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AEted on the Theatre, but Read. He preserv'd the Ground-work of their Pleasantry, their Venom, and their Raillery on particular Persons, and general Vices: And by this means, avoiding the Danger of any ill Success, in a Publick Rcpresentation, he hop'd to be as well receiv'd in the Cabinet, as Andronicus had been cpon the Stage. The Event was answerable to his Expectation. He made Discourses in several Sorts of Verse, vary'd often in the same Paper ; retaining fill in the Title, their original Name of Satyr. Both in relation to the Subjects, and the variety of Matters contain’d in them, the Satyrs of Horace are entirely like them; only Ennius, as I said, confines not himself to one fort of Verfe, as Horace does; but taking Example from the Greeks, and even from Homer himself, in bis Margites, which is a kind of Satyr, as Scaliger observes, gives himself the License, when one sort of Numbers comes not easily, to run into another, as his Fancy dic. tates. For he makes no Difficulty to mingle Hexameters with I ambique Trimeters; or with Trochaique Tetrameters; as appears by those Fragments which are yet remaining of him: Horace has thought him worthy to be Copy'd ; inserting. many things of his into his own Satyrs, as Virgil has done into his Æneid.

Here we have Dacier making out that Ennius was the first Satyrist in that way of Writing, which was of his Invention; that is, Satyr abftracted from the Stage, and new modell’d into Papers of Verses, on several Subjects. But he will have Ennius take the Ground-work of Satyr from the first Farces of the Romans ; rather than from the formed Plays of Livius Andronicus, which were copy'd from the Grecian Comedies. It may poflibly be

fo;

fo; but Dacier knows no more of it than I do' And it seems to me the more probable Opinion' that he rather imitated the fine Railleries of the Greeks, which he faw in the Pieces of Andronicus, than the Courseness of his old Country-men, in their clownish exteinporary way of jeering.

But befides this, 'tis universally granted, that Ennius, tho' an Italian, was excellently learn'd iir the Greek Language. His Verses were stuft'd with Fragments of it, even to a Tault: And he himself believ'd, according to the Pythagorean Opinion, that the Soul of Homer was transfus'd into hm: Which Perfius observes, in his Sixth Satyr: Pestquam deftertuit efle Mæonides. But this being only the private Opinion of fo inconsiderable a Man as I am, I leave it to the farther Disquisition of the Criticks, if they think it worth their Notice. Most evident it is, that whether he imitated the Roman Farce, or the Greek Comedies, he is to be acknowledg'd for the first Author of Roman Sasyr, as it is properly so called; and distinguished from any sort of Stage-Play.

Of Pacuvius, who succeeded him, there is little to be faid, because there is so little remaining of him: Only that he is taken to be the Nephew of Ennius, his Sister's Son; that in probability he was instructed by his Uncle, in his way of Satyr, which we are told he has copy'd; but what Advances lie made we know not.

Lucilius came into the World, when Pacuvius fourish'd moft; he also made Satyrs after the manner of Ennius, but he gave them a more graceful turn; and endeavour'd to imitate more closely the vetus Comoedia of the Greeks : Of the which the old original Roman Satyr had no Idea, 'till the time of Livius Andronicus. And tho Horace feems

to have made Lucilius the first Author of Satyr in Verse amongst the Romans, in thele Words, Quid cum est Lucilius ausus Primus in hunc operis componere carmina morem: He is only thus to be understood, that Lucilius had given a more graceful turn to the Satyr of Ennius and Pacuvius; not that he invented a new Satyr of his own. And Quintilian seems to explain this passage of Horace in these Words : Satira quidem tota noftra.eft, in gua primus insignem laudem adeptus efi Lucilius.

Thus, both Horace and Quintilian give a kind of Primacy of Honour to Lucilius, amongst the Latin Satyrifts. For as the Roman Language grew more refin'd, so much more capable it was of receiving the Grecian Beauties in his time: Horace and Quintilian could mean no more, than that Lucilius writ better than Ennius and Pacuvius: And on the same account we prefer Horace to Lucia lius ; Both of them imitated the old Greek Comedy; and so did Ennius and Pacuvius before them. The polishing of the Latin Tongue, in the Succeffion of Times, made the only Difference. And Horace himself, in two of his Satyrs, written purposely on this Subject, thinks the Romans of his Age were too partial in their commendations of Lucilius; who writ not only loosely, and muddily, with little Art, and much less Care, but also in a time when the Latin Tongue was not yet sufficiently purgʻd from the Dregs of Barbarism; and many significant and founding Words, which the Romans wanted, were not admitted even in the Times of Lucretius and Cicero; of which both complain.

But to proceed, Dacier justly taxes Casaubon, saying that the Satyrs of 'Lucilius were wholly different in Specie, from those of Ennius and pas

cuvins.

cuvius. Casaubon was led into that Miitake by Diomedes the Grammarian, who in effe&i fays this: Satyr among the Romans, but not among the Greeks, was a biting invective Poem, made after the Model of the ancient Comedy; for the Reprehension of Vices: Such as were the Poems of Lucilius, of Horace, and of Perfius. But in former Times, the Name of Satyr was given to Poems, which were compos'd of several forts of Verses; such as were made by Ennius and Pacuvius; more fully expressing the Etymology of the Word Satyr, from Satura, which we have observ'd Here 'tis manifest, that Diomedes makes a Specifical Diftinction betwixt the Satyrs of Ennius and those of Lucilius. But this, as we say in English, is only a Diftination without a Difference for the Reason of it is ridiculous, and absolutely false. This was that which cozen'd honest Casaubon, who relying on Diomedes, had not sufficiently examin'd the Origin and Nature of those two Satyrs; which were entirely the same, both in the Matter and the Form. For all that Lucilius perform'd beyond his Predecessors, Ennius and Pacuvius, was only the adding of more Politeness, and more Salt'; without any change in the Substance of the Poem: And tho Lucilius put not together in the same Satyr several forts of Verses, as Enrius did; yet he compos’d several Satyrs, of several sorts of Verses and mingl'd them with Greek Verses: One Poem consisted only of Hexameters; and another was entirely of lambiques; a third of Trochaiques; as is visible by the Fragments yet remaining of his Works. In short, if the Satyrs of Lucilius are therefore said to be wholly different from those of Ennius, because he added much more of Beauty and Polishing to his own Poems, than are to be

found

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found in those before him ; it will follow fro hence, that the Satyrs of Horace are wholly dift rent from those of Lucilius, because Horace ha not less surpass'd Lucilius in the Elegancy of ha Writing, than Lucilius furpass’d Ennius in the Tur and Ornament of his. This Paffage of Diomede has also drawn Doufa, the Son, into the fame Error of Casaubon, which I say, not to expose the litile Failings of those judicious Men, but only to make it appear, with how much Diffidence and Caution we-are to read their Works; when they treat a Subject of so much Obscurity, and so very ancient, as is this of Satyr.

Having thus brought down the History of Satyr from its Original to the Times of Hurare, and shewn the several Changes of it; I hould here discover some of those Graces which Horace added to it, but that I think it will be more proper to defer that Undertaking, 'till I make the Comparison betwixt him and Juvenal

. In the mean while, following the Order of Time, it will be necessary to say somewhat of another kind of Satyr, which also was descended from the Ancients : 'Tis that which we call the Varronian Satyr, but which Varro himself calls the Menippean; because Varro, the most learn. ed of the Romans, was the first Author of it, who imitated, in his Works, the Manners of Menippus the Gadarenian, who profess’d the Philosophy of the Cyniques.

This Tori of Satyr was not only compos'd of several forts of Verfe, like those of Ennius, but was also mix'd with Prose; and Greek was sprinkded amongst the Latin. Quintilian, after he had spoken of the Satyr of Lucilius, adds what follow; There is another and former kind of Satyr.compos'd by Terentius Varro, the most Learned of the

Romans :

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