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Julian Pe- faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make Italy. riod, 4775. reconciliation for the sins of the people: Vulgar Æra,
18 For in that he himself hath suffered, being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.
The Apostle, after having proved the Superiority of Christ
to Angels, now shews his Superiority as the Apostle and
High-Priest of the New Covenant to Moses and Aaron,
the Apostles and High Priests of the Old Covenant
-Moses was faithful over the House of God, Num. xii.
7. (the Israelites of old) as Teacher, Lawgiver, and
Prophet bearing Testimony in the Types and Ce-
remonies to Jesus Christ and his Gospel, who is enti-
tled to more Glory than Moses, because he was the Lord
and Builder of that House, of which Moses was only Ser-
vant-Christians are now the House and Family of
Christ, if they continue in his Faith, as the obedient Jews
were the Disciples and House of Moses.
1 Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly
calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our pro-
fession, Christ Jesus :
2 Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house.
3 For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, in as much as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house.
4 For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God.
5 And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after;
6 But Christ as a Son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.
§ 7. HEB. iii. 7, to the end.
The Apostle applies this Argument to the Hebrews, in the Words of the Holy Ghost (Ps. xcv. 7-11.), addressed by David to the Jews of his time-He then exhorts them to take care that there is not in them also an evil Heart of Unbelief, leading them to apostatize from the Gospel of Christ, and to exhort each other against the Deceitfulness of Sin, that they should not prefer Egypt to Canaan, the Bondage of the World to the Service of God (Num. xiv. 3, 4.)-Those only who are stedfast in the Faith can be Partakers of the Blessings of the Gospel-The Necessity of Perseverance, and immediate Attention to it is shewn, from the saying of the Holy Ghost, who calls upon them now by the Gospel, as he did the Israelites of old (Num.
Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Era,
xiii. 26. and xiv. 1-31.) to enter into rest―There was Italy.
a Remnant then, as now, who believed, to whom the Pro-
mises of God were fulfilled-Those who were disobedient
and believed not, after repeated Demonstrations of God's
Power, were by their Infidelity excluded by an Oath from
the promised Rest of Canaan (Joshua v. 6.), and perished
in the Wilderness (Num. xiv. 29.)-The Apostle here
implies, that the natural Seed of Abraham were Heirs of
his Covenant only through Faith.
7 Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To-day, if ye
will hear his voice,
8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness;
9 When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years.
10 Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways.
11 So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.)
12 Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God.
13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called Today, lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.
14 For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;
15 While it is said, To-day, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation.
16 For some, when they had heard, did provoke: howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses.
17 But with whom was he grieved forty years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilderness?
18 And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest, but to them that believed not?
19 So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief.
The Apostle remarks on the typical Signification of the Rest
of Canaan-From the Consideration that the Israelites
lost it through Unbelief and Obstinacy, he exhorts the
Hebrews to fear, lest they should also fall short of the
Promise they had received-The same Gospel was preach-
ed to the Israelites as to them, by the Types and Shadows
of the Law, and by the Prophets; but not being heard
with Faith, it did not profit them—That there is a Rest
for the Faithful is evident from the Words of Deut. xii. 9.
and is predicted by David-That it is not the Rest of God
Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Æra, 62.
which followed the Creation is certain, for the Sabbath Italy.
Rest was instituted (Gen. ii. 2. Exod. xxxi. 17.) immedi-
ately after the Foundation of the World; and this Oath
was sworn long after, when the Israelites were in Possession
of the Promised Land, and with it of the Sabbath Rest
(Exod. xvi. 23. xx. 8.)—But they to whom this Rest was
first promised not having entered into it, because of Un-
belief, it was repeated again by the Holy Ghost many
Ages after-So as Joshua had not given them the intended
Rest when he put them in Possession of Canaan, there cer-
tainly remains to Believers another Rest of God, a hea-
venly Rest, promised to the Faithful (of which Canaan was
the Type,) not to be enjoyed in this Life, but to be entered
upon after its Works have ceased, a Sabbath Rest with
God-They are admonished to use every exertion of Body
and Mind to enter into the Rest of God, and not after the
Example of Israel of old to fall short of it-He describes
the Word of God now preached to them as a living and all
powerful Principle, taking Vengeance, and more cutting
than any two-edged Sword, penetrating into the Soul and
Spirit, irresistibly separating the accountable Spirit from
the sensitive Soul of Man, and searching the most secret
Thoughts of the Heart-The Omniscience of Christ, the
Judge of Man, to whom they must give account.
1 Let us therefore fear, lest a promise being left us of
entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come
short of it.
2 For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it.
3 For we which have believed do enter into rest; as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, If they shall enter into my rest: although the works were finished from the foundation of the world.
4 For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise, And God did rest the seventh day from all his works.
5 And in this place again, If they shall enter into my
6 Seeing therefore it remaineth that some must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief:
7 Again, he limiteth a certain day, saying in David, To-day, after so long a time; (as it is said) To-day, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts.
8 For if Jesus had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day3.
3 The apostle here endeavours to prove that the law did not rest in temporal promises, or, as the seventh article expresses it,
Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Era, 62.
9 There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of Italy. God.
10 For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his.
11 Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief.
12 For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
13 Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight but all things are naked and open unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do. ́
HEB. iv. 14, to the end.
The Apostle shews the Superiority of the Priesthood of Christ
to Aaron, and all other High-Priests, and in allusion per-
haps to the Jews, who encouraged the Hebrew Christians to
apostatize, because the Gospel did not enjoin propitiatory
Sacrifices, affirms the High-Priest of Christians is the Son
of God, who has passed through the visible Heavens with the
Sacrifice of himself, of which the Holy of Holies was a Type
-who having taken the human into the divine Nature,
must ever feel for the Infirmities of Men, through whom
all, instead of the High-Priest only, may approach the
that" both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life was
offered to mankind by Christ. Wherefore they are not to be
heard, which feign, that the old fathers did look only for transi-
tory promises." The Gospel was preached before to Abraham
(Gal. iii. 8.), and the Israelites were called out of Egypt under
Moses, to take possession of an unknown promised land; so
are Christians, under the Gospel, called by Christ the lawgiver
of the New Testament, out of the Egypt of this world, that they
may prepare for an unknown and heavenly country. The re-
vealed will of God has been made manifest from the foundations
of the world, the nature of man being unchanged, and Jesus
Christ the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever. The bistories
of the eminent men of the Old Testament prefigured the divine
life and character of the promised Messiah, and the chosen
people of God illustrated in their history the warfare to which
Christians are exposed, and the blessings of which they are
wade partakers in the Gospel.
4 Adam Clarke remarks, "the law and the word of God in
general is repeatedly compared to a two-edged sword among the
Jewish writers, na-the sword with two mouths.
By this sword the man himself lives, and by it he destroys his
enemies." See also Schoetgen. In Ephesians vi. 17. the doc-
trine of the Gospel is called "a sword of the spirit ;" and in
Revelation i. 16. the word of God is spoken of as " a sharp two-
edged sword which went out from the mouth of Christ." See
Isaiah xi. 4. As the apostle is representing throughout that the
Gospel was described by the law, as a body is by its shadow,
there is reason to suppose that in the expression here used,
both the Old and New Testament were included.
Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Era, 62.
Throne of Grace, and by the Intercession of Christ, obtain Italy. seasonable Assistance in the Time of Temptation.
14 Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.
15 For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.
16 Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.
After having declared the Benefits of the Priesthood, and
Sacrifice of the Son of God, he compares the Priesthood
of Christ with that of Aaron, shewing that every High-
Priest was taken from among his Brethren (chap. ii. 17.)
and was appointed to mediate between God and Man,
offering the Gifts of the People in Acknowledgment of
God's Bounty and Providence, and the Blood of Ani-
mals as an Atonement for Sin; who being of the same
Nature may compassionate the erring, and who for his
own Infirmities must offer a propitiatory Sacrifice both for
himself and the People-He connects this Account of the
Offices of the Priesthood by affirming, that as no Man in
the Jewish Church could take upon himself the Dignity of
an High-Priest, so Christ, the High-Priest of the Chris-
tian Church, who possessed all the other Qualifications,
was also appointed to his Office by God himself, who
declared him to be his Son, as was evident from their own
Scriptures (Ps. cx. 4. ii. 7.)-The Apostle asserts, that
although Christ, the High-Priest of the Gospel, was the
Son of God, he was exposed in his human Ñature to the
greatest and most agonizing Sufferings, by which he
learnt the Difficulty Men find in Obedience under Afflic-
tion, and being made Perfect as Man by Suffering, he be-
came the Author of Salvation to all who obey him in his
crucified human Nature, and was constituted by God a
Priest for ever, after the Order of Melchisedec.
1 For every high priest taken from among men, is or-
dained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may
offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins:
2 Who can have compassion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way; for that he himself also is compassed with infirmity.
3 And by reason hereof he ought, as for the people, so also for himself, to offer for sins.
4 And no man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.