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left uncovered by the carpet thrown over and crowed when Peter denied his it, to preserve it from injury, and the Master! pulpit in the centre of the church, with a We are now fairly upon Mount Zion, cupola over it, both inlaid with mother one of the four bills upon which Jerusalem of pearl and tortoise-shell; while the formerly stood; viz., Mount Zion on the pillars, which are covered with porcelain south-east; Mount Moriah on the southtiles with blue crosses and other designs west; Acra on the north-west; and on them, up to a certain height, and the Bezetha on the north-east of the prealtars covered with rich embroidery, and sent city. Zion, which was highest, was church vessels, filled up the back ground. formerly occupied by the upper city, "the On the left, in a small recess, is what the City of David;" here was the residence of priests term the sanctuary of St. James, the ark, the palace of the kings of Judah; sculptured in white marble, and adorned here our Saviour celebrated his last passwith painting and gilding; this is said over, and here the disciples assembled on to be the precise spot on which he was the day of Pentecost. Desolate as Zion beheaded. Passing on, we came to the now is, deprived of her bulwarks of former vestibule, where we were shown two large days, and “ploughed as a field,” yet it is stones; it is said that one of them was doubly interesting for that very desolation, taken from that part of the river Jordan because, as we walk about Zion, and go where our Saviour stood when St. John round about her, “tell the towers thereof," baptized him; and that the other is part and gaze upon the valleys below, we feel of the rock against which Moses broke the that the words of prophecy are fulfilled, tables of the law at Mount Sinai! for where her palaces once stood barley

Near to the convent is a small Arme. now waves, and the goats now browse on nian chapel, which is stated to be built the scanty herbage on its terraced and on the spot where the house of the High sloping ridges. At its foot, about 150 feet Priest Annas formerly stood. Leaving below us, is the Valley of Hinnom, called this, we passed the lazar-houses on the Wady Jehennam, a narrow, steep, and left, where the lepers reside apart from rocky place, where the Jews sacrificed to the rest of the population, and went out Baal and Moloch, causing their sous and of the Zion gate, which is the southern their daughters to pass through the fire; gate of the city, and leads to the summit and before us is the Hill of Evil Counsel. of that part of Mount Zion which is with A gloomy mosque, said to cover the site out the walls.

of the Tomb of David, stands upon the Near to the Zion gate is an Armenian summit of Zion, and, as the last resting: chapel, very ill-shaped and remarkably place of the “man according to God's own gloomy in its appearance, which is built heart," it is highly interesting, because it upon the site of the palace of Caiaphas, also bears some probability of truth with the High Priest; within it is an altar respect to its site, as we know that “ Då. enclosing a block of compact limestone, vid slept with his fathers, and was buried about seven feet long, three broad, and a in the city of David ;” and, moreover, St. foot thick, which is exposed in some places Peter says (Acts ii. 29), that “his sepul. for the devout pilgrims to kiss it. This is chre is with us unto this day.affirmed to be the stone which closed the Part of the building was formerly called mouth of the sepulchre of our Saviour! the Church of the Cænaculum, where our

A few paces to the right of this chapel Saviour celebrated his Holy Supper with is the Christian burying-place, with its his Apostles, washed their feet, and inflat tombstones marking the last resting stituted the Holy Sacrament. The guide place of many a Greek and Latin.

pointed out a window in the upper part * A short distance from the cemetery is of the building, which be said belonged the place where the Virgin Mary expired, to the room where this event took place! and that pillar on the north side of the From this spot the Apostles departed gate of Zion, or David, as it is sometimes “ without purse and without scrip," to called, is the spot where the cock stood l teach the religion of our blessed Saviour.

NOTES AND QUERIES FOR

my attention to his play-fellow. Looking down,

I saw what I supposed to be a lizard, and being NATURALISTS.

vexed with the cat for hurting the harmless little

thing, drove her away; when, to my horror, there NOTES.

lay a snake, writhing and curling most actively. SNAKES IN TASMANIA.

So, holding the child and the cat both away, I Tox quantity of snakes which were destroyed ordered the unwelcome guest to be very sumat Spring Vale during this summer was truly marily despatched. alarming. Scarcely a day passed without Mr.

So many “narrow escapes” from snakes are Meredith's telling me on his return home. that related here, that the comparative rarity of serious one, two, or more had been killed by himself or accidents is, perhaps, the most remarkable. Whilst the men. One day he bad gone out rabbit shoot at Cambria, my nurse-maid, a free girl from Loning there with Dr. Alexander (28th Regiment). I don, who had never seen a snake, was one day then visiting us, accompanied by our old pointer crossing the court-yard, with the child in her and a favourite spaniel. The latter, whilst hunting arms, whe

| arms, when she saw what she fancied was a large busily about, suddenly uttered a short yelp, as if eel, gliding along; and, calling to the cook that slightly hurt, and the next moment Dr. A. shot a one of his fish had got away, was on the point of large black snake, which, it was found, had bitten seizing it in her hand, when the man screamed her in the nose, so that excision of the part was out to her that it was a snake; and so, indeed, it impossible. The poor little creature went on was a very large one. They are apparently tona hunting for a few minutes, when she seemed to of lurking in quiet, sly corners near the house, grow dizzy, and reeled about; then lay down, perhaps for the purpose of catching mice; and to trying several times to get up and hunt; but very

their other unpleasant propensities, I must add soon she became violently convulsed and sick. a penchant for quail, Mr. Meredith, in walking to then foamed at the mouth, and died in twenty-five

Spring Vale one day, was passing quickly through minutes from the time she was bitten.

some long tussock grass, and saw a large black · A short time previously to this, was on the

snake, swiftly and silently gliding along, with its jury at an inquest held on a poor sh pherd, servant glittering eyes fixed on some low object, which it to a settler in the neighbourhood, who, whilst out seemed eagerly pu

seemed eagerly pursuing, without heeding his one day with some of his employer's family, saw a

I approach. The next moment he saw a brace of large black snake raising itself to attack him, and quail run out from the spot, and take wing; but made a blow at it with a rotten stick, which broke the 'off short; and the snake, enraged, but not hurt, stick to destroy it. I heard, the other day, from bit his wrist. No remedies were attempted: but good authority, of a snake which was killed having the poor fellow continued his occupation, till. four parrots, quite entire, and scarcely ruffled in feeling too ill to proceed, he went to a hut in the plumage, taken from its stomach; the parrots in neighbourhood, where one of his fellow.servants question being, it should be added, each about lived who was married. These good people did the size of a thrush. all that their kind feeling suggested or their

LOCUSTS IN RUSSIA. means allowed, for his comfort. They laid him in The news from Russia gives a gloomy account · their only bed, and sat up tending him all night of the harvest. Heavy rains and high floods have but he became rapidly worse aud insensible, and damaged the crops in all parts of the empire, early in the morning died.

while, in the southern provinces, the woods and Such terrible evidence of the black snake's corufields have been devastated by locusts. This mortal venom was not calculated to diminish my! scourge made its appearance in Bessarabia. The horror of the whole fearful tribe; and often, in whole population was called out as against an inwalking through long tussock giass, or low scrub, vading army. Twenty thousand men surrounded I have shrunk aghast, as my foot fell on some the district in which the insects had appeared. round stick, or a rustling in the dead leaves At first they succeeded in confining their depredacame, with a boding sound, upon my ear. tions to a limited area, but in spite of all precau

One day as I sat at home, sewing, with my eldest tions, they suddenly crossed the cordon drawn child playing about on the floor, our favourite cat around them, and made their appearance in other jumped in through an open window, and began districts, where they have eaten up every blade of pawing and tossing something under a chair. corn. They have crossed the Dneister, and exLittle George immediately went towards her, and tended over an area of forty miles in length by seemed highly diverted, crawling nearer and fifteen in breadth. The ultimate extent of the evil nearer; and trying, with his baby-talk, to attract cannot be anticipated. London Review.

ANSWERS TO QUERIES.

| lesson has been drawn by one who says:-“When PHENOMENA ON THE REPULSION OF WATER we see birds, at the approach of rain, anointing FROM THE FEATHERS OF WATER-FOWL AND THE heir plumage with oil, to shield off the drops, LEAVESOP Plants (p.233). - Dr. Buist, of Bombay, 1 hould it not remind us, when the storms of conhas communicated to the Royal Society a paper on / tention threaten us, to apply the oil of forbearance, the above subject. Concerning the leaves of lilies ind thus prevent the chilling drops from entering and of the lotus, particularly of the latter, growing cur hearts ?” abundantly in tanks near his residence, the Doctor A Bird CLOCK (p. 233).- As botanists have conremarks-"When the lotus-leaf is placed under structed a flower-clock, so (we read in the foreign water, it reflects light like a mirror, so that the journals) a German woodsman has recently iaimage of any object, if presented to it at the proper vented an ornithological clock, by marking the angle, is seen by the spectator as if the surface hour of the waking and the first notes of the little were one of polished metal. When water is thrown singers The signal is given by the chaffinch, the on the surface of a floating leaf, it flows off like a | earliest riser among all the feathery tribes. Its pool of quicksilver.” This, however, is the fact as song precedes the dawn, and is heard in summer regards the upper surface only. It has long been from half-past one to two o'clock, a.m. Next, familiar to the natives, who poetically liken the from two to half-past three o'clock, comes the virtuous man among the wicked to the lotus-leaf | blackcan, whose warblings would equal those of “in the water, yet unwet by the water."

the nightingale if they were not so very short. "On examining carefully into the causes of From half-past two to three the quail is heard. this,” continues the Doctor, “ I found the lotus. From three to half-past three the hedge-sparrow. leaf covered with short microscopic papille, which Then, from half past three to four, we have the entangle the air, and e-tablish an air-plate over | blackbird, the mocking-bird of our climates, the whole surface, with which, in reality, the which imirates all tunes so well, that M. Durean water never comes in contact at all. Another Id: la Malle made all the blackbirds of a French peculiarity connected, but not necessarily so, 80 canton sing the Marseillaise hymu, by letting far as I can discover, with this, was the singular loose a blackbird which had been taught that tune. respiratory pores of the lotus. The leaves, when From four to ha'f-past four o'clock the lark pours fall-sized, are from 12 to 16 inches in diameter; on | forth its melodies; from half-past four to five cutting off a leaf 6 inches broad, the stalk of which I o'clock the blick-headed titmouse is heard. was less than a third of an inch in diameter, I was La tly, from four to five o'clock, the sparrow, the enabled to collect 33 cubic inches of air in an gimin of the skies, awakes and begins to chirp. hour, when the vital energies of the plant must MANAGEMENTOP PARROTS (p. 233).-In "Bechhave been injured by its mutilation. At this rate, stein's Hindbok of Chamber and Cage Birds," a bank covered with lotus-leaves would produce edited by H. G. Adams, and published by Ward daily an atmosphere four feet in depth throughout and Lock, will be found directions for the manageits whole surface." The Doctor believes that the ment of birds of the parrot family. Our querist same phenomenon as exhibited by the water-fowl had better obtain this elegant and useful book, is not due to the presence of grease or oil, but to the price of which is 2s. 6d. It is copiously illusthe presence of an air-plate, so that the water trated, and contains a fuud of reliable information never comes in contact with the feathers at all. on its own peculiar subject. The trimming process, 80 carefully performed by water-fowl, is probably an application of oil or

QUERIES, grease, with the object of separating or dressing Animal and Vegetable Life.--Has the boun. the little fibres of the feathers, so as to produce dary line between the animal and vegetable king an arrangement fitted to entangle the air.

doms been anywhere clearly defined? What rules

can one apply in forming a judgment on this Chambers' Journal, No. 191.

subject? - HENRY. It has been hitherto supposed that the gland

1 Sught or Smell.-By the exercise of which of the sitnated near the tail, which most water-birds above senses are birils of prey directed to their have, is for the purpose of secreting grease

food? What do naturalists say on this subject?

-A STUDENT OF NATURE. for application to the feathers, that they may

E.cperience in Animals,--Can you furnish me be able to resist the moisture to which they

with some instances which plainly prove that are constantly exposed. The above statement animals are guided by experience, as this would seems to throw some doubt on this theory, which, go far to prve that they do possess, to a certain

extent, reasoning faculties?-ARTHUR B. however, requises some more conclusive testimony

The Agoute.--There is, I believe, a little animal to overthrow it. Until this arrives, we shall still

which goes by the above name: can you furnish hold to the established belief, from which a practical | me with a description of it?--JAMES I, S.

FRIENDS AND ASSOCIATES.

| men-either from feeling the dangers at

tendant upon associations with others, or À WANT of prudence in the use of money, from a natural disinclination for societyat the beginning, may become confirmned seclude them elves, and take for companions into habits that will mar a man's fortunes ' books and their own thoughts, becoming for life; but a want of due caution in regard hermits in the very midst of society. This to our associates is fraught with cinse- is an error that effectually prevents a healthy quences far more direful. The effects of development of character. One of the first the first error are felt mainly in the incon- laws of our being is the law of association, veniences and disabilities of natural lite; and whoever disregards it, disregards not but the effects of the latter reach far deeper, only his own, but the common good. and impress themselves upon man's spiritual Society is a man in a larger form, and we and substantial part.

are all members, and must act in concert The laws of association are governed by with the rest, and do our duty to the whole, mental and moral-or, to speak more corror we shall find ourselves-like a hand that rectly, spiritual affinities, and are based | lies inactively appropriating the life-blood upon the qualities of mind and heart. The that flows into it, without doing anything good are attracted toward each other, and for the whole body-gradually losing our the same thing occurs with the evil, when power, and withering away into mental reciprocal interchanges of thoughts and impotency. feelings take place. Now, in every society. It is known that no two men are precisely

ne evil the

there is a alike in appearance, disposition, or ability : sphere of the quality of that society per- tiat no two men are able to do the same vading the whole; and all who come into thing with equal skill; and it is also known it, and voluntarily remain there, are more that there is some one thing in which every * or less strongly affected by this sphere, and particular man can excel his fellow, if he think and feel with the rest. Let a man, will but direct to that thing all the powers who has a respect for order and obedienre of both his mind and body. One man to the laws, go into a mob, and voluntarily comes into the province of the head, and remain there for a time, and he will be his chief delight and activities consist in a surprised to find his liveliest sympathies on regard to things of government, either in the side of mob law; and the re son of it is, the affairs of the nation, as a whole, or in he feels the sphere of the quality of that some one of its thousand subdivisions into mob's affections-he is in it, and breathes lesser associations. He sees ends, causes, it, and feels an impulse to act from it. I and effects far more ciearly than his neigh

From this may clearly be seen the great bour, who may be, perhaps, in the province importance of choosing with care our ass of the hand, and ever ready to execute what ciates. If we iningle with those who make others plan. The one is a man of thought, light of both human and divine laws, we the other of execution, and they act in shall be led into the same error, and sink, harmony in the attainment of the general instead of rising, in the scale of moral good; one is not more honourable than excellence. But if we choose more wisely another, except so far as he does his approour companions, we shail not only be ele- priate work more faithfully. It would be vated ourselves, but help to elevate others. Tan interesting task to trace here the cor

Keeping this in view-the whole subject re-pondence between the attributes and of his duties and his danger-every young functions of common society, and those of man may see how much depends upon his the iņdividual man; but a mere declaration choice of associates. If he mingle with of the fact, with the simple and apparent those who are governed by right principles, ilustration of it that we have given, will his own good purposes will be strengthened, cause it to strike almost every one as true, and he will strengthen others in return. | and enable every one to trace out this.corBut if he mingle with those who make light respondence for himself. But if there are of virtue, and revel in selfish and sensual any who cannot comprehend what has been indulgences, he will find his own respect assumed in regard to society being a man for virtue growing weaker, and he will gra- in a larger form, let them consider this dually become more and more in love with plain proposition. Society is an aggregate the grosser enjoyments of sense that drag a of individual men, and must, therefore, be man downward, instead of lifting him up- the complex of those qualities, attributes, ward, and throw a mist of obscurity over wants, and abilities, which appertain to all his moral perceptions.

| individual men, consequently society is a It not unfrequently happens that young greater man, and must be sustained in

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health by an observance of the laws which turned, and the ladies are safely locked up preserve the individual.

| again. The Effendi is, generally speaking, The conclusion arrived at in the last sen an early riser, and seldom sits up till a late tence is what we are particularly desirous hour at night. On issuing from his harem, of impressing upon the minds of such of our he is waited upon by half a dozen slaves, who readers as feel'inclined to separate them- assist in his ablutions: one holds the ewer, selves from society, and live in selfish | another the soap, a third the towel, and the seclusion. All the members of the body act fourth and fifth assist him with his clean in harmony: the eve sees not for itself; the l apparel. Having washed and dressed, he ear hears not for itself; the hand works not goes through his morning devotions at the for itself; but all labour for the common nearest mosque. Returning home, his sergood, while each part is sustained from the vants serve him with his cup of bitter coffee whole. If any part ceases to perform its and pipe of real gibili, by which time it is functions, that part at once begins to suffer about seven A.m., the fashionable hour for decay; its muscles shrink, its veins and a Turkish gentleman to call and receive arteries decrease in volumé, the blood cir- visits. Acquaintances and friends saunter culates feebly through it; it becomes weak | in, and salute the host, who salutes them. and helpl-ss, and affects the whole body Beyond this, there is little conversation, for with disease more or less serious, as the Turks hate talking, and still less joking, for part approaches or is more remote from the they detest laughing. They inquire, like & seat of life. Just such will be the effect parcel of doctors, after each other's health, produced in every case where a man deli. and after the general salubrity of their re berately withdraws himself from the uses of spective houses, for no one ever dreams of society; and the more serious will be the asking how his friend's wife is that would result, the higher the function he is quali be considered the grossest breach of decorum. fied to fill. The duty of social intercourse Draught-boards and pipes and coffee are inis not so imperative as the duty of perform troduced. Some play, others look on; and, ing faithfully the work of our office in life, save the rattling of the dice, very little is be it what it may.

heard to interrupt the silence of the room. Let every young man, then, seek for The Effendi's clerk comes in occasionally, associations in life; but let him be exceed with a batch of unanswered letters in his ingly careful how he makes his selection. hands, and whispers mysteriously to the Almost everything depends upon its being Effendi, who either goes off into a violent fit done with prudence.

of rage, or nods his consent in approval of what has been done, just as the contents of

the letters are pleasing or the reverse. Most LIFE IN TURKEY.

of these letters are from the overseers or the AN ANTIOCH GENTLEMAN.

labourers in the Effendi's silk-gardens or

olive plantations; some few from people The life of the Turkish Effendi, or gentle- I craving his assistance, others demanding reman, at Antioch, is rather of a monotonous payment of loans of money; for there are character. He lives in his own, or rather in but few of the Ettendis of Antioch, though two houses; for the harem, though part of the all rolling in riches, that are not indebted to same house, is entirely partitioned off, and some person or other for cash loans, as, such no one but himself and his slaves know where is their strange avarice, that though they it is, or how to get in or out of it. He always possess (to use an Oriental expression) roomi keeps the door-key in his pocket, and when full of money, they are loth to extract one the ladies want anything, they rap, like so farthing from their treasures for their daily many woodpeckers, at a kind of revolving expenditure. About ten A.M. the Effendi cupboard, which is securely fastened into the orders his horse, and followed by his pipewall. Through this cupboard, at which bearer, who is equally well mounted, takes neither party can see the other, the lady a sedate ride in the environs of the town. speaks to the servant, and tells him what to On Saturdays, in lieu of riding, he goes to fetch or buy for her at the bazaars; and the the bath, but in either case he is pretty article is brought and placed in the cupboard, punctual as to the hour of his return. On which is reeled round by the lady inside, so reaching home, more pipes and coffee are that she may take it out. When they are produced, and he affixes his seal (for a Turk desirous of walking in the garden, or going never signs his name) to the various busito the bath, the key is delivered into the ness letters that his secretary has prepared charge of some old duenna, and the Effendi ready for dispatching. The cry from the soes nothing more of it till the party has re- I minaret now warns him that it is the hou?

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