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Burton, of Heatb, Dr. of Physick and Mary Hen- on the cursus publicus. When the courier left the son, of St. Delpike parish in York, by License." post road, he was entitled to a paraveredus, which Dr. Burton died on Jan. 19, 1771, and was buried means and was intended to mean a horse pressed in the church of the Holy Trinity, in Micklegate, into the public service for use away from the York. His wife, who died on Oct. 28 following, regular post road. The veredus served on the post aged fifty-eight, was interred near her busband. road ; the paraveredus served on the cross road, An admirable memoir of the learned author of the and was private property, temporarily supplied by

Mopasticon Eboracense 'appears in the Yorkshire the local authority for imperial uses. A glance at Archæological and Topographical Journal, 1871-2, the Theodosian Code,‘De Cursu Publico,' especially Lond., 1873, vol. ii. p. 403.

with the luminous notes of Gothofredus, will prove

DANIEL HIPWELL. convincing. The terms survive to this day, veredus 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

being the German Pferd (which is not derived from BURIAL BY TORCHLIGHT.-In the Athenæum froi in French, and palfrey in English. The

paraveredus), while paraveredus has become paleof Feb. 4 (No. 3406, p. 148) are the remarks :

palfrey was the horse supplied to the king or bis “In the seventeenth century and the earlier part of representative, and thus came to mean a noble and the eighteenth, burial by torchlight was custom among the

upper classes. We know of one case gentlo horse, as distinguished from a war horse ; which has occurred almost within the memory of living but this meaning came only with the days of people.”

chivalry. The cursus publicus, together with the There is detailed support for this assertion in supplementary service on cross roads, had disMr. A. F. Robbins's Launceston, Past and Pre- appeared ; the public veredus, as state property, sent,' in which it is stated (pp. 298-9), in explanation was gone ; but the obligation of towns and comof an entry in the parish sexton's note-book, that, wunes to supply paraveredi for royal use, at a burial by torchlight, the church was “ Crowded especially on state occasions, remained, chiefly in with Spectator's, Some Very Disorderly":- France, though traces of it are found in England

“This was of Christopher Morshead Lawrence, who and elsewhere. Originally, then, the vulgar Gerdied at the age of sixteen, and was interred at eight man Pferd and the gentler palfrey are post-office o'clock in the evening on March 2, 1816. His father, terms ; for the cursus publicus was a real post Humphry

Lawrence, who died at Whitely, Lifton, on office, though used for government purposes only April 2, 1811, had received a similar funeral, the remains being met at the head of Race Hill, at balf.past eleven at

or mainly. The post office fell with other night, by the mayor corporation, and tradesmen of the things when the barbarians broke over Europe. town, and, amid muffled peals, escorted by torchlight to In 1464, to give the date of the first postal law in St. Mary Magdalene's, where they arrived exactly at more recent days, the modern post office began, in midnight, and were buried in the family vault."

France, and with it came new words in the place The following extract from the St. James's of veredi, &c., the first use of post in the present Gazette of April 30, 1886, brings the matter down sense being, perhaps, the term "chevaucheurs en to a much more recent date :

postes” (post-riders) in the French ordinance of “The burial by torchlight a few nights since of 1487. The word immediately became the proMr. Robert Staples, a landlord and magistrate of perty of all Europe, meaning a messenger, and Queen's County, recalls one of the most striking ecenes then simply baste, as in many English writers of in. The Antiquary,' where the Countess of Glenallao was the sixteenth century, in Shakespeare, and in interred in the Abbey of St. Ruth’s to the smoky light the English Bible. How the later postilion was of many flambeaus.' Until the early years of the present century, torchlight burials were by no means coined, is not clear. It is a little hard to imply uncommon...... The prohibition of burials first in churches dissent from Lewis and Short, Skeat, Ducange, and and next in churchyards had much to do with the Grimm ; but their postal articles do not always practical extinction of an old and picturesque custom.”

tally with the service they denoted. A solution DONAEVED.

appears in the Cod. Theod., in the decrees of the PalFREY AND Post.–Palfrey is undoubtedly Roman emperors, and in the bistory of the postal the modern form of the Low Latin paraveredus; establishment, both ancient and more recent. but does the latter really mean an extra post borse,

C. W. ERNST. as Lewis and Short, Skeat, and others tell us ?

Boston, Mass. We all know that horses were kept by the state for use on the cursus publicus of the Roman

TENNYSON, 1834. — The Oxford University empire. These horses were animalia publica, Magazine, No. 1, March 1, 1834, p. 92, thus that is, owned by the state, and employed as compares the reviews of Tennyson in Blackwood's occasion required. There was no occasion for Magazine and the Quarterly Review:extra horses on the cursus publicus ; in a case of

Compare the article on Tennyson in the Magazine, need the public stock was iocreased at the public coarse-abuse ; do mitigation-no praise of any sort :

with that in the Quarterly Revier. Here virulent-even cost, and a horse so added was called veredus, like there, ridicule where ridicule was due-praise in its right any other Roman post horse that carried couriers place'; the best things extracted for commendation-ine

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vorst for blame; all fair and above board. No one now the last of the set being secured by a buckle and doubts which was the fairer; if Alfred Tennyson is still strap, after the fashion of some modern gaiters ? more laughed at than wept over, it is for the game reason that the philosophy of Democritus was more easily learnt | My reason for asking the question is that in a than that of Heraclitus; any body can laugh-some eyes rough Plough Monday play, lately noted down are naturally dry.”

from the dictation of a village lad, when “the In No.3, November 1, 1834, p. 446, it is said Soldier” threatens "the Fool” with the words, that the title of Graham's Vision of Fair Spirits' "I'll make your buttons fly,” the latter retorts, was "suggested by Alfred Tennyson's 'Vision of “ All my buttons is loops," a responge which seems Fair Women.'" W. C. B. to require explanation.

Z. Y. X. "PREVENTATIVE.”-I am surprised to find that

CHILDREN THE CHAPEL STRIPT this gross vulgarism is gaining ground, in spite of WAIPT.”—Is there any copy of 'The Children of its being so plainly against analogy, another in the Chapel Stript and Whipt,' 1569, known to stance of the loose way in which too many people exist? It is mentioned by Warton, and it would express themselves in these days of school boards greatly help me could I meet with it. and what not. An adjective ending in tative is

C. C. STOPES. usually formed from a substantive ending in -tation, HENRY MADDOCK.-I should be very grateful as argumentative from argumentation, augmen- to any reader of `N. & Q.' who would furnish tative from augmentation, representative from representation, &c., whereas from such substan. Henry Maddock (died 1824), author of a 'Life of

with biographical information concerning tives as attention, invention, deception, prevention, Lord Chancellor Somers,' and some other works. &c., are formed adjectives like attentive, inventive,

J. M. Rigg. deceptive, preventive, &c. Indeed it would seem

9, New Square, Lincoln's Inn. that, as some might say, we needed no ghost to tell us that. Yet this spurious word, like so many

HERALDIC.-ID Whalley's Northamptonshire,' others, has passed muster and is getting more and vol. ii. p. 131, the following coat appears, viz.: more into use, though there is not an “ Academy "Lane, impaling Argent, three chevrons engrailed in Eoglaod, as there is in France, to spoil the good sable, which is not to be found in Papworth's old mother-tongue by authority.

Ordinary, the only one at all similar being Arg., F. E. A. Gasc. tbree cbev. engr. az., for Cother. Can any correspondent supply information as to the above coat?

H. M. Queries.

SHAKSPEARE AND GREEN.-In small volume We must request correspondents desiring information published anonymously, entitled 'The British on family matters of only privato interest to affix their Theatre, Dublin, 1750, there is a brief bionames and addresses to their queries, in order that the graphical notice of " Mr. William Shakespear.” In answers may be addressed to them direct.

it the writer makes the following statement : OCTAGONAL FONTS, WHEN INTRODUCED.-In

“ His first Acquaintance with the Play-house is said to

have commenced about this Time, where it is not un. the Rochdale parish churchyard has recently been natural to suppose he was introduced by Thomas Green discovered an ancient stone font. It is two feet the Comedian, who, we have learned, was born in the bigb, eight feet seven inches outside diameter at same Town with our Author. But as this is only Conits widest part, across the top it measures two feet jecture, we shall not think it improper to alledge Reasons eight inches, the basin being one foot eleven for such a Presumption. In the Interlude to the . Two

Maids of Morelack, Green, who acted the Clown, enters inches wide and twelve inches deep. On the singing and repeating Verses. One of the Country Girls brim (wbich is four and half inches wide) are the says to him, Wby how now Tom ! how long have you four holes showing where the staples or iron rods been in this Veine ? Green answers, were inserted to wbich was attached the lid or I prattled Poesie in my Nurses Arms, cover (fonts before the Reformation being locked).

And born where late our Swan of Avon sung At one side of bottom is the hole through which

In Avon's Streams, we both of us have lavéd, the water was drawn off. This font is made of The other takes him up short,

And both come out togetherDative coarse sandstone, is without any ornamenta

Ho the sweetest Swan, and thou a cackling Goose." tion, but is massive and symmetrical and it is There is a foot-note, written possibly by the owner octagonal. When did this shape first come into of the book : “No such passage is there to be use ? Are there any examples of Saxon or Norman fonts wbich are octagonal ?

found, however he probably met those lines in HENRY FISHWICK.

some ancient play, but forgot the name.—Malone.”

Malone, who made this comment, evidently held LOOPS. - Was it customary at any date to no high' opinion of the industrious compiler of this fasten garments with loops instead of buttons, each little work. In the fly-leaf is written “The author loop having the succeeding one drawn through it, of this book was Chetwood—who also wrote the

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* Life of Ben Jonson' and ' History of the Stage.' lesson to be in every man's mind, and have also Malone gives this character of him in the present in Holland their poor-boxes.” Pepys thought work, 'Chetwood deserves but little credit, baving this worthy of being recorded by him, and indeed certainly forged many of his dates.'” Have these it is ; but the following inscription, which I found lines or the play ever been traced ?

in St. Michael's Church, Derby, deserves also to W. A. HENDERSON. be mentioned : “Forget not to give, but give Dublin,

and forget.” A list of inscriptions of this kind Phenix' AND 'Phenix.'– I recently bought haps some of your readers will send in those they

would, in my opinion, be of great interest. Per“The Phenix; or, a Revival of scarce and valu; have remarked in their own circle. able Pieces from the remotest Antiquity, &c.'

CHAS, BURION. (1707), expecting to find in it an account of The

51, Sale Street, Derby. Troubles at Frankfort,' the third edition of this tract having been published in the ‘Phenix' of ROYAL MIXED MARRIAGES.—When was the that date (see Introduction to Petheram's reprint last of these, before that of Sigmaringen, between in 1846). The title-page of my 'Phenix' gives po a Romanist and a Protestant ? E. L. G. promise of a second volume. Are the two works totally distinct in their contents as well as in their

“ Jingo.”—Can the use of the word “Jingo spelling of the fabulous bird, or did “a Second be traced in English to a time prior to the return Phenix like the First arise”? G. L. FENTON. of Wellington's troops from their campaign in the Clevedon.

Basque provinces (1813)! Dr. Brewer says it was

introduced with the arrival of the Basque moun. Father ARTHUR O'LEARY. - In the Scottish taineers used by Edward I. in his Welsh wars; Review for January, it is stated by the critic, but I doubt the existence of any record to this in dealing with Fitzpatrick's Secret Service under effect.

C. E. E. CLARK. Pitt' (second edition, Longmans & Co.), that

[See 7th 8. vii. 440; ix. 115, 337, 396.] Father Arthur O'Leary, the celebrated patriot priest of Ireland, was à D.C.L. of Oxford" Cousin Betty.”—What is a “Cousin Betty," (Scottish Review, p. 242). What authority is there as used by Mrs. Gaskell in the following passage in for this statement? whicb, if true, is very curious, chapter xiv. of 'Sylvia's Lovers '?for O'Leary says that in those days of sectarian “I dunnot think there's a man living or dead, for prejudice he existed as a friar only by connivance. that matter, as can say Fosters wronged him of a penny, Mr. Froude essays to show that Father O'Leary or gave short measure to a child or a Cousin Betty.” was a spy (* English in Ireland,' ii. 413, Lib. Ed.).

JAMES HOOPER. Mr. Fitzpatrick devotes several chapters to an

Norwich. examination of his remarkable career.

“A Book CALLED CENE.'"- In tho 'Firma FRED. WALCOTT.

Burgi' of Thomas Madox (pp. 111-2) is given an BARTON. - Can any reader oblige me with in- account of a curious transaction, in which Stephen, formation as to the parentage and immediate Prior of Launceston, in 1398-9, with several of descendants of William Andrew Barton, who pur- his canons and other persons unknown, came in the chased the estate of Deanwater, in Cheshire, in night, armed as for war, into the town of Liskeard, 1616 ? He is commonly said to bave been of the and rescued from arrest its vicar, Henry Frend, and family of Barton, of Smithells, in the county of carried away, among other articles, unum librum Lancaster, but his name does not occur in Whit- vocatum Cene pretii xiiis. iiiid.” What would aker's pedigree of that family. Assuming his have been this book called Cene," which was origin to be as stated, are the Bartons, of Stapleton worth a mark ?

ÞUNHEVED. Park, in Yorkshire, his later descendants, the only remaining representatives of the Lancashire family?

THE CELEBRATED WAITE.—Readers of Moore's W. G.

'Life of Bryon' have long been familiar with the

name of Waite. “Went to Waite's. Teeth are all 'ANTAGONISM.'—Can anyone say when and where right and white ; but he says that I grind them a lecture so named was delivered ? The lecturer was in my sleep, and chip the edges ” ( Journal,' some prominent public character, and the date Feb. 19, 1814). Six years later (Nov. 18, 1820): must have been at least some five or six years ago. The death of Waitė is a shock to the teeth, as The lecture was probably given in London.

well as to the feelings of all who know him." I L.

possess the copy of a long letter which Contessa INSCRIPTIONS ON POOR-Boxes.—Pepys, in his Guiccioli wrote to her father, June 20, 1837, in Diary' (Sept. 23, 1662), relates that he was told which there is a paragraph relating to a preby Sir G. Carteret “how in most cabarets in scription that Waite had given her for strengthenFrance they have written upon the walls, in fair ing the gums : “Mi è stata data dal celebré Waite letters to be read, ' Dieu te regarde,' as a good mio dentista a Londra, e dentista di Lord Byron."

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I believe Waite married in 1819. What was the previous to the compilation of the Domesday number of his house in Old Burlington Street; survey, but those of Scotland are, for the most and where can I find further references to this part, of far more recent date. An English student lasóionable dentist? RICHARD EDGCUMBE, of Scottish history (and, strange as it may seem to 2, Reichs Strasse, Dresden.

the Philistine herd, there are such folk) is puzzled

ever and anon by territorial divisions which he FOLK-LORE OF Gems. - Will some kind corre

can find in no modern map. Surely some Scottish spondent of ‘N. & Q.' refer me to a work or works antiquary should take pity on us who have the treating of the folk-lore of precious stones ? misfortune to have been born and brought up E. LAWS. south of Tweed.

ASTARTE VALLANCE Family. — Will any reader of

REFERENCE IN MACAULAY.-In an admirable 'N. & Q.' kindly give me any genealogical in. little essay on Culture,' by the late Mr. Thomas formation respecting the family of Vallance, of Topsham, Devon ? From papers in my possession Danmore, in the ‘Universal Instructor," I find in

the closing sentences of it he says :it appears that a member of it married a descendant of Matthew Miller, of Glenlee, Ayrshire.

« The aim of the student should be to possess a mind

such as that attributed to one of the greatest scholars Maidstone.

of the present century, of wbom Macaulay say8: · His WEDDING WREATHS. —

mind was a vast magazine, admirably arranged. Every

thing was there; and everything was in its place...... The "In the earliest times of our Christian story our fore- article which you required was not only there, it was fathers crowned both the bride and groom with chaplets ready. It was in its own proper compartment. Iu a of flowers; but when the wreath had become a religious moment it was brought down, unpacked and dissymbol and scared ornament, its use was confined to played."" female spouses.”—Extract from · Brides and Bridals,' by

Might I ask whether any of your readers could J. Cordy Jeaffreson. When did this take place ? I find from Smith's enlighten me who it is that Macaulay is here

WM. WHYTE. Dictionary of Christian Antiquities' that both speaking of? * bride and groom were crowned as late as 860 A.D. BIRD FAMILY.—John Bird was born probably in the Western Church, and probably later in the between the years 1620 and 1630; his mother, Eastern, as the crowning was a much more important Judith, was living and remarried in 1653. She part of ibe marriage ceremony there than in the bad dower of lands in Chester (both the county East. Was it over the custom for the groom to palatine and the city). Can any correspondent wear a wreath in England ? Selden, in his ‘Uxor help me to identify him or to discover where his Hebraica,' seems to imply this when he says:- parents were married ?

F. D. “But it is clear enough from that saying of Sidonius Apollinaris that the custom of crowning bride and

HUNTER FAMILY.-I sbould feel greatly obliged groom was prevalent in the most ancient times, both in if any of your readers could enlighten me on the the east and west, as it is in some places to-day among following points :ourselves."

1. Is there any portrait extant of Major-General Can this refer to England ? What is the custom Robert Hunter, of Croyland Abbey, Lincolnshire, of the modern Greek Church? Does the bride who was Governor of New York, and finally of wear a wreath ; if so, of what material ? ;

Avis. Jamaica from 1728 to 1734 ? Where was he

buried ? CARTER'S TRUE RELATION.'-Who was Sir 2. Was Major John Banks Hunter, son of the C. K., to whom M. C. addresses “The Author's celebrated surgeon John Hunter, ever married ? Letter to the Publisber" in the rare little first If so, to whom; and what were the date and place edition iesued without a publisher's name? The of his marriage; and did he have any family? Are title runs :

any of bis descendants now living; and when and A Most True And exact Relation of That as Honour where did Major Hunter die ? able as unfortunate Expedition of Kent, Essex, and 3. Were George and Robert Hunter, sons of Colchester. By M. C. A Loyall Actor in that Engage- Robert Hunter, of Kirkland, who married, in ment, Anno Dom. 1648. Printed in the Yeere 1650."

1791, Miss Jean Boyd, of Carlung, ever married ? The same C. K. writes the addressTo the If so, to wbom, and what family had they ? Reader." I. C. Gould.

VENATOR, Loughton.

"Rook TÆE ROBber.'—Who was the author of SCOTTISH COUNTIES.— I inquired some time ago a work entitled “Rook the Robber; or, London of a Scottish Writer to the Signet where I could Fifty Years Ago. By the author of 'The Daughter find any account of the origin of the Scottish of Midnight. With thirty illustrations. Drawn counties. Although a man of antiquarian tastes, by W. H. Thwaites. London, John Dicks, 313, he could give me no information. The Eoglish Strand, and all Booksellers"? No date, but preshires, with one or two exceptions, were in being sumably somewhere about 1850. A story in the

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G. W. M. Reynolds style, running to 240 double- obedience to, those great natural laws on which column pages in small type. Also, who was their happiness and wellbeing for the most part W. H. Thwaites ? Was be the same person as depend." These laws are not only moral, but phyMr. Thwaites, who furnished the illustrations to sical, chemical, mechanical, physiological, social, &c. • The Lamplighter'in 1855 ?

I was surprised and pleased a few days ago, on GEORGE C. BOASE. opening for the first time 'The Life and Letters 36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W.

of George Eliot,' edited by Mr. Cross (now edition, MRS. ANN FRANKS. -The following announce written about the beginning of 1848:

no date), to read the following extract from a letter ment is to be found in the Gentleman's Magazine for December, 1771 : “Mrs. Ann Franks, aged possible. Great subjects are used up, and civilization

The older the world gets, origioality becomes less Dear 100, at Dulwich. Granddaughter to Theo tends ever more to repress individual predominance, philus, Earl of Suffolk." Can any readers of bigbly-wrought agony, or ecstatic joy. But all the * N. & Q.’inform me who were her parents ? I gentler emotions will be ever new, ever wrought up into have been anable to find them in the peerages I more and more lovely combinations, and genius will bave consulted.

C. H. J. G.

probably take their direction."
I have my doubts as to “the gentler emotions

being over now.” The poetry that will express Beplies.

them in the future is likely to be but an echo,

many times reverberated, from the poetry of the THE POETS IN A THUNDERSTORM.

past. (84 S. ii. 422, 482; iii. 22, 95, 175.) Since writing the above, I have read, at the I should be sorry to differ in opinion from 80 last reference, MR. BAYNE's acute critical remarks scholarly a writer as your correspondent C. C. B., on descriptive poetry. I beg to assure him that seeing that I am in sympathy with him as to the it has never been assumed by me “that no relations between poetry and science, as expressed living poet is equal to description of dataral in his own eloquent words (8th S. ii. 133): beauty," or that no one attempts such work."

“Until it has been proved that knowledge kille feels What I said was that if the poetry of the future ing, and that truth is incompatible with beauty, we must should aim at anything higher than a reflex of the helieve that the more we know the richer will be our poetry of the past it must borrow wings from science. life, and therefore the nobler our poetry.”

My argument is that the best marbles have been When I remarked (ante, p. 22) that descriptive sculptured, the best pictures painted, the best poetry is exhausted, I was vain enough to suppose poetry and prose bave been written. The world that those readers of 'N. & Q.' who are interested bas not produced a second Phidias, a second in the subject would remember the argument Raffaelle, or a second Shakepere. When Goethe brought forward by me (8th S. ii. 132) in support produced his Götz von Berlichingen,' be took of the opinion that art and literature had already Shakspero as bis model, but was compelled to attained the highest degree of perfection of which admit that he could not soar so high ; or, as Gerbuman effort is capable ; that the finite mind deal. vinus puts it, “He had once wished to emulato ing with finite subjects is capable of exhaustion ; bim; but be felt that the great poet would sink but that science, which is infinite, and incapable bim to the bottom.” Even the attempt in the of exbaustion, will profitably occupy the mind of Wilhelm Meister' to remodel “Hamlet' always the future, to the manifest advantage of humanity, appeared to me in the light of an ingenious failure. because much, if not most, of the suffering to Among other outrageous changes, he proposed to which mankind has been, and is, subject is due reduce the acting play to three acts, "the last two to the infraction of natural laws of divine origio ; lagging sorrily on, scarcely uniting with the rest.' and that they are divine is proved by the rigour one reason wby Goethe failed was that the with which they inflict their own penalties. And dramatio ground bad been already tilled, and so they do this upon the ignorant as well as upon the many barvests gathered in from it that the soil instructed transgressor, and even extend the was exhausted ; and the success of Faust' proved penalties to the third and fourth generation. But, that a comparatively fertile spot bad still been by a merciful provision, the recuperative force left to the rare and judicious cultivator. But as which follows a return to obedience to the outraged time went on the open spaces became more and law is more prompt in its action than the slow, more rare; they had been occupied and built over. death-like working out of the penalty, thus “show. And this is true not only of the drama, but of the ing mercy unto thousands that keep My command epic, the lyric, the descriptive. Dramas, epics, ments."

and lyrics will doubtless continue to be written; If, then, while scientific discovery moves on but will they live in literature ? Ariosto and with accelerated pace, science, instead of the dead Tasso produced a crowd of imitators, but I never languages, were made the basis of education, human met with an Italian scholar who could dame more beings might be brought to a knowledge of, and than one or two of them. So in descriptive poetry


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