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the Senate and People a, who could not suffer so
tempting a Prey to escape them. They were resol-
ved to hear it on any Terms. The Inhabitants of

Carthage, so low as the Time of St. Auftin, acknowbau ledged, by the Report of that Father, on a partilisme cular Occasion, that they still preserved fomething of

this Chara&ter, b. lut. de BUT these were not the only Failings of the Carer. Rep.thaginians. They had in their Humour and Genius

fomething rough and savage, a haughty and impitiezug ous Air, a fort of Fierceness which in its first Sal

Ties, deaf to Reason and Remonstrance, threw it
self brutally into the last Excess and Violence. The
People, cowardly and fervile under Fear, fiery and
cruel in their Transports, at the same Time that
they trembled under the Awe of their Magistrates,
were dreaded in their Turn by their miserable Vaf-
fals. Here is seen the Difference of Nations by the
Happiness or Want of Education. The Athenians,
with whom Learning flourish'd as in its Centre, were
naturally jealous of their Authority, and difficult to
manage ; but a Fund of Generosity and Humanity,
owing to Education, render'd them compassionate to
the Misfortunes of others, and indulgent to the Er-
rors of their Leaders. Cleon one Day desired that
the Assembly, in which he presided, might break up,
because he had a Sacrifice to offer, and Friends to
entertain. The People laugh'd at the Proposal, and
immediately separated. Such a Liberty at Car-

a Magiftratus fenatum vo- come to bear him. They met, care, populus in curiæ veftibulo and the Discovery was, that be fremere, ne tanta ex oculis ma- told them they were desirous to nibusque amitteretur præda. buy cheap, and sell dear. Every Consensum eft ut, &c. Liv. 30. Man's Conscience pleaded guilty to . 24.

the Change, and the fugler was b A Fugler bad engaged to the dismiss'd with Applause and Citizens of Carthage to tell Laughter. Vili vultis emere, & them their moft secret Thoughts, if care vendere, &c. S. Auguft. they would, on a Day appointed, 1. 13. de Trinit. €. 3.


thage, says Plutarch, would have cost a Man his Life.

LIV Y makes a Reflection parallel to this, with Relation to Terentius Varro. That General returning to Rome after the Battle of Canna, lost by his ill Conduct, was met by all Orders' of the State out of Rome, and thank'd by them that he had not despair'd of the Commonwealth, who, says the Historian, bad he been a General of the Carthaginians, must have expected the most extreme Punishment. Indeed a Court was purposely establish'd at Carthage, where the Generals were call'd to account for their Conduct, and made responsible for the events of War. Ill Success was punished there as if it had been a Crime against the State; and a General, who had lost a Battle, was almost fure at his Return, of ending his Days upon a Gallows. Such was the ine mexore exterable, violent, cruel, barbarous Temper of the Carthaginians, always ready to shed the Blood of one another, as well as of Strangers. The strange unheard of Tortures which Regulus endur'd from them, are a clear Proof of their favage Difpofition, and their History will furnish us with Instances not to be read without Horror.


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HE whole Time which ran out from the
Foundation of Carthage, to the Period

of its Ruin, was seven hundred forty-two

3 Years, and may be divided into two Parts. The first, but by ouch the longest and least known, as is ordinary with the Beginning of all States, extends to the first Punick War, and includes a Space of fix hundred seventeen Years. The second, which ends with the Destruction of Carthage, contains only one hundred twenty-five Years.

C H A P. I. The Foundation of CARTHAGE, and its Growth till the Time of the first Punic War.

ARTHAG E in Africk was a Colony of Tyrus

the most renown'd City for Commerce then in the World. Long before, Tyrus had transplanted another Colony into that Country which built


Utica y celebrated by the Death of the second Cato; who for this Reason was call?d commonly Cato Uticensis.

AUTHORS are in great Difagreement, relating to the Epocha of the Foundation of Carthage 2. It is difficult, and not very material, to reconcile them;

at least in Prosecution of the Plan propos'd by me, ; it is sufficient to come near the Truth with the · Loss of a few Years.

It is certain, that Carthage was destroyd, under Solini the Consulate of Cn. Lentulus, and L. Mammius,c. 30: the 607th Year of Rome, 3858th of the World, and 146 before Jesus Christ. The Foundation of · it therefore may be plac'd in the Year of the World 3121, when Athaliab was King of Judah, 135 Years before the Building of Rome, and 883 before Christ. By this Calculation, the Continuance of Carthage, from its Foundation, will be 742 Years.

The Foundation of Carthage is afcrib'd to Elifa Justini. a Tyrian Princess, better known by the Name of L. 18. Dido. Ithobal, King of Tyrus, and Father of the A+ famous Jezabel, call'd in Scripture Ethbaal, was her Bellopun. great Grandfather. She marry'd her near Relation Strab.l.17. Acerbas, callid otherwise Sicharbas and Sichus, a Paterc. 1.. Prince extreamly rich; her Brother was Pygmalion King of Tyrus.' This Prince having put Sicheus

: y Urica & Carthago ambæ ing to it, which he supposes ta - inclytæ, ambæ a Phænicibus bave been first built ; Megara

conditæ :. Illa fato Catonis in- built next, and in Respect of Coo
fignis, hæc fuo, Pompon. Mel. thon calld the New Town, on
C. 67. Utica and Carthage both Karthada; and Byrsa, or the
famous, both built by Phenicians, Citadel, built laf of all, and
the firf renowr'd in Caro's Fate, p;obably by Dido:
the second in her .own.

Cothon, to agree witbAppian, z Our Country man Howel built fifty Tears before Troy taken; endeavours to reconcile the three Legara, :o agree with Eusebius, different Accounts of the Founda- built a hundred ninety-four Tears tion of Carthage in the following later ; Pyrsa, to agree with Manner. He says that the Town Menander (cited by Jofephus) confifted of three Parts, Cothon built one hundred fixty-fix Years or the Port and Buildings adjoga. after Megara.

c to

to Death, for an Opportunity to seize his immense Treafures, found his cruel Avarice defeated by his Sister Dido, who secretly withdrew with her dead Husband's Effets. After many Wanderings, she at Jast landed upon the Coasts of the Mediterranean, in the Gulph of Utica and Country of Africk, properly so call’d, almost fifteen Miles * from Tunis, so well known at present by its Corsairs, and there She settled her self and her few Followers upon some Land purchas'd of the Inhabitants of the Country a.

MANY of the neighbouring Inhabitants, invited by the Prospect of Gain, repair'd thither to sell to those Strangers the Necessaries of Life, and shortly after incorporated themselves with them. From Inhabitants thus colle{ted from different Places, a numerous Multitude foon arose. Those of Utica regarding them as their Country-men, and as descended from the same common Stock, deputed Envoys with Presents, and Encouragements to erect a City ia the Place where they had first seated themselves. The Natives of the Place, from Sentiments of Esteem and Respect commonly shewn to Strangers, made them the like Offers. Things thus concurring with the Views of Dido, the built her City, which was charg'd with an annual Tribute payable to the Afrie cans for the Ground it stood upon, and callid Car. thada + Carthage, by a Name, which, in the refembling Tongues of the Phenicians and Hebrews,

. * 120 Stadia. Strab. 1. 14. p. 687., ..

a Some say that Dido put a Trick upon the Natives, by dejiring to purchase of 'em, for her intended Building, only so much Land as an Ox's Hide wou'd compass. The Request was thought too mo. derate to be deny'd. She cut the Hide into the smallest Things, and with them encompafid a large

Trad of Ground on which he built a Citadel, from the Hide calld Byrfa. But this Tale of the Thongs is generally exploded by the Learned, who observe that the Hebrew Word Bosra, wbich fignifies a Fortification, gave Birth to the Greek Word Byrfa, which is the Name of the Citadel at Carthage. His

+ Kartha Hadate of Hadtha.



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