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Aar. Titus Andronicus, my lord the emperor
That gives sweet tidings of the sun's uprise?
Good Aaron, wilt thou help to chop it off?
Luc. Stay, father; for that noble hand of thine,
Shall not be sent; my hand will serve the turn:
Writing destruction on the enemy's castle?
9 Writing destruction on the enemy's castle?] Thus all the edi tions. But Mr. Theobald, after ridiculing the sagacity of the former editors at the expense of a great deal of aukward mirth, corrects it to casque, and this, he says, he 'll stand by: And the Oxford editor taking his security, will stand by it too. But what a slippery ground is critical confidence! Nothing could bid fairer for a right conjecture; yet 'tis all imaginary. A close helmet, which covered the whole head, was called a castle, and, I suppose, for that very reason. Don Quixote's barber, and, at least as good a critick as these editors, says (in Shelton's translation, 1612): "I know what is a helmet, and what a morrion, and what a close castle, and other things touching warfare." Lib. IV, cap. xviii. And the original, celada de encaxe, has something of the same signification. Shakspeare uses the word again in Troilus and Cressida:
"Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head." Warburton. "Dr. Warburton's proof (says Mr. Heath) rests wholly on two mistakes, one of a printer, the other of his own. In Shelton's Don Quixote the word close castle is an error of the press for a close casque, which is the exact interpretation of the Spanish original, celada de encare, this Dr. Warburton must have seen, if he had understood Spanish as well as he pretends to do. For
O, none of both but are of high desert:
To ransome my two nephews from their death;
Aar. Nay, come agree, whose hand shall go along, For fear they die before their pardon come.
Mar. My hand shall go.
By heaven, it shall not go. Tit. Sirs, strive no more; such wither'd herbs as these Are meet for plucking up, and therefore mine.
Luc. Sweet father, if I shall be thought thy son, Let me redeem my brothers both from death.
Mar. And, for our father's sake, and mother's care, Now let me show a brother's love to thee.
Tit. Agree between you; I will spare my hand.
the primitive cara, from whence the word encaxe, is derived, signifies a box, or coffer; but never a castle. His other proof is taken from this passage in Troilus and Cressida :
"Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head." Wherein Troilus doth not advise Diomede to wear a helmet on his head, for that would be poor indeed, as he always wore one in battle; but to guard his head with the most impenetrable armour, to shut it up even in a castle, if it were possible, or else his sword should reach it."
After all this reasoning, however, it appears, that a castle did actually signify a close helmet. See Grose's Treatise of Ancient Armour, p. 12, from whence it appears that castle may only be a corruption of the old French word-casquetel. Thus also, in Holinshed, Vol. II, p. 815: " Then suddenlie with great noise of trumpets entered sir Thomas Knevet in a castell of cole blacke, and over the castell was written, The dolorous castell; and so he and the earle of Essex, &c. ran their courses with the kyng," &c.
A remark, however, of my late friend Mr. Tyrwhitt, has taught me to suspect the validity of my quotation from Holinshed; for one of the knights in the tournament described, made his entry in a fountain, and another in a horse-litter. Sir Thomas Knevet therefore might have appeared in a building formed in imitation of a castle. Steevens.
The instance quoted does not appear to me to prove what it was adduced for; wooden castles having been sometimes introduced in ancient tournaments. The passage in the text is itself much more decisive. Malone.
But I will use the axe.1 [Exeunt Luc. and MAR.
Tit. Come hither, Aaron; I'll deceive them both;
And never, whilst I live, deceive men so:—
And that you'll say, ere half an hour can pass. [Aside. [He cuts off TITUS's hand.
Enter LUCIUS and MARCUS.
Tit. Now, stay your strife; what shall be, is despatch'd.— Good Aaron, give his majesty my hand: Tell him, it was a hand that warded him From thousand dangers; bid him bury it; More hath it merited, that let it have. As for my sons, say, I account of them As jewels purchas'd at an easy price; And yet dear too, because I bought mine own. Aar. I go, Andronicus: and for thy hand, Look by and by to have thy sons with thee:Their heads, I mean.-O, how this villainy Doth fat me with the very thoughts of it! Let fools do good, and fair men call for grace, Aaron will have his soul black like his face. Tit. O, here I lift this one hand up to heaven, And bow this feeble ruin to the earth:
If any power pities wretched tears,
To that I call:-What, wilt thou kneel with me? [To Lav.
1 But I will use the axe.] Metre requires us to read:
But I will use it.
with possibilities,] Edition 1600 reads:-with possibíli
Tit. If there were reason for these miseries, Then into limits could I bind my woes:
When heaven doth weep, doth not the earth o'erflow?
And be my heart an ever-burning hell!
To weep with them that weep doth ease some deal,
Luc. Ah, that this sight should make so deep a wound, And yet detested life not shrink thereat!
That ever death should let life bear his name,
Tit. When will this fearful slumber have an end?
do blow!] Old copies-do flow. Corrected in the second folio. Malone.
Struck pale and bloodless; and thy brother, I,
Tit. Ha, ha, ha!
Mar. Why dost thou laugh? it fits not with this hour.
And would usurp upon my watʼry eyes,
Lavinia, thou shalt be employed in these things;5
[Exeunt TIT. MAR. and LAV.
thy griefs:] The old copies--my griefs. The cor
rection was made by Mr. Theobald. Malone.
5 Lavinia, shou shalt be employed in these things;] Thus the folio, 1623. The quarto, 1611, thus:
And Lavinia thou shalt be employed in these arms. Perhaps we ought to read:
Thou too shalt be employed in these things;
The folio also reads-And Lavinia; the rest as above. The compositor probably caught the word—And from the preceding line. Malone.