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it is not the distinguishing alimentary in-| Fig. 19. The East Indian is produced by gredient, but it is often separated and used another species, the M. Indica, (Fig. 18, B.) pure as an article of diet. The substances What is called Tous les Mois is obtained in which it exists in a tolerably pure form, from another genus of marantaceous plants, and of which we wish now more particularly and is called Čanna Edulis. The part of the to speak, are arrowroot, sago, ard tapioca. plant from which the starch is obtained is
the same in all these cases, and the mode of preparation the same. Plants belonging to this family have what is called, botanically, a rhizoma, or rootstock (Fig. 19, a) an organ standing between the root and the stem. In this rootstock the starch is deposited, and it is separated in the following manner :-The rootstock is dug up, and then bruised and placed in water. The heavier parts, con
Fig 19.-Maranta arundinacea -- ARROWBOOT. sisting of woody tissue and other matters, fall to the bottom of the water. but the starch is diffused through the water. The water, with the starch, is then separated, and allowed to stand, when, at the end of some hours, the starch falls to the bottom of the water; it is then collected and dried. This is the principle on which all starch is separated from the tissues in which it is
developed. By the same process starch may Fig. 18.-Granules of Starch.-(A) From wheat and barley. (B) From arrowroot.
be procured from potatoes, carrots, turnips,
(C) From Portland sago.
and the stems, leaves, and seeds of plants.
Although there is much difference in the What is sold under the name of arrow price of arrowroot, its composition is always root in the shops, is a form of starch pro- the same. Even the substances used to cured from the rootstocks of various species adulterate arrowroot, as potato and sago of plants belonging to the family Maran- starch, are of the same composition, and, tacea. There are three kinds of arrowroot although the appearance and favour of the known in the shops,-the West Indian and arrowroot may be impaired, its ultimate East Indian arrowroots, and the Tous les dietetical action is the same. Mois. The West Indian is the produce of a Although arrowroot, sago, tapioca, and species of Maranta, called M, arundinacea, potatoe starch are all composed of the same
Fig. 20. An Indian family preparing Tapioco. The woman is poisoning an arrow with the juice
which exudes from the bag containing the Tapioca. constituent, their flavour is very different; Now, starch does not perform this function, hence the preference given to arrowroot as and is entirely consumed in the body in an article of diet. This flavour depends on maintaining its animal heat. Arrowroot, some peculiar principle which is produced however, and the other forms of starch, aré in the plant from which the starch is ob- frequently mixed with nutritious matters, tained, and by very careful preparing can such as milk and bread ; and in this way the be entirely got rid of. Arrowroot is used food intowhich they enter becomes nutritious. for making cakes, puddings, and a thick Still, it may be said, that children begelatinous fluid in great request in the sick come fat when fed on arrowroot; and this room. It is a property of starch to combine is an undoubted fact. It
The explanation is. with water at a temperature of 180°, and however, easy. When the carbonaceous form a gelatinous compound. This property substances are taken into the system in of starch renders it very useful in cookery, larger quantities than can be consumed in and seems to increase the digestibility of maintaining animal heat, they are changed the starch itself.
in their characters, and become converted Arrowroot is frequently regarded as very into oil, which being deposited in the tissues, nutritious; but, if what we have stated produces fat. This oil is not a living part above is correct, it will be seen that it is of the body; and a person may even get fat not nutritious in the proper sense of that without having his frame nourished, or his word. Those foods can alone be called nu- strength increased. This is an important tritious that contribute to the building up fact to bear in mind, as many persons get of the fabric of the body by adding those fat upon certain kinds of diet, without materials to the tissues which are being getting any stronger, or more able to perform constantly removed by the wear of the body. I the functions of the body.
Another form of starch, sold in the shops year by the name of “lords and ladies," of Europe, is sago. It occurs in little round and commonly called “cuckoo-pint." This masses, and, when very white and pure, is plant, the Arum maculatum of botanists, called pearl sago. When it is in larger and contains an acrid juice; but, nevertheless, darker masses, it is called common sago. its roots are full of starch. When cooked, It is starch obtained from the inside of the the acridity of the plant is got rid of, and trunks of palms, and other trees. They are they are eaten with impunity. These roots cut down, and the tissues containing the starch being scraped out, the sago is prepared in much the same way as arrowroot. Many plants yield starch in their stems, which, on being prepared, is called sago by Europeans. The sago which is sold in the shops of England is principally imported from the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and is the produce of a palm called the true sago palm, or Sagus levis. There is, however, another palm belonging to the same genus,—the Sagus Rumphii (the prickly sago palm), which yields the sago that is consumed by the natives of India.
Sago is not generaily so carefully prepared as arrowroot, and it is a much cheaper article of diet. Its ultimate action is perfectly the same as arrowroot. It is now often employed by starch makers to procure the finer kinds of starch used by manufacturers. When thus prepared, it is used to adulterate arrowroot.
Tapioca is another form of starch. It is brought to Europe from South America, and
Fig 21.- Arum maculatum-CUCKOO-PINT. is the produce of a plant known to botanists are employed in making the substance called by the name of Janipha manihot. It is a Portland sago; which is the starch sepapoisonous plant, and the Indians, in the rated from the rest of the matter of the countries where it growe, extract a poison plant. This sago is used for the same purfrom it, which they use to poison their poses as the other kinds of sago. arrows before they obtain the starch. The To these notices of plants yielding starch, mode of preparing the tapioca is seen in the we may add the Orchis mascula, which is a accompanying sketch. The roots of the common plant of our meadows, the roots of plant, after it is dug up, are bruised and which form the substance called salep. placed in a bag, to allow the juice to drain When it is boiled, it forms an agreeable out, which is collected in a vessel, into which article of diet, which, before the introducthe Indian plunges his arrow, so as to poison tion of tea and coffee, was very generally its point. After the root is drained, it is used in this country. It is now almost entaken out of the bag, and submitted to a tirely disused in Great Britain; those, howprocess such as we have described for pre- ever, who visited the Great Exhibition, and paring arrowroot. Cassava, which is eaten looked over the articles of diet exhibited by the natives, is procured from the same in the Persian section, found there many plant. but is prepared in a different way I specimens of salep, indicating that this from tapioca. The starch of tapioca does humble plant still supplies portions of the not differ in chemical composition from human family with food. that of sago and arrowroot, and it is used in the same way, and for the same purposes.
ANTIPATHITS. - It is said that Lord Bacon There are many other well-known plants swooned at each eclipse of the moon; Scalager which owe their dietetical properties to the trembled in every limb at the sight of waterstarch they contain; amongst these we may cresses; Brahe nearly expired at the sight of a mention the potato, the carrot, the turnip,
fox; Uladislaus, of Poland. ran from the sight of the parsnip, the cabbage, the Jerusalem
apples : Ariosto shuddered at the sight of a bath;
Carden at the breaking of an egg ; Cæsar at the artichoke. From any of these, starch might |
crowing of a cock; Erasmus took a fever whenbe prepared. There is a plant in our hedges, I ever he smelled fish; Mary of Medicis and the known to children in the spring of the Cardinal Gardono from the odour of a rose.
DOMESTIC HINTS AND RECEIPTS.
tities of faller's earth, and to finish the pressed side with fine oil, so as to give the cloth a
delicate, soft, and smooth appearance. It is ad. FURNISHING.-It is a great mistake to crowd a visable never to make choice of cloth that is room, and it is also an extravagance which brings glossy and stiff no good return. In Paris apartments appear to Jusling, - No one ongbt to buy a piece of much more advantage at much less cost. Look | muslin that appears highly glazed, thick, or stitt'; ing-glasses are usually fixtures in the suites of
as to give it these qualities the bleacher has rerooms, thus preventing dilapidations of the walls
sorted to the use of pipeclay, and other deterioon removal. If in beginning life the money often rating ingredients. When this kind of muslin is so disadvantageously spent in articles that en washed, it is poor, thin, and rough; the fibres of cumber, rather than improve a dwelling, were de- the cotton, instead of being dressed off, as was posited for accumulation, with such after-addi- formerly the case, serve only to hold the compotions as were found practicable, the foundations of sition with which it is stiffened. It is also a prefuture independence would often be laid.
vailing practice to cover very thin muslins with WASHING LACE.--I have lately used the fol. the pulp of paper, to deceive the ignorant. lowing method of washing lace, lace collars, or Lace.- Formerly, lace was made upon cushions, crochet collars, and find that it not only makes &c., and no person was afraid of tumbling it about; them look well, but saves much of the wear and
nay, the more it was tossed, the better it looked ; tear of other washing:--Cover a glass bottle with
but now that machinery is employed, instead of calico or linen, and then tack the lace or collar making it from real good double thread, large smoothly upon it; rub it with soap, and cover it quantities are made from single cotton; and to with calico. Boil it for twenty minutes in soft make it look clear and fine, it is stiffened with water; let it all dry together, and the lace will be starch, and no sooner is it washed than it falls to found ready for use. A long piece of lace must be pieces. In some articles of lace, particularly wound round and round the bottle, the edge of veils, many of the sprigs and flowers are so coneach round a little above the last, and a few
trived as to be only put upon the lace with gum, stitches to keep it firm at the beginning and end so that when they become wet, the sprigs and will be found sufficient, but a collar will require other adornments fall off, to the great disapmore tacking to keep it in its place.-S. S. B.
pointment of the wearer. THE USE OF SILK.-Silk is an agreeable and These are things which are very necessary to healthy material, Used in dress, it retains the be known by all those who have to do with the electricity of our bodies; in the drapery of our management of a household. rooms and furniture covers, it reflects the sun
To SWEETEN WINES.-To 15 gallons of wine beams, giving them a quicker brilliancy, and it put half a pound of dry ground mustard seed, and heightens colours with a charming light. It a small handful of clary flowers; put it in a linen possesses a cheerfulness of which the dull surfaces bag, and sink it to the bottom of the cask. of wool and linen are destitute. It promotes COLDS.--The variable nature of our climate cleanliness, and will not readily imbibe dirt. Its
renders us peculiarly liable to cold, and at this continually growing use by man, accordingly, is season especially, we should take such measures beneficial in many ways.
as lie within our power to prevent it. As nothing HOW TO BUY THOSE THINGS THAT ARE TO BE then disarranges the economy of a household WORN.-One of the most important departments more than sickness, often having its origin in of household economy is to know how to buy those cold, we would recommend to those who are in things that are to be worn. The deceptions that the habit of visiting much, or travelling, the are practised in the manufacturing world render regular use of the cold bath, or sponging with it extremely difficult to form a correct judgment cold water in winter as well as summer. Sir of almost every kind of human production; con
Astley Cooper was wont to make his boast that he sequently, a few hints to purchasers of such had escaped colds for thirty years by this simple articles of wearing apparel as are almost in daily means, occupying, perhaps, not more than five use will enable them to detect the qualities of minutes every morning. It is hardly safe, howmany things that are spurious, and yet submitted ever, unless the person be uncommonly healthy, to them as genuine :
to commence the practice, in all its extent, in Stockings - It is almost the universal prac cold weather: but partially, it may be commenced tice to judge of the goodness of stockings by at any season, by the most delicate. We would examining the calf, as it is called, and makers recommend, then, to all who are much exposed to take care that they shall be stoutest in that
visiting and travelling, washing, sponging, or part. An intending purchaser should take the laving the temples, neck, and bosom with cold strength of the foot, and especially the heel, for water, both on going to bed and getting up in the his guidance. Another deception is resorted to morning. The practice, indeed, ought to be exin making the stockings have a stout appearance, tended to the feet and limbs, and the arms and and this is not so easily detected. The bleachers shoulders. The very exercise which this operause stoves, in which they burn brimstone, and tion gives, imparts a healthy, cheerful tone to the it is this that imparts that stiffness which is fre- spirits, whilst it quickens the circulation, gives a quently felt on handling new stockings.
colour to the countenance, and spreads a general Fustians.-When you look at a piece of fustian glow over the whole of the animal machine. The in a shop, smell it; and if it be indifferent mate only precaution requisite is to do it quickly, and rial, you will find it very offensive, while the to instantly rub the parts with a dry cloth till good well-made article is quite the reverse.
they become agreeably warm. The constitution Woollen Cloth. In the manufacture of coarse ! will thus become fortified against attacks of ca. woollen cloth, it is common to introduce quan- tarrh and consumptive coughs.
CHANGES OF THE KALEIDOSCOPE. The fol. lowing curious calculation has been made of the
number of changes this wonderful instrument will THE TBUB WAY TO RISE IN THE WORLD. admit. Supposing the instrument to contain It is only by plodding active habits of industry twenty pieces of glass, &c, and that you make ten that we can hope to win our way through life. The changes in each minute, it will take the inconrace may be arduous, but it is one which will well ceivable space of 462,880,899,576 years and 360 repay the competitor. Barrow justly says, “A days to go through the immense variety of changes noble heart will disdain to subsist like a drone it is capable of producing, amounting (according upon honey gathered by others' labour; like a to our frail idea of the nature of things) to an vermin to filch its food out of the public granary;
eternity. Or, if you take only twelve small pieces. or, like a shark, to prey upon the lesser fry; but and make ten changes in each minute, it will then will rather outdo his private obligations to other take 33,264 days, or 91 years and 49 days, to exmen's care and toil, by considerable service and beneficence to the public; for there is no calling THE ORDEAL OF WATER. -The ordeal of fire of any sort, from the sceptre to the spade, the and water was frequently resorted to by the management whereof with any good success, any Ameers in the absence of direct proof. In the lat credit, any satisfaction, doth not demand much ordeal the accused was lowered into a well, placing work of the head, or of the hands, or of both." his head under water; at the very moment, a strong Milton, who, during an active life in the most man shot an arrow as far as it would go, and troublesome times, was unceasing in the cultiva- another ran to pick it up. If the accused could tion of his understanding, thus describes his own remain under water till the arrow was brought habits :-“Those morning haunts are where they back, which was signalised by the shaking of a should be, at home, not sleeping or concocting the rope, he was declared innocent; but if he raised his surfeits of an irregular feast, but up and stirring; head a moment before that, he was pronounced in winter, often ere the sound of any bell awake guilty.-Narrative of a Residence at the Court of men to labour or devotion; in summer as oft with Meer Ali Moorad. the bird that first rouses, or not much tardier, to | CHESS.- When the game of chess was first inread good authors, or cause them to be read, tillvented, the Emperor of China sent for the the attention be weary, or memory have its full ventor, and desired him to teach it him. The fraught: then with useful and generous labours Emperor was so delighted with the game, that he preserving the body's health and hardiness, to told the inventor whatever he should demand render lightsome, clear, and not lumpish obedience should be given him as a remuneration for his to the mind, to the cause of religion and our discovery. To which he replied, that if his Macountry's liberty.” Any man who does not profit Ljesty would but give him a grain of corn for the by such noble example is an enemy to the public first square of the chess-board, and keep doubling weal, and is consequently lost.
it every cheek until he arrived at the end, he FACTS ABOUT MILK.-- Cream cannot rise through I would be satisfied. At first the Emperor was a great depth of milk. If milk is therefore desired astonished at what he thought the man's modesty, to retain its cream for a time, it should be put into and instantly ordered his request to be granted. a deep narrow dish; and if it be desired to free it The following is the sum total of the number of most completely of cream, it should be poured grains of corn, and also the number of times they into a broad, flat dish, not much exceeding one would reach round the world, which is 360 degrees, inch in depth. The evolution of cream is facili. each being 692 miles:-18,446,743,573,783,086,315 tated by a rise, and retarded by a depression of grains; or, 3,883,401,821 times round the world. temperature. In wet and cold weather the milk IMPORTANT TO LADIES.-In the reign of Henry is less rich than in dry and warm; and on that IV. the female costume seems to have been very account more cheese is obtained in cold than in gorgeous; and the legend of a knight, recounted warm, though not in thunder weather. The by a father to his daughters, to deter them from season has its effects-the milk in the spring is extravagance in dress, has some significance even supposed to be best for calves, in summer it is in the present day. The hero of the tale lost his best suited for cheese, and in autumn the butter wife, and applied to a hermit to know if her soul keeping better than that of summer. Cows less had taken an upward or a downward direction. frequently milked than others give rich milk, and The good man, after prayer, fell asleep in his chapel, consequently much better. The morning's milk and dreamed that he saw the soul of the lady is richer than the evening's. The last drawn weighed in a balance, with St. Michael on one side milk of each milking, at all times and seasons, is and the devil on the other. In the scale which richer than the first drawn, which is the poorest. | contained the soul were placed the good deeds of
METHOD OF ASCERTAINING THE STATE OF THE her life, and in the opposite one her evil actions, LUNGS.-.Persons desirous of ascertaining the true and beside the scale lay her fine costly clothing in state of their lungs are directed to draw in as the care of a fiend, the evil one. This woman had much breath as they conveniently can; they are ten diverse gowns, and as many coats, and you then to count as far as they are able, in a slow well know that a smaller number would have been and audible voice, without drawing in more breathe | sufficient for everything necessary, and that with The number of seconds they can continue counting the value of one of these gowns or coats no less than must be carefully observed. In a consumption, forty poor men might have been clothed and kept the time does not exceed ten, and is frequently less from the cold, and that the mere waste cloth in them than six seconds; in pleurisy and pneumonia it would have saved two or three from perishing. So ranges from nine to four seconds. When the the foul fiend gathered up all her gay garments, lungs are in a sound condition, the time will range rings, and jewels, and flung them into the scale with as high as from twenty to thirty-five seconds. | her evil actions, which instantly preponderated.