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Carthagena, gave them in that Country an Empire almost equal to that enjoy’d by Old Carthage in Africk. SECT. V. The Mines of Spain the sec

cond Source of the Riches and Power of CARTHAGE.

IODORUS with Reason remarks that the

Gold and Silver Mines found by the Carthagia nians in Spain, were an inexhaustible Fund of Riches' which enabled them to sustain such long Wars against the Romans. The Natives had long been ignorant of these Treasures hid in the Bosom of the Earth. The Phenicians made the first Discovery, and, by an Exchange of some Wares of little Value for this precious Metal, they amass’d infinite Wealth. The Carthaginians knew how to profit from their Example when they became Masters of the Country, and the Romans afterwards when they had wrested it from them.

The Labour to come at these Mines, and to draw from thence their Gold and Silver, was incredible. For the Veins of these Metals rarely rose to the Surface: They were to be fought and pursu'd down through hideous Depths, where frequently Inundations of Water stopp'd at once the Labour, and seem'd to have defeated all future Pursuits. But Avarice is not less patient to undergo Fatigues than ingenious at finding Expedients. By Pumps of Archimedes's Invention in his Travels to Egypt, they threw up the Water out of these Pits, and left them dry. Infinite Numbers of Slaves perifh'd in these Mines to enrich their Masters, who treated them with the last Barbarity, forc'd then to Labour with Blows, and gave them no Respite by Day or Night. Polybius, as quoted by Strabo, says that in his Time more than forty thoufand Men were employ'd in the Mines near Carthagena, and furnish'd the Roman People every Day

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with eight hundred fifty nine Pounds, seven Shillings and fix Pence 9.

ONE ought not to be surpriz'd to see the Cartha. ginians, after the greatest Defeats, sending fresh and numerous Armies again into the Field, equipping mighty Fleets, and supporting for a Succession of Years, distant Wars with prodigious Expence. But it must seem very strange to find the Romans doing the same with very small Revenues, before their Conquest of the most powerful Nations; with no Help from Trade, to which they were absolute Strangers; with no Gold or Silver Mines in a Country, where, if any, they were very rare, and consequently, must by the Expence of working them have swallow'd up all the Profit. They found in the Frugality and Simplicity of their Lives; in their Zeal for the Publick, and the Affe&tion of the People for their. Country ; Funds not less ready or certain than those of Garihage, and far more honourable to the Nation.

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CARTHAGE is to be consider'd as both a

trading and a warlike Republick. Her Inclination and Constitution led her to Traffick ; and the Necessity first of defending her Subjects against her Neighbours, and next a Defire of extending her Commerce and Empire, led her to War. This double Idea gives us, in my Opinion, the true Plan and Character of this Republick. We have spoke of her Commerce.

The military Power of Carthage lay in her Alliances with Kings, in Tributary Nations from which she drew a Militia and impos'd Contributions in Money, in Troops form’d out of her own Citizens, and mercenary Soldiers purchas'd of neigh


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bouring States, ready form'd and of approv'd Mei rit and Reputation, without any Pains of her own either to levy or discipline them. She drew from Numidia her light Horse, a Cavalry bold, impetuous, indefatigable, and the principal Strength of her Armies ; from the Balearian Illes, the best Slingers in the Universe; from Spain, an Infantry firm and invincible ; from the Coasts of Genoa and Gaul, Troops of known Valour ; and from Greece herself, Soldiers fit for all Operations of War, proper for Field or Garrison, and who could either besiege Cities or defend them.

Thus she sent out at once powerful Armies, compos'd of Troops selected from distant Nations, without unpeopling her Fields or her Cities by new Levies; without suspending her Manufactures or disturbing the peaceable Artisan ; without interrupting her Commerce and weakening her Marines. By, venal Blood she acquir'd Provinces and Kingdoms, and made other Nations the Instruments of her Grandeur and Glory with no other Expence of her own but her Money, and even this furnished from her Traffick with foreign Nations.

If in the Course of War the receiv'd any Lofs, this was only grazing the Skin without any Stab in the Entrails or Heart of the Commonwealth. These Loffes were speedily repair'd by Sums arising out of a flourishing Conimerce as from a perpetual Sinew of War, by which the State was furnished with new Supplies for the Purchase of mercenary Forces : And from the extended Coasts, of which Carthage was in poffeffion, it was easy for her in a very little time to raise Sailors and Rowers neceffary for the working and Service of her Fleet, and to find able Pilots and experienced Captains to conduct it.

But all these Parts fortuitously brought together, did not hold by any Tie natural, intimate or pecessary, No common, no reciprocal Intereft uni.

:: ged

ted them into a Body folid and unalterable. No Person of these mercenary Armies was fincerely affectionate to the Prosperity of the State. They did not act with the same Zeal, nor expose themselves to Dangers with equal Resolution for a Republick which they regarded as strange, and consequently indifferent to them, as they would have done for their own Country, whose Happiness is that of every individual Member of it.

In great Reverses of Fortune the Kings in Alliance with Carthage might easily be separated from her Interest, either by a Jealousy which the Grandeur of a more potent Neighbour naturally gives, or by the Hopes of greater Advantages from a new Friend, or the Fear of being involv'd in the Mis. fortunes of an old Allie *

The tributary People, impatient under the Weight and Disgrace of a Yoke forced upon their Necks, flatter'd themselves with the Hope of finding one less galling in the Change of Masters; or, if Ser-, vitude was unavoidable, the Choice was indifferent to them, as nunibers of Instances in the Sequel of . this History, will assure us.. .

THE mercenary Forces, accustom'd to measure their Fidelity by the Largeness or Continuance of their Wages, were always ready on the least Dif content, or the flightest Expectations of more Pay, to go over to the Enemy whom they lately fought, and turn their Arms againit their late Masters.

Thus the Grandeur of Carthage, sustain'd by foreign Supports, faw itself shaken to the Foundation when they were once taken away. And if to this was added an Interruption of her Commerce, by which fhe subsifted, through the Loss of a Battle at Sea, the believ'd her Ruin was at hand, and gave herself over to Defpondency and Despair, as

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was evidently seen at the Conclusion of the first Puo nick War.

ARISTOTLE, in the Book where he fhews the Advantages and Defects of the Government of Carthage, finds no fault with her entertaining foreign Forces; it is therefore probable that she fell not into this Pra&tice till a long time after. Rebellions, which harrass'd her in her later Years, ought to have taught her that no Miseries are equal to those of a State which is only supported by Foreigners, from whom neither Zeal, Security nor Obedience are to be expe£ted.

This was not the Case of the Roman Republick. As she had neither Trade nor Money, she was unable to hire Forces to push her Conquests with the Rapidity of Carthage : But then, as she drew every thing from her self, and as all the Parts of the State were closely united, she had furer Refuges in her great Misfortunes than Carthage had in hers. And therefore she never dream'd of suing for Peace after the Battle of Canne, as Carthage had done in a less pressing Necessity.

CĂRTH E had besides a Body of Troops form’d out of her own Citizens, but not very numerous; and was a sort of School in which the chief Nobility, and those whose Minds were elevated, and who had Talents and Ambition to aspire to the first Dignities, serv’d their Apprenticeship in the Profession of War. From their Body were taken all the General Officers, who were put at the Head of their different Forces, and had the prin-' cipal Authority in the Army. This Nation was too jealous, too suspicious to employ foreign Captains. But she carried not her. Distrust of her Citizens so far as Rome and Athens ; she invested them with large Authority, but took no Security against the Abuse which they might make of it to the Ruin of her own Liberty. The Command of Armies was neither annual, nor limited to any Time,


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