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when any one took the pains to open them, and search into them, he there found the Figures of all the Deities. So, in the Shape that Horace presents himself to us, in his Satyrs, we see nothing at the first View which deserves our Attention. It seems that he is rather an Amusement for Children, than for the serious Confideration of Men: But when we take away his Crust, and that which hides him from our Sight; when we discover him to the Bottom, then we find all the Divinities in a full Assembly: That is to say, all the Virtues which ought to be the continual Exercise of those, who seriously endeavour to correct their Vices.
'Tis easy to observe, that Dacier, in this noble Similitude, has confind the Praise of his Author wholly to the Inftru&ive Part: The Commendations turns on this, and so does that which follows.
In these two Books of Satyr, 'tis the Business of Horace to infru&t us how to combat our Vices, to regulate our Paffions, to follow Nature, to give Bounds to our Defires, to distinguish betwixt Truth and Fallhood, and betwixt our Conceptions of Things, and Things themselves: To come back from our prejudicate Opinions, to understand exactly the Principles and Motives of all our Actions; and to avoid the Ridicule, into which all Men necessarily fall, who are intoxicated with those Notions which they have receiv'd from their Masters; and which they obstinately retain, with. out examining whether or no they be founded on right Reason.
In a Word, he labours to render us happy in relation to our selves, agreeable and faithful to our Friends, and discreet, serviceable, and well-bred in relation to those with whom we are oblig'd to
live, and to converse. To make his Figures intelligible, to conduct his Readers through the Labyrinch of some perplex'd Sentence, or obscure Parenthesis, is no greater Matter: And, as Epictetus says, there is nothing of Beauty in all this, or what is worthy of a prudent Man. The principal Business, and which is of most Importance to us, is to shew the Use, the Reason, and the Proof of his Precepts.
They who endeavour not to correet themselves, according to so exact a Model; are just like the Patients, who have open before them a Book of admirable Receipts for their Diseases, and please themselves with reading it, without comprehending the Nature of the Remedies ; or how to apply them to their Cure.
Let Horace go off with these Encomiums, which he has so well deserv’d.
To conclude the Contention betwixt our three Poets, I will use the Words of Virgil, in his Fifth Æneid, where Aneas proposes the Rewards of the Foot Race, to the three firft, who should reach the Goal. Tres premia primi, accipient ; flavaque Caput nectentur Olivâ : Let these three Ancients be preferred to all the Moderns; as first arriving at the Goal: Let them all be Crown'd as Vi&ors, with the Wreath that properly belongs to Satyr. But, after that, with this Diftin&tion amongst themselves, Primus equum phaleris insignem, Victor babeto. "Let Juvenal ride first in Triumph. Alter Amazoniam pharetram; plenamque Sagittis Threiciis, lato quam circumple&titur auro Balteus, & tea riti subne&tit Fibula gemma. Let Horace who is the Second, and but just the Second, carry off the Quivers and the Arrows, as the Badges of his Satyr; and the Golden Belt and the Diamond Btu6
ton. Tertius, Argolico hoc Clypeo contentus abito And let Persius, the last of the first three Wothies, be contented with this Grecian Shield, and with Victory not only over all the Grecians, who were ignorant of the Roman Satyr, but over all the Moderns in succeeding Ages; excepting. Boilean and your Lordfhip.
And thus I have given the History of Satyr, and deriv'd it as from Ennius, to your Lordship, that is, from its first Rudiments of Barbarity, to its last Polishing and Perfection: Which is, with Virgil, in his Address to Auguftus;
nomen famå tot ferre per annos, Tithoni prima quot abeft ab origine Cæfar. I said only from Ennius; but I may fafely carry it higher, as far as Livius Andronicus; who, as I have said formerly, taught the first Play at Rome, in the Year ab Urbe condita CCCCCXIV. I have since desir'd my Learned Friend Mr. Maidwell, to compute the Difference of Times, becwixt Ariftophanes and Livius Andronicus ; and he assures me from the best Chronologers, that Plutus, the last of Aristophanes's Plays, was Represented at Athens, in the Year of the 97th Olymyiad; which agrees with the Year Ubis Condite CCCLXIV. So that the difference of Years betwixt Aristophanes and
Andronicus is 150; from whence I have probably deduc'd, that Livius Andronicus, who was a Grecian, had read the Plays of the Old Comedy, which were Satyrical, and also of the New; for Menander was fifty Years before him, which must needs be a great light to him, in his own Plays, that were of the Satyrical Nature. That the Romans had Farces before this, 'tis true ; but then they had no Com
manication with Greece : So that Andronicus was the first who wrote after the inanner of the Old Comedy, in his Plays; he was imitated by Ennius, about thirty Years afterwards. Tho' the former writ Fables; the latter, speaking properly, began the Roman Satyr. According to that Description, which Juvenal gives of it in his First; Quicquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, Gašdia, discursus, noftri est farrago libelli
. This is that in which I have made bold to differ from Casaubon, Rigaltius, Dacier, and indeed from all the Modern Criticks, that not Ennius, but Andronicus was the first; who by the Archea Comoedia of the Greeks, added many Beauties to the first Rude and Barbarous Roman Satyr: Which sort of Poem, tho' we had not deriv'd from Rome, yet Nature teaches it Mankind, in all Ages, and in every Country.
'Tis but necessary, that after so much has been said of Satyr, some Definition of it should be given. Heinfius, in his Dissertations on Horace, makes it for me, in these Words; Satyr is a kind of Poetry, without a Series of Action, invented for the purging of our Minds; in which Human Vices, Ignorance, and Errors, and all things besides, wbich are produc'd from them, in every Man, are severely Reprebended; partly Dramatically, partly Simply, and sometimes in both kinds of speaking; but for the most part Figuratively, and Occultly; consisting in a low familiar way, chiefly in a sharp and pungent manner of Speech; but partly, alsó, in a Facetious and Civil way of Festing; by which either Hatred, or Laughter, or Indignation is moved. Where I cannot but observe, that this obscure and perplex'd Definition, or rather Description of Satyr, is wholly accommodated to the Horatian way, and excluding the Works of Juvenal and Persius, as foreign from
that kind of Poem: The Clause in the Beginning of it (without a Series of A&tion) distinguishes Satyr properly from Stage-Plays, which are all of one A&ion, and one continued Series of Action. The End or Scope of Satyr is to purge the Passions; fo far it is common to the Satyrs of Juvenal and Perhius: The rest which follows, is also generally belonging to all three; 'till he comes upon us, with the excluding Clause (consisting in a low familiar way of Speech) which is the proper Character of Horace; and from which, the other two, for their Honour be it spoken, are far diftant. But how come Lowness of Style and the Familiarity of Words to be so much the Propriety of Satyr, that without them, a Poet can be no more a Satyrist, than without Risibility he can be a Man? Is the Fault of Horace to be made the Virtue and standing Rule of this Poem? Is the Grande Sophos of Perfius, and the Sublimity of Juvenal to be Circumscrib'd, with the Meanness of Words and Vulgarity of Expression ? If Horace refused the pains of Numbers, and the loftiness of Figures, are they bound to follow so ill a Precedent? Let him walk a-foot with his Pad in his hand, for his own Pleasure; but let not them be accounted no Poets, who chuse to mount, and shew their Horsemanship. Holiday is not afraid to say, that there never was such a fall, as from his Odes to his Satyrs, and that he, injuriously to himself, unturn'd his Harp. The Majestique way of Persius and Juvenal was new when they began it; but 'tis old to us; and what Poems have not, with Time, received an Alteration in their Fashion? Which Alteration, says Holia day, is to after-times, as good a Warrant as the first. Has not Virgil chang'd the Manners of Homer's Heroes in his Æneid? certainly he has, and