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species of unbelievers, our ignorant ancestors, who thought all that did not receive the Christian law were necessarily Pagans and Idolaters, supposed the Mahometan creed was in all respects the same with that of their Pagan forefathers, and therefore made no scruple to give the ancient name of Termagant to the god of the Saracens; just in the same manner as they afterwards used the name of Sarazen to express any kind of Pagan or Idolater. In the ancient romance of Merline (in the Editor's folio MS.) the Saxons themselves that came over with Hengist, because they were not Christians, are constantly called Sarazens.

However that be, it is certain that, after the times of the Crusades, both Mahound and Termagaunt made their frequent appearance in the Pageants and religious Enterludes of the barbarous ages; in which they were exhibited with gestures so furious and frantic, as to become proverbial. Thus Skelton speaks of Wolsey,

"Like Mahound in a play,
No man dare him withsay."
Ed. 1736, p. 158.

And Bale, describing the threats used by some Papist magistrates to his wife, speaks of them as "grennyng upon her lyke Termagauntes in a playe." [Actes of Engl. Votaryes, pt. 2. fo. 83. ed. 1550. 12mo.] Hence we may conceive the force of Hamlet's expression in Shakspeare, where, condemning a ranting player, he says, "I could have such a fellow whipt for ore-doing Termagant: it out-herods Herod." A. ii. sc. 3. By degrees the word came to be applied to an outrageous turbulent person, and especially to a violent brawling woman, to whom alone it is now confined: and this the rather, as, I suppose, the character of Termagant was anciently represented on the stage after the eastern mode, with long robes or petticoats.

Another frequent character in the old Pageants or Enterludes of our ancestors, was the Sowdan or Soldan, representing a grim eastern tyrant. This appears from a curious passage in Stow's Annals, (p. 458.) In a stage-play "the

people know right well that he that plaieth the Sowda percase a sowter [shoe-maker], yet if one should cal hi his owne name, while he standeth in his majestie, one tormentors might hap to break his head." The Sowdai Soldan, was a name given to any Sarazen king (being a more rude pronunciation of the word Sultan,) as the S of Egypt, the Soudan of Persia, the Sowdan of Babylon who were generally represented as accompanied with Sarazens, whose business it was to punish and torn Christians.

I cannot conclude this short memoir without observ

that the French romancers, who had borrowed the word magant from us, and applied it as we in their old romar corrupted it into Tervagaunte: and from them La Fonttook it up, and has used it more than once in his tales.? may be added to the other proofs adduced in these volur of the great intercourse that formerly subsisted between old minstrels and legendary writers of both nations, and t they mutually borrowed each other's romances.

VII.

Sir Patrick Spence,

A SCOTTISH BALLAD,

Is given from two MS. copies, transmitted from Scotlan In what age the hero of this ballad lived, or when this fat expedition happened that proved so destructive to the Sco nobles, I have not been able to discover; yet am of opinio that their catastrophe is not altogether without foundation i history, though it has escaped my own researches. In the infancy of navigation, such as used the northern seas were very liable to shipwreck in the wintry months: hence a law was enacted in the reign of James the Third, (a law which was frequently repeated afterwards,) "That there be na schip frauched out of the realm with any staple gudes, fra the feast of Simons day and Jude, unto the feast of the puri

13.

of our Lady, called Candelmess" Juve 111 Pal

some modern copies, instead of Patrick Spense hath
ubstituted the name of Sir Andrew Wood, a famous
Eh admiral, who flourished in the time of one fif
V, but whose story hath nothing in common with dus
- ballad.
As Wood was the most noter Warrior of
nd, it is probable that, like the Thaban Hercules, hep
ngrossed the renown of other herões

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Mak hast, mak haste, my mirry men all,
Our guid schip sails the morne.
O say na sae, my master deir,

For I feir a deadlie storme.

Late late yestreen I saw the new moone
Wi' the auld moone in hir arme;
And I feir, I feir, my deir mastèr,
That we will com to harme.

O our Scots nobles wer richt laith
To weet their cork-heild schoone;
Bot lang owre a' the play wer playd,
Their hats they swam aboone.

O lang, lang, may their ladies sit
Wi' thair fans into their hand,
Or eir they se Sir Patrick Spence
Cum sailing to the land.

O lang, lang, may the ladies stand
Wi' thair gold kems in their hair,
Waiting for thair ain deir lords,

For they'll se thame na mair.

Have owre, have owre to Aberdour 2,
It's fiftie fadom deip:

And thair lies guid Sir Patrick Spence,
Wi' the Scots lords at his feit3,

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2 A village lying upon the river Forth, the entrance to which is sometimes denominated De mortuo mari.

3 An ingenious friend thinks the author of Hardyknute has borrowed several expressions and sentiments from the foregoing and other old Scottish songs in this collection.

VIII.

Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne.

We have here a ballad of Robin Hood (from the Editor's folio MS.) which was never before printed, and carries marks of much greater antiquity than any of the common popular songs on this subject.

The severity of those tyrannical forest-laws that were introduced by our Norman kings, and the great temptation of breaking them by such as lived near the royal forests, at a time when the yeomanry of this kingdom were every where trained up to the long-bow, and excelled all other nations in the art of shooting, must constantly have occasioned great number of outlaws, and especially of such as were the best marksmen. These naturally fled to the woods for shelter, and forming into troops, endeavoured by their numbers to protect themselves from the dreadful penalties of their delinquency. The ancient punishment for killing the king's deer, was loss of eyes and castration: a punishment far worse than death. This will easily account for the troops of banditti which formerly lurked in the royal forests, and from their superior skill in archery, and knowledge of all the recesses of those unfrequented solitudes, found it no difficult matter to resist or elude the civil power.

Among all these, none was ever more famous than the hero of this ballad, whose chief residence was in Shirewood Forest, in Nottinghamshire: the heads of whose story, as collected by Stow, are briefly these.

"In this time [about the year 1190, in the reign of Richard I.] were many robbers, and outlawes, among the which Robin Hood, and Little John, renowned theeves, continued in woods, despoyling and robbing the goods of the rich. They killed none but such as would invade them; or by resistance for their own defence.

"The saide Robert entertained an hundred tall men and good archers with such spoiles and thefts as he got, upon

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