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the marriage of their favourite King Charles II., on his marriage with the infanta of Portugal. I think it is not found in the repys collection.

FF Fistorical song, or ballad. The English word ballad as evidently from the French balade, as the latter is from the Haiian valtata: which the Crusca Dictionary defines, canzone, che si canta valiando. “A song which is sung during a dance.” bir burney i. 342, who refers to a collection of Ballette published by Grastaidi, and printed at Antwerp in 1596 (ii.

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but the word appears to have had an earlier origin: för in the decume of the Roman empire these trivia. songs were caued ballistea and saltatiuncula. Baltisteum, Salmasins says, 18 property ballistium. Gr. Bakotein, “anc Tor Bakkiw badora Sattatic... Ballistium igitur est quod vulgoO YOeamus baitet: nam inde deducta vox nostra." Salmas. Not. in Fust. Ang. bcriptores, vi. p. 349.

in the Life of the Emperor Aurelian by Fi. Vopisens may be seen two of these ballistea, as sung by the boys skipping and dancing, on account of a great slaughter made by the emperor with his own hand in the Sarmatic war. The first is.

"Milic, mille mille decollavimus,

The other was,

Unus homo milie decoliavimas,

Mile vivat qui mille occidit.
Tantun vin: habe: nemo

Quantum fudi: sanguinis."

"Mille Sarmatas, mille Francos

Beme et seme, occidimus.

Milic Persas quærimus.”

Salmasius in loc. shows that the trivia, poets of that time lectics, divided into distichs. Thid. p. 856. This becoming were wont to form their metre of Trochaic Tetrametry Cotsthe metre of the hymns in the church service, to which the monks at length superadded rhyming terminations, was the origin of the common trochaic metre in the modem innus

This observation I owe to the learned author of Irish Antiquities, 4to.

(FF 2) Little Miscellanies named Garlands, &c.] In the Pepysian and other libraries are preserved a great number of these in black-letter, 12mo., under the following quaint and affected titles, viz.

1. A Crowne Garland of Goulden Roses gathered out of England's Royal Garden, &c., by Richard Johnson, 1612. [In the Bodleian library.]-2. The Golden Garland of Princely Delight. 3. The Garland of Good-will, by T. D. 1631. 4. The Royal Garland of Love and Delight, by T. D. 5. The Garland of Delight, &c., by Tho. Delone. - 6. The Garland of Love and Mirth, by Thomas Lanfier.-7. Cupid's Garland set round with Guilded Roses. - 8. The Garland of

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Withered Roses, by Martin Parker, 1656. - 3. The Shepherd's Garland of Love, Loyalty, &c. 10. The Country Garland. -11. The Golden Garland of Mirth and Merriment.-12. The Lover's Garland. - 13. Neptune's fair Garland. — 14. England's fair Garland. - 15. Robin Hood's Garland. - 16. The Maiden's Garland. 17. A Loyal Garland of Mirth and Pastime. -18. A Royal Garland of New Songs.-19. The Jovial Garland, 8th edit. 1691. - &c. &c. &c.

This sort of petty publications had anciently the name of Penny-Merriments: as little religious tracts of the same size were called Penny-Godlinesses. In the Pepysian library are multitudes of both kinds.

(GG) The term Minstrel was not confined to a mere musician in this country any more than on the Continent.] The discussion of the question, whether the term Minstrel was applied in England to singers and composers of songs, &c., or confined to the performers on musical instruments, was properly reserved for this place, because much light hath already been thrown upon the subject in the preceding notes, to which it will be sufficient to refer the reader.

That on the Continent the Minstrel was understood not to be a mere musician, but a singer of verses, hath been shown

in notes (B), (c), (R), (AA), &c.1 And that he was also a maker of them, is evident from the passage in (c), p. lvii., where the most noted romances are said to be of the composition of these men. And in (BB), p. xciv., we have the titles of some of which a Minstrel was the author, who has himself left his name upon record.

The old English names for one of this profession were Gleeman2, Jogeler3, and latterly Minstrel; not to mention Harper, &c. In French he was called Jongleur or Jugleur, Menestrel or Menestrier1. The writers of the middle ages expressed the character in Latin by the words Joculator, Mimus, Histrio, Ministrellus, &c. These terms, however modern critics may endeavour to distinguish and apply them to different classes, and although they may be sometimes mentioned as if they were distinct, I cannot find, after a very strict research, to have had any settled appropriate difference, but they appear to have been used indiscriminately by the oldest writers, especially in England; where the most general and comprehensive name was latterly Minstrel, Lat. Ministrellus, &c.

Thus Joculator (Eng. Jogeler, or Juglar) is used as synonymous to Citharista, note (x), p. lxxi., and to Cantor (ibid.), and to Minstrel. (Vide infra, p. cvi.) We have also positive proof that the subjects of his songs were gestes and romantic tales. (v2) note.

So Mimus is used as synonymous to Joculator, (M), p. lxxiii. He was rewarded for his singing, (N), p. lxxiv., and he both sang, harped, and dealt in that sport (r2) which is elsewhere called Ars Joculatoria, (m), ubi supra.

1 That the French Minstrel was a singer and composer, &c., appears from many passages translated by M. Le Grand, in Fabliaux ou Contes, &c. See tom. i. p. 37, 47; ii. 306, 313, et seqq.; iii. 266, &c. Yet this writer, like other French critics, endeavours to reduce to distinct and separate classes the men of this profession, under the precise names of Fablier, Conteur, Menetrier, Menestrel, and Jongleur (tom. i. pref. p. xcviii.), whereas his own Tales confute all these nice distinctions, or prove at least that the title of Menetrier, or Minstrel, was applied to them all.

2 See P. lxv.

3 See p. lxxxv.

4 See p. xxxiii. note.

Again, Histrio is also proved to have been a singer, 1), p. lxxxix., and to have gained rewards by his Verba Joculatoria, (E,, p. lx. And Histriones is the term by which the French word Ministraulz is most frequently rendered into Latin, (w), p. lxxxvi.; (BB), p. xciv., &c.

The fact therefore is sufficiently established, that this order of men were in England, as well as on the Continent, singers: so that it only becomes a dispute about words, whether here, under the more general name of Minstrels, they are described as having sung.

But in proof of this, we have only to turn to so common a book as T. Warton's History of English Poetry; where we shall find extracted from records the following instances.

Ex Registr. Priorat. S. Swithin Winton. (sub anno 1374.) "In festo Alwyni Epi.... Et durante pietancia in Aula Conventus sex Ministralli, cum quatuor Citharisatoribus, faciebant Ministralcias suas. Et post cenam, in magna camera arcuata Dom. Prioris cantabant idem Gestum in qua Camera suspendebatur, ut moris est, magnum dorsale Prioris habens pieturas trium Regum Colein. Veniebant autem dicti Joculatores a Castello Domini Regis et ex familia Epi." (vol. ii. p. 174.) Here the Minstrels and Harpers are expressly called Joculatores; and as the Harpers had musical instruments, the singing must have been by the Minstrels, or by both conjointly.

For that Minstrels sang we have undeniable proof in the following entry in the Accompt roll of the Priory of Bicester, in Oxfordshire (under the year 1432). "Dat. Sex Ministrallis de Bokyngham cantantibus in refectorio Martyrium Septem Dormientium in Festo Epiphanie, iv. s." (Vol. ii. p. 175.)

In like manner our old English writers abound with passages wherein the Minstrel is represented as singing. To mention only a few:

In the old romance of Emaré (vol. iii. no. 15, p. 27), which, from the obsoleteness of the style, the nakedness of the story, the barrenness of incidents, and some other particulars, I should judge to be next in point of time to Horn-Child, we

have

-"I have herd Menstrelles syng yn sawe."

Stanza 27.

In a poem of Adam Davie (who flourished about 1312),

we have this distich,

"Merry it is in halle to here the harpe,

The Minstrelles synge, the Jogelours carpe."

T. Warton, i. p. 225.

So William of Nassyngton (circ. 1480) as quoted by Mr. Tyrwhitt (Chaucer, iv. 319),

-"I will make no vain carpinge

Of dedes of armys ne of amours

As dus Mynstrelles and Jestours [Gestours]

That makys carpinge in many a place

Of Octaviane and Isembrase,

And of many other Jestes [Gestes]

And namely whan they come to festes 5.

See also the description of the Minstrel in note (EE) from Morte Arthur, which appears to have been compiled about the time of this last writer. (See T. Warton, ii. 235.)

By proving that Minstrels were singers of the old romantic songs and gestes, &c. we have in effect proved them to have been the makers at least of some of them. For the names of their authors being not preserved, to whom can we so probably ascribe the composition of many of these old popular rhymes, as to the men who devoted all their time and talents to the recitation of them? especially as in the rhymes themselves Minstrels are often represented as the makers or composers.

Thus in the oldest of all, Horn-Child, having assumed the character of a Harper or Jogeler, is in consequence said (fo. 92) to have

"made Rymenild [his mistress] a lay."

In the old romance of Emaré, we have this exhortation to

5 The fondness of the English (even the most illiterate) to hear Tales and Rhymes, is much dwelt on by Rob. de Brunne, in 1330. (Warton, i. pp. 59, 65, 75.) All Rhymes were then sung to the harp: even "Troilus and Cresseide," though almost as long as the Æneid, was to be "redde songe." 1. ult. (Warton, i. 388.)

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