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Julian Period, 4779. Vulgar Æra, 66.



Peter declares he thinks it suitable to his Apostleship, as Italy or
long as he is in the Body, to remind them of these Truths,
in which they are already established, and to stir them up
to the Practice of them; and knowing that his Death is
soon to take place (John xxi. 18, 19.), he endeavours, by
thus writing to them, to enable them to have these Things
after his going out of the Body, always in their remem-
brance-For they have not published cunningly devised
Fables, after the Manner of the Heathen, concerning the
Appearance of their Gods on Earth in the human Form-
when they made known to them the Power and the Ap-
pearance of Jesus Christ, whose Majesty he himself, with
James and John, witnessed in the holy Mount, when
God, from his magnificent Glory, declared him to be his
Son; which Voice, and the Transfiguration of his Person,
confirmed the Prophecies of the Old Testament concerning
Christ, to which they are to pay Attention, as the Light
that guided Mankind during their State of spiritual
Ignorance, till the Day of the Gospel should dawn, and
the Morning-star of Righteousness arise in their Souls
-Knowing that no Prophecy is of private impulse or in-
vention; for Prophecy was not brought of old to the
Minds of those that uttered it, by the Will of Man; but
holy Men of God declared the Purposes of his Will as
they were borne on or inspired by the Holy Ghost.

12 Wherefore I will not be negligent to put you always
in remembrance of these things, though ye know them,
and be established in the present truth.

13 Yea, I think it meet, as long as I am in this taber-
nacle, to stir you up, by putting you in remembrance ;
14 Knowing that shortly I must put off this my taber-
nacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ hath shewed me.

15 Moreover, I will endeavour that ye may be able
after my decease to have these things always in remem-

16 For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eye-witnesses of his majesty 28.

26 In a note on our Lord's baptism, I mentioned a treatise of
Danzius, printed in Meuschen Nov Testamentum ex Talmude.
In this dissertation Danzius labours to shew that the circum-
stances attending the baptism of Christ, which he considers as
his initiation to his ministry, were not less convincing than
those which accompanied the promulgation of the law on the
mount, and attested the divine commission of Moses.
Jews are fond of contrasting the obscure beginning of Chris-
tianity with the splendid beginning of their own religion. The
thunders and lightnings, the fire on the mount, and the voice of



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17 For he received from God the Father honour and Italy or glory, when there came such a voice to him from the ex

Jehovah, were witnessed by the whole nation assembled round
Mount Sinai, whereas, say they, what attended the initiation of
Christ, was comparatively done in a corner.

St. John alone, it is said, heard the voice from heaven, and saw
the Spirit descending in the form of a dove (see pages 339 and
344). To this Danzius replies, that although the divine attesta-
tions in favour of Christ were not attended with those circum-
stances of terror amidst which the law was promulgated on
Mount Sinai, yet they were not less solemn and convincing;
that it is not true that only John beheld them, for they were
beheld also by the assembled multitude, who had been just bap-

The reason why the circumstances of terror were omitted, was the express promise of God, that when he should send them a prophet like unto Moses, he would remember their request, in which they begged that they might not again hear the voice of God, nor see that great fire any more, lest they should die. (Deut. xviii. 15, 16, &c.)

If, however, it should be here objected, that Christians assert the voice of God to have been heard at Christ's baptism, Danzius replies, the voice heard on this occasion was "minime quidem terribilis et horrisona: non tamen tenuis, et remissa nimis; sed cum jucunditate quâdam, terrori verborum conveniente, satis sonora et penetrans," p. 348, § 23.

The miraculous appearances at Christ's baptism, Danzius asserts, excluded all doubt, even more strongly than those on the Mount, for on this latter occasion the people were at a distance, and restrained by boundaries, while on the former there was no such restraint, some of the crowd being near enough to be in actual contact with Christ himself.

To prove that a multitude was present at Christ's baptism, and was not only present, but heard the voice and saw the glorious light and the spirit descending, it is necessary to compare the accounts given by the four Evangelists.

That multitudes were present at the time will be readily granted, from the expression used by St. Luke-iv ry ẞaπTIOθηναι ἁπαντα τον λαον. That they also saw the miraculous appearances and heard the voice, is not so immediately apparent, as it is not expressly asserted by any of the Evangelists, but must be inferred by carefully comparing their several accounts. Indeed, one strong argument may be drawn from the nature of the case as it is doubtless reasonable to suppose that all this was done to convince the people of the divine commission of the person whom they had just seen baptized.


The account of St. Luke is couched in such words as exclude no one from participation in the sight; because he ascribes it to no one in particular, but only recounts the wonderful appearances, and it is natural to suppose that he means they were witnessed by all present. The words of St. Matthew may, without difficulty, bear the same meaning. The words of St. Mark alone contain a difficulty. He uses the singular verb side, and conuects it with the foregoing verb banтioon, by the particle Kat; whence, according to the rules of grammar, the subject of είδε is the same with that of ἐβαπτισθη. Which being admitted, it follows that Jesus alone saw these miraculous sights-to this it is replied that kat is here used as the Hebrew 1, which is often



Julian Pe- cellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well Italy or riod, 4779. pleased. Vulgar Era, 18 And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount.


19 We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day-star arise in your hearts:

20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation 29.

21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

§ 3. 2 PET. ii. 1—9.

The Apostle foretels, that as there were false Prophets
among the Jews, who perverted many, denying God, who
had redeemed them from the Bondage of Egypt, so there
shall be false Teachers in the Christian Church, who
shall covertly introduce their Heresies of Destruction,
denying the Lord who had bought them from the Bon-
dage of Sin and Death with his Blood (Exod. xv. 16.
Deut. xxxii. 6.) bringing on themselves Destruction—
They will be followed by many, who by their vicious Lives
will cause the Gospel to be blasphemed, making a Mer-
chandize of Souls, whose Punishment, denounced from
the Beginning against Sin, lingers not, but will soon over-
take them, and is certain-For God spared not the Angels

used between two words, having different subjects, of which
the latter is not expressed in the nominative case.
of side, then, may be John. The following words favour this
The subject
explanation, for we find ἐπ ̓ αὐτόν, and not ἐφ' εαυτον, or ἐφ ̓
αύτον, as it should be if Jesus were the subject of είδε. But
Danzius is inclined to carry this still further-we are not told,
says he, that Jesus vidit, or Johannes vidit, but ascendens e
flumine vidit; now it is certain that not only Jesus went up,
or John alone with him, but all the people who had been just
baptized why, then, may not ȧvabawvwv be taken distribu-
tively or collectively? so as to mean that araç ó λaoç, universus
ille populus ascendens vidit fissos cœlos, &c. p. 388, § 34, 35.

For an answer to an objection which may be drawn from these
words of Christ (John v. 37.) ye have never heard the father's
voice, see § 62, p. 455. I have omitted to notice the very tedi-
ous inquiry about the p,na, as I have already discussed this

29 Not any prophecy of Scripture is of self-interpretation, or is its own interpreter, because the Scripture prophecies are not detached predictions of separate independent events, but are united in a regular and entire system, all terminating in one great object-the promulgation of the Gospel, and the complete establishment of the Messiah's kingdom.-Horsley's Sermons, vol. ii. p. 13-16.


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who sinned, but cast them down to Hell, confining them Italy or
till the Day of Judgment, in a Place of Wretchedness
and Darkness, from which they could not escape; and
spared not the old World, nor the Cities of Sodom and
Gomorrah, but made them an Example of the Punishment
to be inflicted on the Ungodly at the last Day-From the
miraculous Deliverance of Noah and Lot, the Apostle
proves that God would as surely deliver from Trials and
Dangers those who trust in him, and are his faithful Ser-
vants, as he would destroy with an everlasting Destruc-
tion the false Teachers and the Disobedient.

1 But there were false prophets also among the people,
even as there shall be false teachers among you, who pri-
vily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the
Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift

2 And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of.

3 And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandize of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not.

4 For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment;

5 And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly;

6 And turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes, condemned them with an overthrow, making them an ensample unto those that after should live ungodly;

7 And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked;

8 (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in secing and hearing, vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds :)

9 The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished.

$4. 2 PET. ii. 10-16.

The Apostle describes the Character of the false Teachers
-Who, like brute Beasts, following the instinct of their
Animal Nature, made to be taken and destroyed on ac-
count of their destructiveness, blaspheming what they do
not understand, shall perish in their own corrupt Doc-
trines and Practices-They make an open display of
their Vices-They are guilty of Sensuality at their Love

Julian Period, 4779, Vulgar Era,




Feasts-They beguile Souls not established in the Faith, Italy or
with the Idea that the Lord's Supper was instituted to
promote Carnal Love-Expert in all the Arts of Seduc-
tion and Fraud-Following in the way of Balaam, who
(Numb. xxxi. 16. Rev. ii. 14.) acted contrary to his
Knowledge and Conscience, that he might obtain the pro-
mised hire of Unrighteousness.

10 But chiefly them who walk after the flesh in the lust
of uncleanness, and despise government: presumptuous
are they, self-willed; they are not afraid to speak evil of

11 Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord.

12 But these, as natural brute beasts, made to be taken and destroyed, speak evil of the things that they understand not, and shall utterly perish in their own corruption;

13 And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness, as they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time. Spots they are and blemishes, sporting themselves with their own deceivings, while they feast with you;

14 Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot cease from sin; beguiling unstable souls: an heart they have exercised with covetous practices; cursed children:

15 Which have forsaken the right way, and are gone astray, following the way of Balaam the son of Bosor, who loved the wages of unrighteousness;

16 But was rebuked for his iniquity: the dumb ass, speaking with man's voice, forbad the madness of the prophet.

§ 5. 2 PET. . 17, to the end.

The Apostle compares the false Teachers to Wells without
Water-to Clouds which promise Rain, but ending in a
Tempest, destroy instead of fulfilling the Expectations of
Man-who, by permitting all kinds of Lasciviousness,
allure those to become their Disciples, who had separated
themselves from the Heathens-They promised the Liberty
of gratifying their Lusts without restraint, while their own
Conduct proved them the Slaves of Corruption-For he
who is overcome by his Lusts, is by them enslaved-Those
who have been converted by the Knowledge of the Gospel
from the Idolatry and Lasciviousness of the Heathen
World, and are again entangled with them, their latter
Pollutions will be more fatal to them than the first; for
they have sinned against greater spiritual Light and

17 These are wells without water, clouds that are car


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