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FLOOD, or DELUGE, in Chronology described: “ The Deity Cronus appeared and in Sacred History, refers to that to him in a vision, and warned him that general inundation sent as a punishment upon the 15th day of the month Dæsius on the inhabitants of the Old World for there would be a food, by which mantheir hardened profligacy, by which every kind would be destroyed. He therefore human being was destroyed except Noah enjoined him to write a history of the and his family, and those shut up with beginning, procedure, and conclusion of him in the Ark. The date of this great all things, and to bury it in the City of the event is differently calculated, but it is Sun at Sippara; to build a vessel, and generally fixed in the year of the crea- take with him into it his friends and retion 1656, equivalent to B.C. 2348. This lations, and convey on board everything Flood or Deluge divides the world into necessary to sustain life, together with all the Antediluvian and Postdiluvian ages. the different animals, birds and quadru

In this article the attention of the peds, and trust himself fearlessly to the reader is chiefly directed to those tradi- deep. Having asked the Deity whither tions which have existed, and which still he was to sail, he was answered, To exist, among various nations relating to the gods, upon which he offered up a the Flood. With the account given by prayer for the good of mankind. He then the sacred historian all are presumed to obeyed the divine admonition, and built be familiar, and it is therefore unneces- a vessel five stadia in length and two in sary to quote it at present by way of breadth. Into this he put everything he contrast; that of Josephus is a mere echo had prepared, and last of all conveyed of the inspired narrative.

into it his wife, his children, and his Beginning with the tradition left by the friends. After the flood had been upon Chaldean priest Berosus, and preserved the earth, and was in time abated, Xisuby Alexander Polyphistor, Noah is de- thrus sent out birds from the vessel, which, scribed under the character of Oannes—a not finding any food, nor any place being literally compounded of a man and whereupon they might rest their feet, rea fish, and passing the natural instead of turned to him again. After an interval the diluvian night in the ocean. We find of some days he sent them forth a second Noah also represented under the name of time, and they now returned with their Xisuthrus, “in whose time happened a feet tinged with mud. He made a trial great deluge,” the history of which is thus a third time with these birds, but they


returned to him no more, from which he but the giants derided all these admonijudged that the surface of the earth had tions, although the anger and revenge of appeared above the waters. He there- the gods were about to overtake them on fore made an opening in the vessel, and account of their impiety and wickedon looking out found that it was strand- ness. There was, however, one of the ed upon the side of a mountain, upon giants who reverenced the gods, who was which he immediately quitted it, with more prudent and wiser than the others. his wife, his daughter, and the pilot. His name was Noa, and he dwelt in Xisuthrus then paid his adoration to the Syria with his three sons, Sem, Japet, and earth, and having constructed an altar, Cham, and their wives and families. This offered sacrifices to the gods, and, with man, foreseeing from the stars the destructhose who had come out of the vessel with tion which was to ensue, began to build him, disappeared. Those who remained a covered ship twenty years before the within, finding that their companions did inundation. When those years had passnot return, quitted the vessel with many ed, the ocean suddenly broke out, the lamentations, and continually called on inland seas, the rivers, and fountains, the name of Xisuthrus. Him they saw burst from beneath, attended with the no more, but they could distinguish his most violent rains from heaven, which voice in the air, and could hear him ad. continued for many days, and overflowed monish them to pay due regard to reli- the mountains. The whole human race gion; and likewise informing them that was buried in the waters, except this it was on account of his piety that he was Noa and his family, who were saved in translated to live with the gods, and that the covered ship, which was lifted up by his wife and daughter, and the pilot, had the waters, and rested at last upon the obtained the same honour,—The vessel Gordyæan mountains. being thus stranded in Armenia, some The accounts transmitted by Plutarch, parts of it yet remain on the Corcyrean Plato, Diodorus Siculus, and other dismountains of Armenia, and the people tinguished authorities, show that the anscrape off the bitumen with which it had cient Egyptians maintained the universal been outwardly coated, and make use of deluge, and allude to Noah under the it for amulets and bracelets.”

title of Osiris, though in a manner conThere is another Babylonian tradition fused and obscure, as was to be expected which should not be omitted. Before the from a people who had no other guide awful devastation of waters, says the le. than corrupted and unwritten tradition. gend, in which the whole world perished. It is remarkable that Plutarch, in his many ages had passed which were faith- description of Osiris entering the Ark, fully chronicled by the Chaldeans. In fixes it in the very month and day of those times they allege that there was a the month on which Noah entered it, and large city called Æno, situated near Li- the “ windows of heaven” were opened. banus (the reader will here recollect that “ It was,” he says, “on the 17th day of Cain's city was named Enoch), peopled August, the second month after the by giants, who governed the whole world autumnal equinox, when the sun passes from the rising to the setting of the sun. through Scorpio.”—“ In the 600th year Those giants, trusting to the greatness of of Noah's life,” says Moses, “in the second their strength and their stature, became month, the 17th day of the month, enmonsters of oppression and tyranny, de- tered Noah into the Ark.” Plato says spisers of religion and of the gods, and that a certain Egyptian priest recounted there was no kind of wickedness which to Solon, out of the sacred books, the they did not commit. Some there were history of the universal flood which hapwho prophesied, and carved out upon pened long before the partial inundations stones the things relating to the destruc- known to the Grecians and other nations. tion which was to come upon the world; The ancient Scythians designated Noah

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