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STAMMERING.

round the circle; lay this also on a strip of

the cambric and cut it half an inch also It is recorded that the prince of Grecian

beyond the paper; then, without snipping, orators had natural defects of speech to

gum the cambric on to the paper, then gum overcome before he became master of the

| a piece the exact width on to this again; judgment and passions of his audience. In

when this is dry, sew the strip round the modern times, persons have frequently pro- circle and un at the site fessed to cure a stammering habit and im

For the Flowers.—Take the lightest shade pediments of utterance. We have heard of

rd of of maize or any other colour, tie a loop over an eminent English barrister succeeding the

the mesh, insert the hook under this loop completely in remedying the unpleasant

and make 1 ch; still keep the wool on the affection by discovering if he changed the

hook, wind the wool over the hook, make word on which he was about to stumble for

| another tight chain. Continue this till a synonyme he was sure to escape all im

there are fifteen loops, then tie on the next pediment, although it might be seen from

shade and make thirty loops, then the the muscular or nervous twist which at

darkest and make fifty loops; draw the tended the stratagem that it cost him an

wool through and cut it off. Cut some effort. We have heard of a farmer who was

circles of the cambric about an inch in a most laborious and confirmed stammerer

diameter; carefully slip the wool off the on ordinary occasions, but was, neverthe

mesh, then sew round the cambric in the less, when engaged in one particular exer

form of a small rosette. In the next flower cise of speech, perfectly fluent and free

begin with the darkest shade, make fifteen from the stuttering affection. He was al

" | loops; next shade thirty, and lightest fifty deeply pious man, charitable and actively

loops. Thus there will be one flower with a benevolent. He was much given to visit

dark centre, and one with a light; and they the sick and the poor; and made it his con

must be so arranged that the dark outside stant practice to discourse of religion and to

shall come against the light edge of next pray with them. But the moment he began |

flower. When all the flowers are made, to bend the knee and address his speech to

sew them round the cup as closely together Heaven, that instant he became complete

as possible. master of his tongue, astonishing his hearers,

To make the Moss.-With No. 10 steel not only by the propriety of his language knitting

r-pins knit each

kein of the and the richness of its stream, but by the

green and brown wool in common garter extraordinary fervency and earnestness of

stitch; then, when completed, throw it his manner. He seemed to feel that he was

into a bason of boiling water for a minute, in the presence of the Almighty, and of no

take it up, wring it dry in a cloth, and press one else, and he rose above himself, even to 1;

o it with a hot iron : when cold, ravel it out the banishing of the ordinary physical frailties of his nature.

and put three shades together, and sew it in bunches top and bottom of the cup, afterwards pulling it out of any stiffness which

the sewing on may have given it, A HYACINTH GLASS STAND.

NETTED D’OYLEY FOR TARTLET, CHRYSANTHEMUM PATTERN. Materials.-A skein each of three very distinct OR FOR ANY OTHER USEFUL PURPOSE. shades of magenta, violet, and maize-coloured wool; four distinct shades of green, and one of light Materials.-Messrs. Walter Evans & Co's Boar's brown. A wooden mesh, half an inch wide, two Head Cotton No. 10, and their Trafalgar Cotton. Dails of green cambric, some stiff paper and gum, Bone mesh three-eighths of an inch wide ; another a circle of stiff card-board, and a crochet-hook a quarter of an inch. A long netting-needle, and

a long rug or darning-needle, Cut the circle of card-board a little larger a than the hyacinth glass ; lay it down on the On a foundation, with small mesh, net cambric, and cut the latter half an inch fifty-five stitches; then net twelve diamonds larger; then snip this half-inch all round, so or twenty-four rows; then * decrease by as to admit of its being turned over the edge netting two loops together every third row, of the card-board ; now gum this snipped at the beginning of the row only, till there part and carefully turn it over the edge of are eighteen rows or nine diamonds; then the card-board; now cut a circle the exact decrease at the beginning of every row till size, and gum it over. In stiff paper mea- there are twenty stitches. Now cut off from sure the size round of this circle, having the the foundation, turn ends with the netting, paper one inch and a half in depth, and and net the other side, only comm

encing cut the length a little longer than will gol at *; now gather the netting through the

[graphic]

A HYACINTH GLASS STAND,-CHRYSANTHEMUM PATTERN. BY MRS. WARREN. centre on to a string, net two rows all round, I loop, *; then miss three loops; net ten into netting at the corners four stitches into one the fourth, repeat from * again, then miss loop. There should be twenty-five loops at seven loops; net ten into the eighth; (this each end, and sixty-four down each side, will be the loop immediately before the coCount the number of stitches, and mark with loured mark); net ten into next loop, which coloured cotton each corner. With wide will be immediately after the coloured mark; mesh net ten loops into the stitch next the miss seven loops, net ten into the eighth, t coloured mark at the end, but not at the side, miss three loops, net ten into the fourth, miss seven loops, net ten into the eighth repeat from * three times more, then miss

[graphic]

NETTED D'OYLEY FOR TARTLET. BY MRS. WARREN, four loops, net ten into the fifth, repeat from ton, tie it into the loop directly over the † twice more § miss three loops, net ten coloured mark, net nine stitches, T (or turn into the fourth, continue to repeat from $on reverse side), net eight stitches, thus till the corner, where net as at the other missing one, and continue turning and decorner; then continue along the end and creasing a stitch at the end of every row till side the same as the one just netted. With the netting is reduced to a point. Continue narrow mesh net four rows all round. This this all round. Darn as in engraving with will make two diamonds. Cut off the cot-| the Trafalgar cotton and long needle.

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HEALTH

system. Hence we find it supplied in all

our food; and when it is not in sufficient AND DISEASE.

quantity, we make up for it by supplying it in the solid food in the form either of water

itself, or in infusions-as tea, coffee, and CHAPTER THE EIGHTH.

chocolate, or in wines and beers.

We shall not enter into any details here ON WATER, AND AMYLACEOUS ARTICLES on the action of water on the system, but OF DIET.

content ourselves with making three obser

vations on the use of water as an article of FROM what has been said in the previous diet. chapters on the structure of the body, it | First, It may be taken in too large quanwill be seen that water forms an impor-tities to be carried off by the skin and other tant part in its functions. In the very emunctories, and then it remains in the earliest conditions of the existence of or system to impoverish the blood, and to reganic being, we find water pecessary. The duce the amount of solid matter that is cells of the various cellular alga, as those necessary for the performance of the funcof the red snow-plant, the cells of minute tions of the tissues of the body. This is one fungi, and the germinating tissues of the of the results that take place from what is embryo of every seed, must have water called the water cure. Unless persons have supplied before they will begin to grow. sufficient vigour to take the exercise necesDuring the progress of the growth of every sary to throw off by the skin the water that plant, water must be supplied, either in a is taken into the stomach, serious ill effects liquid or a gaseous form, or they would must necessarily arise. The good that is cease to live. It is the same with the effected by this system of the treatment of animal world. No ovum will develop the disease must be attributed more to the exerembryo creature it contains, and no animal, cise that it renders necessary than to the however small, will live, unless it is supplied unnatural quantities of water that are taken with water. It is true, that the power of into the system. growth is often retained for marvellously | Secondly, Water may not be taken in suflong periods of time in the seeds of plants ficient quantities to carry on the healthy and the ova of animals; but in all cases functions of the system. If the food is taken where the functions of life are exhibited, I too dry, it is only imperfectly digested, and there must water be present. An examina many important constituents, such as the tion of the composition of the human body salts, are not taken into the body in sufficient will at once show that it is no exception to quantity. A deficient quantity of water in this law of animal life. The blood which the blood will also prevent the healthy circulates through our body contains, in process of nutrition, and wasting and deevery 1,000 parts, 790 parts of water; whilst generation of the solid parts of the body will the muscular substance--the flesh itself, occur. It would be difficult, perhaps, to lay contains, in every 1,000 parts, 770 parts of down any law with regard to the quantity water. Now it is very clear, that this fluid of water individuals should take, and perhaps must be supplied to the body from without; it is safer to rely on the instincts of the and it is taken in in no other way than by body, which seem to point out how much the mouth, with the food. But not only is we ought to take by the feeling of satiety water necessary for the supply of this ma- that comes on after enough has been taken. terial in the body, but also to supply the We may, however, get at something like an waste which it sustains. The water from approximation of the proportion of solids the body is constantly passing away in the and fluids required by the system in food secretions; but more especially in the per- by examining the composition of milk, in spiration from the skin. It is by means of which we find the proportion of water to the water which passes off from the skin solid parts is as 870 to 130 in 1,000 parts, or that the heat of the body is regulated ; and about as seven to one. just as the heat which enters a tea-kettle Thirdly, The good effects of water may of boiling water is got rid of by the steam, I be destroyed by the substances with which so the heat that is generated in the human it is taken. Although the stomach has the body is got rid of by means of the perspi power of separating water from the food in ration which is constantly passing from the which it exists, it yet often happens that the skin. To maintain the due fluidity of the fluid articles of diet are injurious. Water body, and to regulate the heat of the body, itself may contain so large a quantity of are the two offices of water in the human saline matters, or of organic matters in

th

emically,

state of decomposition, as to cause serious the body is exposed to a low temperature, disease. The taking habitually water in and its heat is rapidly conducted a wav by the form of fermented liquors, az beer and surrounding cold, the heat is maintained by wine, as also the admixture of distilled increased supplies of food belonging to the spirits, may cause irritation and congestion carbonaceous group. The animal heat of of the mucous membranes, and derangement the lower animals varies according to the of the nervous system.

circumstances of the creature. Those perWith these general remarks, we must dis forming great muscular exertions, and living miss the group of aqueous substances used in cold climates, have a higher temperature as food, and proceed to speak of the car-than man; whilst those which are not active bonaceous group. This class of substances in their habits, and live in hot climates, is sometimes called respiratory, and com- have a temperature lower than that of man. bustible. They are called respiratory, be- These remarks will serve to indicate the cause it is through the function of respiration nature of the influence the substances found that they become useful in the system. in this group exert as food. Although the They are called combustible, because it is plants from which they are derived are very ess of

hat their various, yet the substances themselves are effects upon the system are developed. This very few, and are principally starch, sugar, class of foods does not, in fact, contribute and oil. We shall first speak of starch, or directly to the nutrition of the body, but I amulum, as it is often called. Starch, when they are consumed in maintaining the animal separated from the flour of wheat, is well heat. The temperature of the human body known on account of its domestic uses; but is always a fixed one; and if we place a starch is th

ind chen thermometer upon the tongue, or, under the from whatever plants it is procured. Starch arm, or in any other unexposed part of the is extensively employed in our textile manubody, we shall find that it stands at the factures, to give tirmness to linen and cotton point in the index of Fahrenheit's ther- fabrics; hence it is prepared in large quanmometer marked 98o. This heat the human tities for manufacturing purposes. Beautiful body maintains equally at the poles and specimens of this substance were to be seen under the tropics. No external temperature in the Great Exhibition, in the Classes III. alters it, and we have thus conclusive evi- and IV., where it was exhibited both as an dence that it is produced from within. The article of food, and a raw vegetable product. cause of this heat is the combustion of the In the vegetable kingdom starch is a very carbon and hydrogen contained in the car- widely diffused body. In almost every

onaceous group of foods. Starch, sugar, growing cell granules of starch may be disand oil, are conveyed from the stomach into tinguished by means of the microscope. the blood, and whilst in the blood they are These granules are of various sizes, and brought in contact with oxygen gas, which assume a great variety of forms; some are is taken in during respiration, and the con- round, others are flat, whilst others are even sequence of this contact is the union of the stellate. These granules are always found carbon and the hydrogen with the oxygen, mixed with other substances, but they are the formation of carbonic acid gas and water, easily made distinguishable by the applicaand the giving out of heat. This process in tion of a little iodine, which is one of the the blood is of exactly the same nature as best tests for starch, and which, coming in that which occurs during the burning of a contact with it, produces a beautiful blue fire or candle in the open air. The carbon colour. and hydrogen of the coal and the tallow Starch is found in some plants in greater combine with the oxygen of the atmosphere, quantities than in others; it is, however, carbonic acid gas and water are formed, and very generally found in perennial roots and heat and light given out. The only differ- rootstocks, in the stems and in the seeds of ence between the two processes is, that plants. It seems stored up in these parts during the production of the animal heat for the future growth of the developing no light is given out; but this is accounted organs of the plant. There are few or no for by the low temperature at which the vegetables or parts of plants that are eaten, combustion takes place.

that do not contain starch. We find it in The human body is preserved at the same turnips, carrots, potatoes, cabbages, parsnips, temperature by the regulating action of the beans, peas, wheat, barley, oats, and the skin. When large quantities of heat are rest of the Cerealia ; in chesnuts, walnuts, generated in the body, by exercise or other hazelnuts, and all other seeds; in the apple, causes, then the extra heat is carried off by the pear, the plum, the cherry, and all other the perspiration from the skin ; but when fruits. In many of these things, however,

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