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THE PAPAL ENCYCLICAL LETTER.

171

blasphemies; but a simple desire to contribute some the females. One of these was Liguori's Glories of thing to make this boastful Ronish church known Mary, and the other the Archonfraternitura to my countrymen impels me to make some further immaculate heart of Mary. This confirmed an im. quotations. Our author approves of the wish of pression I had previously had, that Satan invented Father Diego Martinez, who said, “I would desire this worship of Mary expressly to secure. by the to have at my disposal the lives of men, that I might | strongest possible bond to this system, the female consecrate them to the service of Mary;" and of St portion of the community. Mary was a female, and Germanus, “ who recognised Mary as the source of all the Roman legends and practices concerning her all good, the deliverance from all evil ;" and of St are calculated to take a strong hold upon the female Antonius, who said, “ All good things come to me heart; and the devil was wise enough to know, that from her;" and of St Basil, who is represented as if he could secure the siiters, the wives, and the exhorting sinners thus : “Do not fear, but in all mothers to the worship and service of Mary, he was your necessities seek Mary, and call her to your aid, sure of having all the rest. invoke her power, for by divine appointment she is 1 The feeling of love, confidence, and reverence for a universal succour;" and he himself declares that the Virgin Mary is so deeply seated in the female “ Mary presents herself between God and his offend-breast among the Romanists, that it is a well-known ing creatures." In another place he declares, that | fact that, even after conversion, an undue honour to " it was the opinion of St Bernard that God has her is the last error that is eradicated from the mind. constituted Mary the ordinary dispensatrix of his! In going to visit St Paul's Bay in this island, pot graces," and that “this is now the common opinion long ago, I stopped to examine a fine church, dediof all theologians and all doctors." Furthermore, Cated to the Virgin, in the village of Nasciar. Within Liguori affirms, that “the principal office given to is an inscription in Latin in unusually large and proMary, when she appeared on earth, was to raise man minent characters, of which the following is a transfrom sin, and to reconcile him with God," and that lation :“it is impossible that a true servant of Mary should

“O ye people, as many as ye are that worship the be damned ;" and furthermore, that “Mary is the most sacred image of the most blessed Virgin

ginning, middle, and end of our felicity-the be- created before the ages, -ennobling the universal ginning, in obtaining for us the remission of our sins; church by the admirable splendour of her virtuesthe middle, in procuring us perseverance in grace ; frequent her sanctuary with praises and songs of the end, in opening paradise to us."

glory." After reading the above extracts, can any one be surprised to hear our author address his readers as

II.--THE PAPAL ENCYCLICAL LETTER. * children of Mary," or, as he does in his introduction, The fugitive and dethroned Pope is determined to “My dear reader and brother in Mary?" And does show the world that he is the genuine descendant it not appear evident that, according to the system | and worthy representative of the Pauls, and Cleof the Roman Church, Jesus Christ, in his office of ments, and Innocents, and Gregories of other days— priest to atone and intercede for us, and king to rule that he is not disposed to abate an inch of the Papal over and defend us, is completely superseded by prerogatives, or to surrender a dogma of the Romish Mary? If Mary is the appointed medium of access creed. From his chosen retreat at Gaeta, he has, in to God, and for receiving from him every spiritual | the plenitude of his pontifical functions, and by a blessing that we need, as is every where asserted in stretch of infallibility exceeding that upon which this book, then what place remains for Christ, and any of his predecessors has ventured in this matter, what further need have we for him ? And, in point undertaken to determine a controversy which has of fact, whatever work the doctors may contrive for divided the Papal community for many centuries. Christ, when pressed with argument, it is my full At any former time, the Catholic world would have conviction that, theoretically and practically, he has been startled at the tenor of an Encyclical Letter no part in the work of human salvation in the minds which, though it does not definitively or formally and hearts of the great mass of the people. Their decide the question in dispute, announces, that the feelings all cluster around Mary. To her they look Pontiff has appointed a commission of cardinals and for succour in every time of danger. In her inter | learned ecclesiastics to examine into the subject in cessions alone they confide, and to her they commend all its relations, and to report their resolution, the their departing spirits! And this is just what they nature of which may be pretty confidently anticiare instructed by their priests to do. The Bible is pated from the tenor of the whole document. The locked up in a dead language, but this book from point in question is, the immaculate conception of which I have quoted is every where published in the the Virgin Mary! vulgar tongue. It was written expressly for the com- The Encyclical Letter bears date, Gaeta, Feb. 3, mon people, and more particularly for the female 1849, and is addressed to the Patriarchs, Primates, part of the community. I went into a book-store in Archbishops, and Bishops of the whole Catholic this island a few weeks ago, and asked the bookseller world. It begins with stating that, “in a marvellous to show me what books he had containing the ser- | manner, under the Pontificate of Gregory XVI., vices, &c., of the Romish Church. He handed me there was awakened throughout the Catholic world the Breviary, the Mirsal, and three or four other in ardent desire to see at length decreed by a solemn such like volumes, and last of all he showed me two judgment of the holy see," the affirmative doctrine, small books which he said were for the special use of viz., " Sanctissimam Dei Genitricem, omniumque

rostrum amantissimam matrem, immaculatam Vir- tation, originating in Exeter Hall bigotry. At all ginem Mariam absque labi originali fuisse concep. events, it would be said, we have nothing to do with tam." The Holy See has, it seems, been besieged by it. The Roman paper, the Tablet, is not of this incessant petitions upon this subject; and the illus- opinion. “ To us in this country," he says, “ the trious order of Preaching Friars have been especially decision of the holy see will be matter of more than urgent in soliciting permission to use the word ordinary interest. Our own Archbishop, St Anselm, “Immaculate " in the worship of the Virgin. Mul was distinguished for the zeal with which he urged titudes are astonished that the apostolic see has not the celebration of the Feast of the Conception, and yet decreed this honour to the Blessed Virgin! for his devotion to the Mother of God; it was to St

To those of our readers who are not versed in the Thomas that she revealed her Seven Heavenly Joys; varieties and polemics of Romanism, it may seem and our great schoolman, Scotus, maintained agair st almost incredible that any agitation or even interest those who denied it, that her conception was immashould, in the nineteenth century, exist in reference culate, without stain of original sin." Both the to this moot point of Marian orthodoxy. The dis-original Latin and an English version are given, in gustine controversy sprang up about the year 1140, I order that all the readers of the Tablet - may par. in the Gallican Church, the Canons of Lyons taking ticipate in the common joy ! " the lead in adopting the new festival in honour of It is, assuredly, no unimportant or insignificant the dogma, and St Bernard distinguished himself in fact, little as it may appear to concern us immeopposing the innovation. The affirmative was zeal. | diately as Protestants, that millions of professed ously maintained by the Franciscans, and as fiercely Christians should be so besotted as to receive with combated by the Dominicans. The Council of Basle, implicit faith, as an article of religion, the dictum of in 1431, decreed this dogma to be an article, the a fallible, weak, and misguided priest; and that the belief of which is necessary to galvation; but the doctrine which excites so intense an interest, should authority of tnis decision was not generally acknow be one invented in the darkest period of the apostasy, ledged, and, in 1483, Pope Sixtus IV. issued a decree for the purpose of exalting a creature to the place coinmanding the disputants on both sides to refrain and office of the only Mediator and Saviour-even to from condemning and reviling each other, since the the throne of God.” We had hoped better things Church had left it an open question. The Council of Pius IX., who, in many of his more private letters, of Trent, although a lopting language which may be has contrived to keep his Mariolatry in the backthought to favour the Franciscan dogma, left the ground; but, in this official document, he uses the point still undecided, and renewed the constitutions | following unequivocally blasphemous language :of Sixtus IV. In 1708, Pope Clement XI. went a “Thus, from the commencement of our pontificate, step further, and appointed a festival in honour of we have directed with an extreme interest our most the conception of the Virgin Mary, but without serious cares and thoughts towards an object of such using the term “Immaculate " in the enactment. | high importance, and have not ceased to raise unto The Dominicans, however, refused to observe this Almighty God humble and fervent prayers, that he festival. In the seventeenth century, the kingdom may deign to illuminate our soul with the light of his of Spain was so miserably agitated by factions taking heavenly grace, and make us know the determination opposite sides in this controversy, that solemn em which we ought to make upon this subject. We also bassies were sent to Rome, both by Philip III. and repose all confidence in this, that the blessed Virgin, his successor, urging the Pontiff to put an end to the who has been raised by the greatness of her nierits dispute; but they could obtain only an ambiguous above all the choirs of angels up to the throne of answer from the oracle. The Franciscan creed was God,'* who has crushed, under the foot of her virtues, the popular one. Bourgoyne states, that “ on entering the head of the old serpent, and who, placed a house in Spain, unless you wish to be regarded as between Christ and the Church,' full of graces and impious, you must pronounce the words, “ Ave Maria sweetness, has ever rescued the Christian people from purissima;" to which you will be sure to receive the the greatest calamities, from the snares and from the response, “Sin peccado concebida(conceived attacks of all their enemies, and has saved them from without sin). Subscription to this tenet was formerly ruin, will in like manner deign, taking pity on us exacted, previously to graduating at the Spanish with that immense tenderness which is the habitual universities; and the oath was even administered to outpouring of her maternal heart, to dr

outpouring of her maternal heart, to drive away from mechanics upon their being made free of a guild. us, by her instant and all-powerful protection before

The willing ignorance and charitable credulity of God, the sad and lamentable misfortunes, the cruel many Protestants lead them to imagine, that Popery

anguish, the pains and necessities which we suffer, to has undergone a marvellous transformation of late turn aside the scourges of Divine wrath which afflict years, and that Jesuits, Franciscans, and Dominicans

us by reason of our sins, to appease and dissipate the are but historical personages, or, if their actual

frightful storms of evil with which the Church is existence cannot be denied, that they bear no like

assailed on all sides, to the unmeasured grief of our ness or relation to those of the eighteenth century.

souls, and, in fine, to change our sorrow into joy. We have no doubt that, in the House of Commons,

" For you know perfectly, venerable brethren, that a reference to the subject of this Papal Encyclical

the foundation of our confidence is in the most Holy Letter, as having the slightest importance attached Virgin; since it is in her that God has placed the to it in the judgment of Catholics, would be met with plenitude of all good in such sort, that if there be in shouts of derisive laughter, or resented as an impu- * Cited from "St Gregory," Exposit. in Libros irgum.

PASSAGES FROM JOHN FOSTER.

173

18 any hope—if there be any spiritual health-we was in the habit of writing letters on a slate, first to know that it is from her that we receive it, because one and then to another of the members of the inch is the will of Him who hath willed that we mission families, and especially to Mrs M , to should have all by the instrumentality of Mary." whom he seemed to feel an affectionate obligation

Such is the Romanism, the paganized Christianity, and esteem. But long before he left his frail taberof the nineteenth century! How truly described as nacle every limb was powerless: he became incapable placing “ betroeen Christ and the Church," between of moving a single muscle, and the tongue ceased to Che body and the Divine Head, between the sinner articulate. His eyes alone retained language, and ind his Saviour, the believer and his Lord, an object those told eloquently the emotions of his mind.

f idolatrous worship, alike unable to hear or to save. “ When he lost the power of articulating, he spent| 'n this daring and dreadful corruption of the gospel, most of his remaining time, which was more than a here is, indeed, no room for Christ as an object of year, in reading the Bible. Mr Hamilton made a korship or of confidence. The Virgin is “ on the stand on which to lay the book : he was daily raised ihrone," the successor, in the Papal Pantheon, to upon his couch, and there he would sit the livelong lim who has sat down at the right hand of the day, perusing the passages of Divine inspiration, ather—a mere figment fictitiously substituted for which contained all his hope and all his desire. hat eternal life which is in the Son.-Patriot. When he wished a leaf to be turned, or to read in

another place, he gave a 'sign with his eyes, which

retained their animation to the last. He evinced a ANDRIA SERETSE.

lively interest in the progress of translation, and

eagerly read every new production from the press. CAE Rev. Robert Moffat has transmitted to the “Though the progress of the disease was sometimes London Missionary Society, the subjoined interesting painful, his countenance never lost its wonted smile, lescription of the character and sufferings of a while it would brighten, as if a ray of divine glory Bechuana Christian, who died in the triuinph of the had fallen on it, when a Saviour's love became the gospel in the month of April last year:-

theme; and thus smiling, when seized by the last “The following sketch not only exhibits the power paroxysm which loosed the silver cord, he fell asleep of the blessed gospel in the conversion of a sinner, in Jesus.” rut the soothing consolation it afforus under circumtances the most africtive. The untutored heathen lies as the beast dies, without those emotions of

PASSAGES FROM JOHN FOSTER. error or remorse which not unfrequently mark the

1.- ZEAL WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE. leath-bed scenes of those who have been brought up under the sound of the gospel.

“For I bear them record, that they have a zeal of God, but “ Being considered no longer good for any thing,

not according to knowledge." hey seldom receive in old are those tender attentions The first good use of some texts is to endeavour to which they so greatly need, and are even denied the prevent a bad one. To an evil-disposed niind it is tear of sympathy to alleviate the gloomy forebodings

exceedingly gratifying to find Scripture that can be

quoted with a specious appearance of sanction. This of annihilation that reign within. But they are

sentence is an example; for it has very often been jurtured from early years to hate sorrow. The cited for the purpose of depreciating zeal itself, of the 1oarse voice of the war-song, and the sound of the genuine kind, and in its best applications. Think lance, are the only soothing accents which the dying on how many excellent projects, and efforts, and men, chief requires. •Why so merry,' I asked a dancing

this has been pronounced—“ Zenl without know. party, and your chief so ill?' He likes it,' was

ledge." How many excellent and eventually success

ful designs would have been abandoned, if this had :be reply.

always been listened to as a right application of the “ Andria Seretre, whose brief history I now pre text. What would have become, for instance, of most ent, was the son of a chief man, who, when the of the missionary projects which are now in hopeful, çospel was first introduced in these regions, gave or eminently successful operation? of many designs good promise of becoming one of its earliest converts.

for enlightening, reforming, Christianizing, dark parts But time has not realised our hope, and he is a

of our own nation? of many venturous experiments for

good, hazarded upon the strength of one circumstance heathen to this day. The mother of Andria, a

in favour, while there appeared many against ? of woman who always ridiculed the Word of God, and

any project of hostility to a prevailing evil, boldly conidvocated heathen customs, also continues the dupe ceived and undertaken? In every such instance, the of ignorance and the slave of sin.

cry has infallibly been_" Zeal without knowledge." “ When about to commence a course of instruction

With men of indifferent, frozen, temperament,

this has been about the most favourite sentence in to prepare him for future usefulness, an affection of

The Bible. Timid, cowardly men, though otherwise che spine commenced its slow but fatal attacks. He

well disposed, very naturally take refuge here-the lied in April last, after having been a sufferer for parsimonious are always ready with this good texthree years, the greater part of which time he lay in the idolaters of custom, and of every thing estabnfant helplessness.

lished and old-an intellectual class, content with * As he could read and understand English, he

mere speculation, and regarding scarcely any thing as

worth being attempted to be done. With most of spent much of his time in perusing simple books in

these classes of persons, however, it is not that zeal chat language; but the English Bible was his daily itself for some use or other, is denied to be a most companion. So long as he could use his fingers, he excellent thing. No, certainly; they extol it, and

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"none would be more zealous than they, on a proper sary to disturb, confound, and distract their minds_ occasion." But when can that occasion come? to drive and tear them out of their ancient position Is it to be an occasion expressly devised and to force thoughts, and doubts, and new apprehensions srought on by Providence for the one simple upon them- to ma e a convulsive wrench of their purpose of enabling them to show that they really mental fetters--- 10 shake, and crack, and rive their possess this high virtue ? Or, is it to be when prison-house. It may be necessary that the regular che world, and themselves, and all things, are order of their superstitious ceremonies should be vio

great deal mended, so that there shall be less diffi- | lently interrupted and broken up. It may be necesculty, less to be done, and to be resisted ? But wbo, sary that many of their institucions be ruined; and then, or what, is to do all this that is to he accom- their ecclesiastical tyrants be rendered objects of plished in the mean time? There are immediately and suspicion, hostility, or contempt. This may be the coustantly at hand plenty of such things as have required overturning; and this may be effected by always been deemed by zealous men the objects | political commotion - by war and revolution, backworthy of zeal. But the deficiency of this right | ward and forward. Necessary, we said, not of course! spirit never fails to be supplied by ingenuity enough that God could not cause a nation's deliverance from to make out, that these are not the proper objects and superstition by milder means; but mild means I ave occasions. How evident it is, therefore, that every not been his method with corrupted, superstitious ching which may be said in the way of disapproving | nations (the Jews for example), and are very little and repressing zeal, should be said cautiously and likely to be so now. Therefore, if the Almighty be discriminatively.

really going to accelerate the progress of his cause,

and of human improvement (and the thickening II.--GOD'S CONTROVERSY WITH THE NATIONS.

shocks and commotions of the moral world, corre

sponding to the images and predictions of prophecy, (Our readers will find the following passage full of striking warrant us to hope so), we have yet a dark and

thoughts and statements. It was written upwards of fearful prospect before us. But tlie consolation is, twenty years ag); and while the correspondence between

that:ll these overturnings are to displace and destroy its anticipations and the actual results as they are now bassing before our eves is remarkable and interesting the what obstructs the cause of heaven, and of human general view« which it presents of the principles of the happiness. And the object is worth all that the divine dealings with natijns are full of solemnity and inn. | Sovereign Governor has doomed that it shall cost. portance.-ED C. T.)

To hasten the destruction of the spiritual reign of It cannot be that God has appointed the general | the Man of Sin, and of the stupifying dominion of unian mind to subside in quiet enslavement and I ignorance, and of the oppressions of desputs and tagnation. There will be mighty commotions-a tyrants, it is worth that there should be wars, inva** shaking of the nations" in all probability. But the sions, and revolutions, dreadful as they are. Dread. omens are very dark as to any speedy results from tul indeed! and thus we see what nations that furget chem, of a kind to satisfy a Christian and philanthro-God, and grow inveterate in evil, entail on their bic spirit. The gloomy omens arise from this, that I posterity. (iod has his own controversy with all the nations. "I will overturn, overturn, overturn!” The repetiThe assemblage of nations over which the portentous tion of this word of solemn denunciation has a strik si:ns are darkening and thickening, with the gloom ing sound and import. How strongly it intimates of thunder, are nominally Christian nations; but for the reluctance of mankind to change to what is good, the far greater part sunk in actual idolatry, mingled to what is finally right. They and their atairs with infidelity. If some of these be excited to a change only to what requires to be changed again; grand commotion against overwhelming tyranny, the and a third time chianged, and still again! What a simple point of right, so far, may be plain. But this | race it is! that when driven from one position by is not all. When there is a conflict between a nation Divine judgments and calamities, is sure to go in a of idolaters on the one side, and of mingled idolaters direction where it must be encountered by more such and infidels on the other, there is much more in the | judgments ! so that they cannot at the first turn have case for the jurisdiction of the Supreme Governor the good that is intended ultimately from violent than a mere question of relative right in the particu changes; there must be more changes first. lar matter immediately in question. He may set I Men of easy faith and sanguine hope have somethat question aside for a while, and, in his sovereign times, after one gieat commotion and change, joy justice, make such nations the equal scourges of one ously assured themselves that this would sufficeanother; and, in such a process, there may be a suc " The grand evil is removed, we shall now happily cession of overturnings, each apparently reversing and fast advance with a clear scene before us." But, the preceding. And when we survey the supersti after a while, to their surprise and dismay, another tion and the irreligion, and the moral depravity commotion and change has perhaps carried the whole

qually combined with both, through the nations of affair back, apparently, to the same state as before ! Europe, we have cause to apprehend a long train of Recollect the history of the Reformation in this land, convulsions and calamities before either liberty or begun by Henry VIII., established, it was gladly religion can prevail.

assumed, in the reign of his son. But that youth dies, Indeed, how should there be any such thing as and then we have the instant return of Popery in all genuine liberty in combination with the slavery of its triuniph, fury, and revenge. After a wbile, Queen superstition, and the license of irreligion and vice ? Mary departs; and all the pious souls exult in liberaAnd it is awful to think with what a measure of cion and Protestantism. But then again, in Elizabeth's calamity these may first be visited, partly to punish time, there comes a half popish, severe, spiritual and partly to shake and loosen their hold. "If we tyranny. Later down, after the overthrow of the look at superstition alone, the Popish superstition- tyrant Charles, there arose for the first time a prothat has, in some of the countries, taken such entire spect of real religious liberty. But his son resumes possession of the people's minds, so wholly pervaded the throne, and all such liberty was utterly al olished, and conformed their babits of thought, and is so in and so continued long; and another revolution was tervolved in all their institutions, that-i confusion required, that religious faith and worship might be and upsetting of their whole national economy may free. be absolutely necessary to shake this odious despot. In human affairs there have sometimes been great ism of error and delusion. Something may be neces- / overturuings, which did give a rare and glorious opporPASSAGES FROM JOHN FOSTER.

175

tunity for good, i, at the juncture, there had been tbe much mould as their dissolved bodies have yielded, wisdom and uprightness to take advantage of them; a substance, however, which it contained before they but instead, there was folly or iniquity just ready at existed. hand! Providence did not send the wisdom and It is obviously suggested here, that we have another equity to guide the change. Why? Because the illustration of the text (Eccles. i. 4) in places of interstate of men was such as to deserve and require more ment that have been such for ages. The earliest of the vials of the divine judgments to be poured out. It generations that have terminated their earthly exishas even sometimes been intended to remove and tence, are gone beyond memory or tradition. Of a subclear away almost the whole present generation, sequent, but still early period, you find some two or when no rigours or terrors of discipiine could fright: thiee half-obliterated monumental inscriptions; with en men from their iniquities.. 'l hat this last tact them was contemporary a whole generation deposited may be, all bistory testifies, and revelation too. Re there in their season, but totally forgotten and uncollect the prophetic descriptic description, that, known. In greater number there are dates of a later after the most awful plagues, the ptople that remain generation, still far gone in the past. And so you ed blasphemed the God of heaven. Were not their come down at last to the recent grave and tomb. expressions equal to an infallible prophecy of more But the fields, the hills, the streams around are such visitations to destroy the survivors of the pre- the same. The sun shines on the spot, the shadows ceding?

of the clouds pass, the rains and snows fall, the grass But it is not the wicked alone that suffer in the and plants grow the same. And also living men, mighty convulsions in human affairs, the same as in | young and old, are seen on a tine Sabbath morning, the calamitious events in the natural world. But the walking about or standing in social parties, or leaning faithful, the children of God, have high consolation in perfect unconcern, perhaps against the monumentheir supreme interest is safe. The calamities are tal stones : just thus it was in the former ages. It is something better to them than mere inflictions and very striking to observe this last circumstance punishments. Their hatred of sin is aggravated; (especially in some rural burying-ground), and to their sense of dependence on God exercised; they think that these (many of them probably the de. become more detached from the world; and they scendants of those mouldering under their feet) have faith that these events are successive measures are the “generations "next to pass away." The time in a Divine process for bringing about the most | approaches when they also will be gone; and still zlorious ends at length. The brightness of these an. the world of nature will remain the same, not united icirated ends seems to shine back on the dark train with their doom, not sympathetic with their declinof the mean.

ing—their sickness—their growing old-their dying. And here observe how different may be the ends But not only the abodes of the dead, those of the hat God has in view, from any that may be intended living also, inay yield illustration of the contrast; by the immediate chief actors. (• He meaneth not so, those of them which were built in a former age, or, put it is in his heart to cut off and destroy nations not take them collectively, in a village, town, or city, as 4 few.") And often these actors may be amazed and this city. How many successions of the inhabitants confounded by results directly contrary to what they ts directly contrary to what they | since it became a populous city! Would it be an

since it had intended. As to the actors and instruments, God extravagant conjecture that seven or eight times as will make many bad ones serve his great design-the many persons have died in it as are at this hour lovers of commotion for its own sake, as before ob living in it? We are setting ont of view, in the calserved, the haters of all good order, insane ambition, culation, the circumstance that many of the houses bigoted superstition, and perhaps very eminently, have perished and been replaced by new ones. We infidelity itself. Let us adore the wisdom and power take it in the mass as if it were one great abode. But that can make even all these work to an ultimately think now of the whole population having been so glorious end! That end, for which are all the over. many times changed! It requires thought; because turnings, is the glorious kingdom on earth of Him the change being gradual, is at no one time presented achose right it is; his right all this while! (Mysteri in its full magnitude. Were it in the nature of things, ous that he should permit himself to be so long de- / that there should be, at one grand sweep, the removal barred!) His right, by many and infinite claims-his of so vast a number, repeated at the average period right, assured by prophetic declaration. How just, of an age of man, the event and the succession of then, the overturning of all things that withstand it! such events would have an overwhelming awfulness. And if his right, how certain to be at length pos- | But what is in effect equal to chis takes place, and but sessed! And how happy the scene when he shall have feebly excites attention. But think sonietimes, when taken the full possess on! A splendid contrast for you traverse the city, how many entire generations the readers, then, of the history of our times ! have walked along some of those streets. Or look

over it from one of the neighbouring eminences, and

think of the difference between the scene of all its III.--TAE SHORTNESS OF HUMAN LIPE CONTRASTED

busy crowd, and of that mightier multitude of which WITH THE PERMANENCE OF THE OBJECTS OF NATURE.

not one being now mingles with that crowd. But the

hill is the same, the general landscape the same: HISTORY itself-why is history, but because the gene “ The earth abideth for ever!" . . . . . . . rations of men are cone? We want to know some

| The great general instruction from all this is, how thing of them, and to converse with them, as a former little hold, how little absolute occupancy, we have of world of men. And bistory tells us of one generation this world. When all the scene is evidently fixed to and of another that has passed away, leaving not a remain, we are under the compulsion to go. We have living “ rack behind." In a few hours of this retro nothing to do with it, but as passing from it. The spective contemplation, a whole age of the race is seen | generation “comes" but to “pass away," seeing anoff the world; followed by another, and another. We other following it closely under the same destination. may look till we are quite weary of the long succession Men may strive to cling-to seize a firm possession

confounded by the rapidity of endless change, and to make good their establishment--resolve and vow almost mortified to see the race thus continually re- | that the world shall be theirs. But it disowns themduced to vanity and dust. And yet here remains the stands aloof; it will stay, but they must go. It seems very same world: “ The earth abideth for ever;" to declare to them, t at it is no more for them than and what it retains of them all is just, literally, so it has been for the countless preceding generations;

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