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Egypt, and are found in the cabinets of the curious. This thews the care which the Egyptians took of their dead. Their gratitude to their deceas'd relations was immortal. Children, by seeing the bodies of their ancestors thus preserv'd, recall'd to mind those virtues for which the publick had honoured them; and were excited to a love of those laws which such excellent persons had left for their security. We find that part of these ceremonies were performed in the funeral honours done to Joseph in Egypt.

I have said that the publick recogniz'd the virtues of deceased persons, because that, before they could be admitted into the sacred afylum of the tomb, they underwent a folemn trial. And this circumstance in the Egyptian funerals, is one of the most remarkable that is found in ancient history.

It was a consolation among the heathens, to a dying man, to leave a good name behind him; and they imagined that this is the only human blessing which death cannot ravish from us. Bur the Egyptians would not suffer praises to be bestowed indiscriminately on all deceased persons. This honour was to be obtained only from the publick voice. The assembly of the Judges met on the other side of a lake which they crossd in a boat. He who fat at the helm was called Charon, in the Egyptian language; and this first gave the hint to Orpheus, who had been in Egypt, and after him, to the other Greeks, to invent the fiction of Charon's boat. As soon as a man was. dead, he was brought to his trial, The publick ac-" cuser was heard. If he prov'd that the deceas'd had led a bad life, his memory was condemn'd, and he was ; depriv'd of burial. The people were affected with laws, which extended even beyond the grave; and every one ftruck with the disgrace inflicted on the dead person, was afraid to reflect dishonour on his own memory, and that of his family, But if the


deceased person was not convicted of any crime, he was interr'd in an honourable manner.

A STILL more astonishing circumstance, in this publick inqueft upon the dead, was, that the throne it self was no protection from it. Kings were spar'd during their lives, because the publick peace was concern'd in this forbearance : but their quality did not exempt them from the judgment pass'd upon the dead, and even some of them were depriv'd of Se. pulture. This custom was imitated by the Israelites. We see, in scripture, that bad Kings were not interr'd in the monuments of their ancestors. This practice suggested to Princes, that if their majesty placed them out of the reach of mens judgment, whilst they were alive, they would at last be obnoxious to it, when death should reduce them to a level with their subjects.

When therefore a favourable judgment was pronounced on a deceas'd person, the next thing was to proceed to the ceremonies of interment. In his panegyrick, no mention was made of his birth, because every Egyptian was deem'd noble. No praises were consider'd as just or true, but such as related to the personal merit of the deceas’d. He was applauded for having received an excellent education in his younger years; and in his more advanced age, for having cultivated piety towards the Gods, justice towards men, gentleness, modesty, moderation, and all other virtues which constitute the good man. Then all the people shouted, and bestowed the highest elogiums on the deceased, as one who would be received, forever, into the society of the virtuous in Pluto's kingdom. .

To conclude this article of the ceremonies of fu. nerals, ic may not be amiss to observe to young pupils, the different manners with which dead bodies were treated by the ancients. Some, as wę observed of the Egyptians, expos'd them to view after they had been embalm’d, and thus preserved them to after

***** . . ages. ages. Ochers, as particularly the Romans, burnt them on a funeral pile: and others again, laid them

in the earth. ... 1 The care to preserve bodies without lodging them

in tombs, appears injurious to human nature in ge- .

neral, and co chose persons in particular for whom this ¡ respect is design'd; because it exposes too visibly their

wretched state and deformity; since whatever care may i be taken, spectators see nothing but the melancholy

and frightful remains of what they once were. The * cuftom of burning dead bodies has something in it i cruel and barbarous, in destroying so haftily the re! mains of persons once dear to us. That of InterI ment is certainly the most ancient and religious. It 5. restores to the earth what had been taken from it;

and prepares our belief of a second reftitution of our bodies, from that dust from which they first were taken.

of the Egyptian SOLDIERS and WAR.

THE profession of arms was in great repute

1 among the Egyptians. After the facerdotal families, the most illustrious, as with us, were those devoted to a military life. They were not only distinguish'd by honours, but by ample liberalicies. Every soldier was allowed an Aroura, that is a piece of arable land very near answering to half a French acre*, exempt from all tax or tribute. Besides this privilege, each soldier received a daily allowance of five pounds of bread, two of Aesh, and à pint of

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T' * Twelve Arouras. An E- 2 perches, 55

gyptian Aroura was 10,000 .qur measure..
quare cubits, equal to 3 roads,




fquare foot, of

. wine

wine t. This allowance' was sufficient to support part of their family. Such an indulgence made them more affectionate to the person of their prince, and

the interests of their country, and more resolute in Lib. I. the defence of both; and, as Diodorus observes, ic p. 67. was thought inconfiftent with good policy, and even

common sense, to commit the defence of a country,

to men who had no interest in its preservation. Herod. Four hundred thousand soldiers were kept in con1.2. c. tinual pay; they being all natives of Egypt, and ? 164, 168. trained up in the exactelt discipline. They were in !

ur'd to the fatigues of war, by a severe and rigo- la rous education. There is an art of forming the wall body as well as the mind. This art, loft by our Noth, was well known to the ancients, and especially to the Egyptians. Foot, horse and chariot races were performed in Egypt with wonderful agi

lity, and the world could not shew better horse-men Cant. 1.8. than the Egyptians. The scripture in several places Ifa. 36.9. speaks advantageously of their cavalry.

MILITARY laws were easily presery'd in Egypt, because fons receiv'd them from their fathers; the

profession of war, as all others, being transmitted Diod. from father to son. Those who fled in battle, or Ep. 70. discovered any signs of cowardise, were only dis

tinguish'd by some particular mark of ignominy ; ic being thought more adviseable to restrain them by motives of honour, rather than by the terrors of punishment.

But notwithstanding this, 1. will not pretend to say, that the Egyptians were a warlike people. 'Tis of little benefit to have regular and well-paid troops;

Tigns of hose who being

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:* The Greek is ovou térrepes cretius; L. 5. 51. others by hau. sepusõpes, zuhich some have made ftus a draught or Jup. Hero to fagnify a determinate quantity dotus says, this allowance, was of wine, or any other liquid; given only to the two thousand others; regarding the etymology of guards who attended annually

the word apusns, bave translated on the King, L. 2. C. 168. .' it by hauftrum a bucket, as Lu.


. to have armies exercis'd in peace, and employed only

in mock fights: it is war alone, and real combats, which form the soldier, Egypt loved peace, because it loved justice, and maintained soldiers only for its security. Its inhabitants, content with a country which abounded in all things, had no ambicious dreams of conquest. The Egyptians extended their reputation in a very different manner, by send

ing colonies into all parts of the world, and with -them laws and politeness. They triumphed by the

wisdom of their counsels, and the superiority of their knowledge ; and this empire of the mind äppear'd more noble and glorious to them, than that which is atchieved by arms and conquest. But nevertheless, Egypt has given birth to illustrious conquerors, as will be observed hereafter, when we come to treat of its Kings.

· Of their Arts and SCIENCES.

HE Egyptians had an inventive genius, and 1 they turned it to profitable speculations. Their Mercuries filled Egypt with wonderful inventions, and left it almost ignorant of nothing which could accomplish the mind, or procure ease and happiness. The discovėrers of any useful invention receiv’d, both living and dead, rewards equal to their profitable labours. It is this consecrated the books of

their two Mercuries, and stamp'd them with a divine 5 authority. The first libraries were in Egypt; and

the titles they bore, inspired the reader with an eager

desire to enter them, and dive into the secrets they 7 contained. They were called the * Оfice for the diseases

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