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into burning Furnaces! Sentiments fo unnatural, fo barbarous, and yet adopted by whole Nations, and those too govern'd by the finest Policy, by the Phenicians, the Carthaginians, the Gauls, the Scythians, the very Greeks and Romans, and consecrated by the Practice of successive Ages, can, have been only inspired by him who was a Murderer from the beginning, and is only pleas'd with the Degradation, Misery, and Ruin of Man.

SECT. III. Form of the Government of


THE Government of Carthage was founded upDe Rep. I on Principles of great Wisdom, and AristoL.2.c. 11.tle with Reason places this Republick in the Number

of those of the first Efteem amongst the Antients, and fit to be a Model and a Pattern for others. He - builds his Sentiment upon a Refletion which does Honour to Carthage, by remarking that down to his Time from its Foundation, a Space of more than five hundred Years, no considerable Sedition had difturb'd the Peace, nor any Tyrant oppress’d the Liberty of Carthage. Indeed mix'd Governments, such · as was that of Carthage, where the Power was divided betwixt the Nobles and the People, are subject to two Inconveniencies, either of degenerating into an Abuse of Liberty by Seditions of the Rab. ble, as was often the Fate of Athens and all the Grecian Republicks, or into the Oppression of the publick Liberty by the Tyranny of the Nobles, às be fel Athens, Syracuse, Corinth, Thebes, Rome åtself in the Time of Sylla and Cefar. It is therefore a noble Elogy of Carthage, that she knew by the Wif. dom of her Laws, and the happy Union of her Parties, how to preserve herself, for so long a Succeffion of Years, from splitting upon two Rocks, fo dange sous, and withal so common.

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IT might be wish'd that some antient Author had left us an exa&t and continued Treatise of the Customs and Laws of this famous Republick. For want of such Affistance, we can only give our Reader a confus'd and impartial Idea thereof, by colle&ing the several Paffages chat lie fcatter'd up and down in Authors..

The Government of Carthage united, like that of Sparta and Rome, three different Authorities, which balanc'd and mutually affifted, one another. These Authorities, were that of the two supreme Magistrates callà Suffetes a, that of the Senate; and that of the People. Afterwards was added the Tribunal of One Hundred, which had a great Influence in the Republick.


The Power of the Suffetes was only annual, and in Carthage answer'd to the Authority of the Con- . suls at Rome b. In Authors they are frequently call'd Kings, Di&tators, Consuls, because they suftaip'd the Dignity of all three. History leaves us in the Dark as to the Manner of their Election. They had a Power committed to them of assembling the Senate in which they presided, propos'd Affairs, and collected the Suffrages; d they presided likewise in all emergent Debates. Their Authority was not shut up within the City, nor confin'd to Civil Affairs: They had sometimes the Command of the

a This Nime is deriv'd from a once fuftainod the Office of one of Word which with the Hebrews the Suffetes. and Phenicians fignifies Judges. c Senatum itaque Suffetes, Shophetim.

quod velut consulare imperium bUt Romæ Consules fic Car- apud eos erat, vocaverunt. Liv, thagine quotannis annui bini Re- 1. 30. n. 7. : ges creabantur. Nepos in vita & Cum Suffetes ad jus dicenAnnibalis, She great Annibal dum confediffent. Id. 1. 34.n,61,

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Armies. It appears that in laying down the Digni'ty of Suffetes, they had the Name of Prætors, an Office of Consideration, as it gave them a Right of presiding in some Causes; and not only fo, but a Power of proposing and enaĉting new Laws, and of calling to Account the Receivers of the Publick Re

venues, as is seen in what Livy relates of Hannibal 1.22. n. on this Subject, and which will be afterwards re46, 47. membered.

: The S E N AT E. , • THE Senate, compos'd of Persons venerable by their Years, their Experience, their Birth, their Riches, and above all by their Merit, form'd the Council of State, and were, as one may lay, the Soul of the publick Deliberations. Their Number is not precisely known: It must however have been very large, since a hundred were taken out of it to form a separate Assembly, of which I shall immediately have occasion to speak. In the Senate all Affairs of Consequence were treated, Letters from Generals were read, the Complaints of Provinces were heard, Ambassadors were receiv'd to Audience, and Peace or War was decreed, as is seen on many Occasions. · WHEN the Sentiments and Voices were united,

then the Senate decided soveraignly, and no Appeal +- lay from it. When there was a Difference, and the

Senate could not come to Agreement, the Affair was brought before the People, on whom the Power of deciding, in such Case, was devolv'd. I is eafy to comprehend the Wisdom of this Regulation and

įts Fitness to crush Cabals, to soften Men's Resent.. ments, to lupport and give a Pre-eminence to good

Counsels, such an Assembly being extremely jea." lous of its Authority, and not easily brought to let

it pass into other Hands. L. 15. p. of this is foon in Polbine

A memorable Instance 32. Edit. of this is seen in Polybius. When upon the Loss of




4 the Battle, fought in Africk in the Conclusion of

the second Punic War, the Conditions of Peace, offer'd by the Vietor, were read in the Senate, Hannibal, observing the Opposition of one Senator, represented in the most lively manner, that the Safety of the Republick lying at stake, the Union of the Senate was of the last Importance to prevent such a Debate from coming before the People ; and he carried his Point. This doubtless laid the Foundation of the Senate's Power and great Authority in the Beginnings of that Republick: And the same Author remarks in another place, that whilst the Senate continued Master of Affairs, the State was governed with great Wisdon, and successful in all its Undertakings.

The P E O P L E.

It appears from every thing hitherto said, that so low as the Time of Aristotle, who gives us so fine a Draught, so magnificent an Elogy of the Government of Carthage, the People willingly reposed the publick Care in the Senate, and left to it the chief Administration : And this it was which gave such Power to the Republick. It was not so afterwards. The People, insolent by a Flow of Riches and Con-. quests, and forgetting that these Blessings were owing to the prudent Conduct of the Senate, were for having share in the Government, and arrogated to themselves almost the whole Power. Publick Affairs from this Time were wholly managed by Ca- * bals and Factions, and Polybius afsigns this as one principal Cause of the Ruin of the State.


They were a Society compos’d of a Hundred and four Persons ; tho' often for brevity they are only called the Hundred. They were, according to


Aristotle, at Carthage, what the Ephori were at Sparta. From which it appears, that they were instituted to balance the Power of the Nobles and Senate: But with this Difference betwixt them and the Ephori, that the latter were only five in oumber, and annually elected, whereas these were perpetual, and exceeded a hundred in number. It is

Believ'd that these Centumvirs are the same with the L. 19. C.2. hundred Judgés mention'd by Justin, who were A. M. drawn out of the Senate, and created to bring the

; Generals to account for their Conduct. The exor48706 Fear of bitant Power of Mago's Family, which had enCarthage. gross’d the first Employs of the State and the Ar

my, and render'd itself Master of all Affairs, gave Rise to this Establishment. It was intended to curb the Authority of the Generals, which, while Armies were in the Field, was alnıost boundless and absolute; but by this Institution it became subje?t to the Laws by a Necessity thus impos'd up

on the Generals, of rendering an Account of their .: AEtions before these Judges on their Return from Juftin. the Campaign, Ut hoc metu ita in bello imperia 60loco cita- gitarent, ut domi Judicia Legesque respicerent. Of

these Hundred Judges Five had a particular and

superior Jurisdi{tion to the rest : It is not known * how long their Authority lasted. This Council of

Five resembled the Council of Ten in the Venetian Senate. A Vacancy in their Number could only be fill'd up by themselves. They had likewise a Power of choosing those who compos'd the Council of the Hundred. An Authority so great made the Electors careful to put in none but Persons of uncommon Merit : Nor was it thought proper to annex any Salary or Reward to the Office, the Single Motive of the publick Good being thought

a Tie sufficient to engage honest Men to a consciL. 10. p. entious and faithful Discharge of their Duty. Poo 824. Edit. lybius, in his Account of the taking of New Care Gronov, thage by Scipio, distinguishes clearly two Orders of


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