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bore the same name. At the top of this to
kept a fire, to light such ships as failed by nie
those dangerous coasts, which were full of fame
shelves; from whence all other towers, design
the same use, have been called, as Pharo din
&c. The famous architect Sostratus built it by
of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who expended eigen
dred talents upon it*. 'Twas reckoned one of
yen wonders of the world. Some have come
that Prince, for permitting the architect to ut
name in the inscription which was fixed out
cower instead of his own t. It was very fhda lrt

plain, according to the manner of the ani
· Sostratus Cnidius Dexiphanis F. diis fervatorik

navigantibus. i. e. Sostratus the Cnidian, le
Dexiphanes, to the protecting Deities, for the
of sea-faring people. But certainly Ptolemy
have very much undervalued chat kind of imme
ty which Princes are generally very fond of,, to 1

that his name shouid not be so much as mentio
De Scri- the inscription of an edifice so capable of imnie
Bend izing him. What we read in Lucian concerning
Hitt matter, deprives Ptolemy of a modesty, which

deed would be very ill placed here. This als

informis us that Softratus, in order that the whole ....ry of that noble structure might be ascribed to

felf, caused the infcription with his own name

carved in the marble, which he afterwards cover
". with Jime, and thereon put the King's naine..
.:'lime soon mouldered away ; and by that means

titead of procuring the architect the honour with w
he had Aattered himself; ferved only to discover
future ages his mean frau:), and ridiculous vanitia

Riches failed not to bring into this city, as is
usually do in all places, luxury and licentiousness
that the Alexandrian voluptuousness became a
: * Eight hundred thousand gis, quod in ea permiserie

trati Cnidii architecti itrus † Magno animo Ptolemæi re- nomen inscribi. Plin.



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verb *. In this city arts and sciences were also industriously cultivated'; witness that stately edifice, surnamed the Musæum, where the literati used to meer, and were maintained at the publick expence ; and the famous library, which was augmented confiderably by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and which, by the magnificence of the Kings his successors, at last con"tained seven hundred thousand volumes. In Cæsar's Plut. in wars with the Alexandrians, part of this library, Cæl. (plac'd in the t Bruchion,) which con Gifted of four:

*p. 731.

ur Seneca de hundred thousand volumes, was unhappily consumed tranquill. by fire.

anim. c.g.

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Pero9GYPT was ever considered by all the

ancients, as the most renowned school for
wisdom and politicks, and the source from

whence molt arts and sciences were dea s rived. This kingdom bestowed its no. .: blest labours and finest arts on the improving mankind;

and Greece was so sensible of this, that its most il.. luftrious men, as Homer, Pythagoras, Plato; even

its great legislators, Lycurgus and Solon, with many :: more whom it is needless to mention, travelled into

Egypt, there to complete their studies, and draw

from that fountain whatever was most rare and vaF... Juable in every kind of learning. God himself has

given this kingdom a glorious teftimony; when Acts 7.22. praising Moses, he says of him, that he was learned

liin all the wisdom of the Egyptians.::: :.

To give some idea of the manners and customs of Egypt, I shall confine myself principally to these particulars: Its Kings and government ; priests and religion; soldiers and war ; fciences, arts and trades.

The reader must not be surprized, if he sometimes finds, in the customs I take nočice of, a kind of contradiction. This cirçoktance is owing, either

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