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as in the two other Republicks. Many Generals presery'd their Commissions through a long Succession of Years, to the Conclusion of a War or even of their own Lives, tho' they remain'd still accountable to the Commonwealth for their Conduct, and liable to be recalled when a real Oversight, a Misfortune, or the superior Interest of a Cabal furnished an Occasion. Sect. VII. ARTS and SCIENCES. TT cannot be said that Carthage entirely renounIced the Glory which flows from Study and Knowledge. Mafinissa, Son of a powerful King * sent thither for Instru&tion and Education, gives us room to believe that Carthage was not without a School for so excellent a Purpose. The great Han-Nepos in nibal, who was in all refpe&ts an. Ornament to her, vita Anwas by no means unacquainted with polite Learn-nibalis. ing, as will be seen hereafter. Mago, another ce. Cic. L.I. lebrated General, did no less Honour to Carthage de Orat. by his Pen than his Vi&tories. He writ twenty

y Plin. Í. 18. eight Volumes upon Agriculture, of which the Roc man Senate had such Efteem, that after the taking of Carthage, when they presented the African Princes with the Libraries founded there (another Instance that Learning was not entirely banished from Carthage) they gave Order to have these Books translated into Latin, tho’ Cato had before furnish'd them with Books on that Subject. We have yet Voff. de remaining a Greek Version of a Treatise drawn up Hift. Gr. by Hanno in the Punic Tongue, relating to a Voy-" 4. age made by him with a considerable Fleet round Africk for the settling of Colonies, by an Order

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n. 242.

El * King of the Maffylians in and translated into Greek by Caf-

fius Dionyfius of Utica, from These Books were writ by wbofe Version'tis probable the La- Mago in the Punic Language, tin was made.


from the Senate. This Hanno is believ'd to be more list ancient than him who liv'd in the Time of da : has thocles.

I MIGHT place in the Number, or rather at the end Head of these who have adorn's Africk with their Writings, the celebrated Terence ; himself fingly capable to bring infinite Honour to his Country by the Reputation of his Writings, if, on this Account, Carthage where he was born ought not to be less etteemd his Country,than Rome where he was educated, and from whence he drew that pure Stile, Delicacy and Elegance which have procured him the Admiration of all succeeding Ages. It is supposed that he was brought away an Infant, or at least very young, by the Numidians in their Incursions upon the Carthaginian Territories while the War was depending between those two Nations, from the Conclusion of the second to the Beginning of the third Punick War. He was sold a Slave to Terentius Lucanus, who, after a careful Education bestow'd upon him, made him free, and, as was then the Custom, gave him his own Name. He was join'd in a stria Friendship with Scipio Africanus the Second, and Lelius, and it was a common Report at Rome, that he had the Affistance of these great Men to compose his Pieces. The Poet, far from taking off an İmputation fo advantageous to him, made a Merit of it. We have only six of his Comedies remaining. Some Authors, according to Suetonius, the Writer of his Life, say that in his Return from Greece, whither he had made a Voyage, he lost one hundred and eight Comedies translated from Menander, and could not furvive an Accident which gave him so sensible an Affli&tion ; but this particular has no very folid Foundation. However this be, he died in the Year of Rome 594, under the Confulship of Cneius Cornelius Dolabella, and M. Fulvius, aged thirty-five Years, and conlequently born 560.

IT is nevertheless undeniable, notwithstanding all that has been faid, that learned Men were always scarce at Carthage, which, in a Course of more than feven hundred Years, scarce furnished three or four Writers of Reputation. Her Correspondence with Greece and so many civiliz'd Nations, gave her no Curiosity to borrow their Learning, which was foreign to the Views of Trade and Commerce. Elo- x quence, Poetry, History, seem to have no great Re- t gard paid them at Carthage. A Philosopher from that City was a sort of Prodigy amongst the Learned. What a Figure.would an Aftronomer or a Geometrician have made ? I am ignorant in what Reputation Physick, so advantageous to Life, was at Carthage, and the Civil Law so necessary to Society.

In so general an Indifference for Works of Wit, the Education of Youth must have been very imperfet and unpolite. In Carthage, Study and Knowledge amongst the Youth were confin'd, as to the greater Number, to Writing, Arithmetick, Bookkeeping and the Knowledge of the Counter; in one Word, to whatever had any Regard to. Traffick. Polite Learning, History, Philosophy, were in little Request at Carthage. They were in later Years even interdicted by the Laws, which expressly forbad all the Carthaginians to learn the Greek Tongue, in the fear that it might qualify them for a dangerous Commerce with the Enemy, either by Letters or Conversation a.

a Fa&tum senatusconsultum Dionysius the Tyrant of Sicily ; ne quis poftea Carthaginiensis, the former by Letters writin aut literis Græcis aut sermoní Greek (which afterwards fell ftuderet ; ne aut loqui cum into the hands of the Carthagihoste, aut fcibere sine inter- nians) having inform'd the Ty. prete possit. Juflin, 1. 20. c. 5. rant of the War designed upon Justin gives for the Reason of bim by his country, in batred of this Law, a traiterous Corre- the General Hanio, to whom be Spondence between one Suniatus, was an Enemy. A powerful Carthaginian, and


WHAT could be expe{ted from such a Taste ? . Therefore we never meet with that Sweetness of Behaviour, that Facility of Manners, those Sentiments of Virtue in the Carthaginians, which are the Fruits of Education in civiliz'd Nations. The small Number of great Men, which this Nation has produc'd, muft have receiv’d their Merit from a happy Genius, fingular Talents, and long Experience, without any great Assistance from Education and Instruction. From the want of these it was, that the Merit of the greatest Men of Carthage was sullied by great Failings, low Vices, and cruel Passions; and it is rare to meet with any Virtue there without some Blemish ; with any Virtue noble, generous, amiable, and supported by clear and lasting Principles, such as is every where met with amongst the Greeks and Remans.

I MEET with as few Monuments of their Ability in Arts less elevated and necessary, as Painting and Sculpture. I find indeed that they had plunder'd a great many Works in both of these from conquer'd Nations; but few, very few of their own are recorded. * FROM what has been said, one cannot help concluding that Commerce was the prevailing Taste, and reigning Character of the Nation; that it was in a manner the Ground-work of the State, the Soul of the Commonwealth, and the great Spring of all its Undertakings. The Carthaginians were in general good Merchants, wholly employ'd in Traffick, and push'd forward by the Defire of Gain, passionately in love with Riches, and in the Pursuit of them placing their whole Talents and Glory, without any Thought of their true Destination, or Knowledge how to put them to noble and becoming Uses.


Sect. VIII. CHARACTER, Manners and


IN the Catalogue of the different Qualities assign'd I by Cicero a to different Nations, as their distinguishing Charaĉters, he makes the prevailing Character of the Carthaginians to lie in Craft, Ingenuity, Address, Industry, Cunning; which doubtless was allowable in War, but was diffus'd likewise over their whole Conduct, and was join'd with another Quality very nearly related to it, and still less reputable to them. Craft and Cunning lead naturally to Lying, Knavery, Breach of Faith ; and by accustoming the Mind insensibly to less Scruple and Delicacy about the Choice of the Means to compass its Designs, they prepare it for the basest Perfidies. This was likewise one part of the Chara&ter of the Carthaginians b, and it was so noted, that to signify any remarkable Diponesty, it was usual to call it Punic Honour, Fides Punica; and to denote a Mind fills with Deceit, no Expression was thought more proper and emphatical than to call it a Carthaginian Mind, Punicum ingenium.

An excessive Desire, and an immoderate Love of. Gain, were at Carthage the ordinary Source of Juranju tice and bafe A&tions. One single Example will prove this. In the Time of a Truce, granted to the earnest Prayers of the Carthaginians by Scipio, fome. Roman Vessels, drove by a Tempest on the Coasts of one Carthage, were arrested and seiz’d by an Order of

a Quam volumus licet ipfi o Carthaginienses fraudulenti nos amemus,tamen nec numero & mendaces ... multis & vaHispanos, nec robore Gallos, riis mercatorum advenarumque nec calliditate Ponos, &c. fed fermonibus ad ftudium fallendi pietate ac religione, &c. omnes quæftus cupiditate vocabantur, gentes nationesque superavimus. Cic. Orat. 2. in Rullum, n. 94. De Arusp. Resp. n. 19.


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