatever difference exists between Rome. them here.

1 Children, obey your parents in the Lord for this is right.

2 Honour thy father and mother, (which is the first commandment with promise,)

3 That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.

4 And ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath : but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.

5 Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;

6 Not with eye-service, as men-pleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart : 7 With good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not

to men;

8 Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free.

9 And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him.

$ 15. EPH. vi. 10-20.

The Apostle having instructed the Ephesians in their Du-
ties and in the Knowledge of their high calling, con-
cludes his Epistle by beseeching them not to rely on their
own Strength for the Performance of them, but to have
and to trust in that spiritual Strength which God alone
can give-They are to clothe themselves with the whole
Armour of God, with the Graces of the Gospel, that
being covered therewith, they may be able to stand
against the crafty Attacks and Machinations of the
Devil; for their Warfare is not only against the Cor-
ruption of our own Nature, or human Beings, but with
mighty Spirits, once inhabiting celestial Principalities,
who are the Rulers of the Darkness which pervades
the World, and the highest Orders of spiritual Wick-
edness, who fell from their heavenly Places-Since
they have such Enemies to fight against, they are
to take unto them the whole Armour of God, that they
may be able to stand in the Day of Danger; and
having exerted themselves to the uttermost, at the end
of their Warfare he prays they may be found stand-
ing in their Ranks victorious-To prepare therefore for
this Combat by having their Loins girt with the Gospel


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of Truth, which will enable them to discover their spiri- Rome.
tual Enemies-the Breast-plate, or the Principle of
Righteousness, which will defend them from their Attacks,
and their Feet shod, that they may be prepared to with-
stand every Difficulty that may obstruct their publishing
the Gospel of Reconciliation between God and Man-
Above all, they are to take the Shield of Faith, the firm
Belief of the Doctrines and Promises of the Gospel; by
which they will be fully protected from, and will be able
to blunt or to arrest all the fiery Darts, or deadly
Temptations of their Adversaries, and to take also the
Helmet of Salvation, the Hope of a complete Deliverance,
and hold in their Hand the spiritual Sword, the Word of
God, revealed by his Holy Spirit.

10 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in
the power of his might.

11 Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.

12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

13 Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God,
that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and, hav-
ing done all, to stand.

14 Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with
truth, and having on the breast-plate of righteousness;
15 And your feet shod with the preparation of the
gospel of peace;

16 Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye
shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.
17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of
the Spirit, which is the word of God:

18 Praying always with all prayer and supplication in
the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance
and supplication for all saints;

19 And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the gospel.

20 For which I am an ambassador in bonds; that therein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.

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That the Ephesians may be acquainted with his Situation
and Circumstances at Rome, and in all probability being
unwilling to trust the Account of them to writing, St.
Paul sends Tychicus for this very purpose with his Epistle,
that they may know from him what relates to them both,

Julian Period, 4774. Vulgar Era,



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and that he might comfort their Hearts by the Account Rome.
he shall give them of the Divine support afforded under
his present Tribulation-He concludes with an ardent
Prayer for the spiritual Peace and mutual Love of the
Brethren, founded on that Faith which proceeds from
God and Christ; and prays that his Grace may not only
be with them, but with all Believers who love in sincerity
the Lord Jesus Christ.

21 But that ye also may know my affairs, and how I
do, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in
the Lord, shall make known to you all things:

22 Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts.

23 Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

24 Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen.


Julian Pe

riod, 4775. Vulgar Æra, 62.


St. Paul writes his Epistle to the Philippians, to comfort
them under the concern they had expressed on the Subject
of his Imprisonment, to exhort them to continue in Union
and mutual Love, and to caution them against the Se-
ductions of false Teachers, who had begun to introduce
themselves among them 15.

15 St. Paul planted a church at Philippi, A. D. 50, the particulars of which are related in Acts xvi. 9-40. chap. xii. sect. viii. of this Arrangement; and it appears from Acts xx. 6. chap. xiii. sect. xii. that he visited them again A. D. 57, though no particulars are recorded concerning that visit. Of all the churches planted by St. Paul, that at Philippi seems to have cherished the most tender concern for him: and though it appears to have been but a small community, yet its members were peculiarly generous towards him. For when Christianity was first planted in Macedonia, no other church contributed any thing to his support, except the Philippians; who, while he was preaching at Thessalonica, the metropolis of that country, sent him money twice, that the success of the Gospel might not be hindered by its preachers becoming burthensome to the Thessalonians (Phil. iv. 15, 16). The same attention they showed to the apostle, and for the same reason, while he preached the Gospel at Corinth (2 Cor. xi. 9). And when they heard that St. Paul was under confinement at Rome, they manifested a similar affectionate concern for him; and sent Epaphroditus to him with a present, lest he should want necessaries during his imprisonment (ii. 25. iv. 10. 14-18).

The more immediate occasion of the Epistle to the Philippians was the return of Epaphroditus, one of their pastors, by whom St. Paul sent it, as a grateful acknowledgment of their kindness in sending him supplies of money. From the manner in which St. Paul expressed himself on this occasion, it appears

Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Æra, 62.

§ 1. PHIL. i. 1-11.

St. Paul, in conjunction with Timothy, addresses himself to
all the Saints at Philippi, with their Bishops and Dea-
that he was in great want of necessaries before their contribu-
tions arrived; for, as he had not converted the Romans, he did
not consider himself as entitled to receive supplies from them.
Being a prisoner, he could not work as formerly: and it was
his rule never to receive any thing from the churches where
factions had been raised against him. It also appears that the
Philippians were the only church from whom he received any
assistance, and that he conferred this honour upon them, be-
cause they loved him exceedingly, had preserved his doctrine in
purity, and had always conducted themselves as sincere Chris-

There is not much controversy concerning the date of this
Epistle; it was probably written in the end of A. D. 62, and
about a year after that to the Ephesians. Dr. Paley conjectures
the date by various intimations in the Epistle itself. It pur-
ports," he says, "to have been written near the conclusion of
St. Paul's imprisonment at Rome; and after a residence in that
city of considerable duration. These circumstances are made
out by different intimations, and the intimations upon the sub-
ject preserve among themselves a just consistency, and a consis-
tency certainly unmeditated. First, the apostle had already
been a prisoner at Rome so long, as that the reputation of his
bonds, and of his constancy under them, had contributed to
advance the success of the Gospel.-See chap. i. 12-14. Se-
condly, the account given of Epaphroditus imports that St.
Paul, when he wrote the Epistle, had been in Rome a consider-
able time- He longed after you all, and was full of heaviness,
because ye had heard that he had been sick ;' chap. ii. 26.
Epaphroditus had been with St. Paul at Rome; he had been
sick; the Philippians had heard of his sickness; and he again
had received an account how much they had been affected by
the intelligence."

The passing and re-passing of these advices must necessarily have occupied a large portion of time, and must have all taken place during St. Paul's residence at Rome. Thirdly, after a residence at Rome, thus proved to have been of considerable duration, he now regards the decision of his fate as nigh at hand: he contemplates either alternative, that of his deliverance chap. ii. 23;-" Him therefore (Timothy), I hope to send presently, so soon as I shall see how it will go with me; but I trust in the Lord that I also myself shall come shortly;" that of his condemnation, ver. 17-" Yea, and if I be offered upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you all." This consistency is natural, if the consideration of it be confined to the Epistle. It is farther material, as it agrees with respect to the duration of St. Paul's first imprisonment at Rome, with the account delivered in the Acts, which having brought the apostle to Rome, closes the history, by telling us that he dwelt there two whole years, in his own hired house.-Hor. Paul, p. 242. It is remarkable that this is the only Epistle that is free from the reprehensions and censures of the apostle. The Philippians throughout are commended for the excellence of their conduct, with the exception of the caution, or perhaps slight reproof given, (chap. ii. 3, 4) on the subject of vain glory and strife, on the exercise of their spiritual gifts, which, as St. Chrysostom observes," is a strong proof of the virtue of the Philippians, who gave their teacher no subject of complaint whatever."


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